Betechtina A.A., Veselkin D.V. ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF INDIRECT COMPARISONS INVASIVE PLANTS FORM MYCORRHIZA LESS INTENSE THAN ABORIGINAL PLANTSIn this paper the successful interaction of invasive plants with arbuscular fungi was investigated. Most discussed material was obtained in the Middle Urals in Yekaterinburg and surroundings. Invaders Acer negundo L., Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Hordeum jubatum L., Impatiens glandulifera Royle and all comparatively regarded aboriginal plants are located here. Two species considered as invaders are located outside the Sverdlovsk region, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. Is located in Samara region (Tolyatti), Ambrosia artemisiifoliašL. is located in Krasnodar region (Krasnodar). All studied invasive species with the exception of Impatiens glandulifera showed typical arbuscular mycorrhiza. Found mycorrhiza of alien species corresponds to the published data. Mycorrhizal status of Heracleum sosnowskyi appairently was defined for the first time. The occurrence of fungi in the roots of the five studied mycorrhizal invasive species is lower than in aboriginal plant species. It was determined that these differences are not due to taxonomic or biomorphological features of invasive species.Key words: plant invasion, invasive plants, arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Dubrovina O.A., Zaitsev G.A. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE SCOTS SPINE STANDS, GROWING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LIPETSK INDUSTRIAL CENTRE The characteristic of a Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestrisšL.) growing in the conditions of the Lipetsk industrial center. The assessment of a relative vital condition (RVC) of stands showed that in pollution conditions the RVC of pine stands is estimated as "weakened" (Lvš=š70š%), in the control conditions as "healthy" (Lvš=š85š%), one of the main signs reducing RVC acts a weak self-pruning of trunks from dead boughs (15–45š%). The analysis of a radial growth of stem wood showed that the growth in the pollution conditions fluctuates ranging from 0,96 to 1,73šmm a year, in the control conditions from 1,19 to 5,46šmm. Two periods of growth of stem wood of a pine are allocated: 1951–1996 when the radial growth in the pollution conditions is lower than control values and 1996–2013 when the radial growth in the pollution conditions is approximately equal or less control values are insignificant. Positive correlation of a radial growth values of a pine and rainfall in July (Pš=š0,310š4) is noted, in the control conditions positive correlation with a temperature in May (Pš=š0,307š3) and November (Pš=š0,321š5) is noted. The radial growth of skeletal wood of a pine in the conditions of the Lipetsk industrial center (1,27–2,14šmm a year) in general is lower in comparison with control (1,56–2,56šmm). It is established that in the pollution conditions of the Lipetsk industrial center length and mass of needles of all age (1,š2 and 3šyears) is less in comparison with control. Thus pollution conditions the needles of a pine of the first year practically don't lag behind in growth (on length and on weight) the needles which is formed in the control conditions. But, from second year lag in growth of needles in the pollution conditions (length and mass of needles decreases), which accrues by third year is noted. That can testify that the young (one-year) needles adapt for industrial pollution and doesn't reduce growth rate, but, in process of accumulation of pollution (by second and third year) needles growth rate considerably decreases.Key words: The Scots pine, relative vital state, radial growth, assimilate apparatus, Yelets industrial center.
Elisseev V.I. EFFECT OF LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD OF SPRING DURUM WHEAT IN THE MIDST OF THE ORENBURG PILOTOrenburg oblast is one of the leading regions in grain production of spring durum wheat. This culture is more demanding for soil and climatic conditions, agricultural techniques of cultivation and yields in the level of productivity of spring soft wheat. Frequent droughts during the growing season adversely affect harvests of spring durum wheat. In this connection, the researchers are continuously searching techniques, providing increased productivity of spring durum wheat, while preserving and improving the technological qualities of grain. Paramount importance to improve the terms of its supply through the use of mineral fertilizers. The data on this topic have been obtained on the basis of short-term experiments, and therefore it is difficult to understand how species will affect the dose and combination of various food items on the yields of spring durum wheat during many years of their application, and how justified and correct previous recommendations in various production due to weather conditions for years. Identify the effectiveness of the impact of different species, doses and combinations of elements of mineral nutrition on yield of spring durum wheat in long-term inpatient experience in different weather conditions for years, is relevant for the Orenburg region and other regions with similar soil and climatic conditions. The basis for the research were taken perennial (1974–2013) experimental data on yield of spring durum wheat obtained in patient experiences with different types and doses of mineral fertilizers in the ordinary course of the central zone region. The research revealed the effects of various doses and combinations of nutrition elements on yield of spring durum wheat set optimum doses of fertilizers, the numerical values of each food item, determine the formation of high productivity. As a result of research the optimum doses of individual elements of mineral nutrition can be applied in practice to develop recommendations for fertilizer application in the production of spring durum wheat.Key words: durum wheat, yield, mineral fertilizers.
Ivanova A.P., Safiullina L.M., Mansurova G.R., Petukhova A.P., Sukhanova N.V., Zakirova M.B., Muratova K.R. THE FIRST INFORMATION ABOUT THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF SOIL ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA FROM THE MURTYKTY FIELD DEPOSIT OF "BASHKIR GOLD MINING COMPANY" (UCHALINSKII DISTRICT, REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN)The species composition of soil algae and cyanobacteria from the Murktykty field deposit (the Uchalinsky region, the Republic of Bashkortostan) was studied. There were found 38šspecies and intraspecific taxons belonging to 5šdivisions of them: Chlorophytaš— 53š% (20štaxa), Cyanoprokaryotaš— 26š% (10štaxa), Bacillariophytaš— 8š% (3štaxa), Ochrophytaš— 8š% (3štaxa), Charophytaš— 5š% (2štaxa). The taxonomic and ecological structures of algae flora were considered. The leading taxons and the most often found species were revealed. The dominant species: division of Chlorophytaš— Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, Bracteacoccus minor (Chodat) Petrova, division of Cyanoprokaryotaš— Leptolyngbya foveolarum (Rabenhorst ex Gomont) of Anagnostidis et KomÂrek and Trichocoleusšcf. hospitus (Hahsgirg ex Gomont) of Anagnostidis. Divisions: Bacillariophyta, Ochrophyta and Charophyta were characterized by a low specific diversity. Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg) of Grunow in Cleve & Grunow had the highest incidence in the samples from the field from them. The analysis of life forms in decreasing order of number of the species defined the following range of ecobiomorphs: Ch17P9X4B3H3N1C1 with prevalence of the coccoid algaeš— ubiquistic relating to the Ch-form and the xerothytic of representatives of the P-form. The analysis of percentage ratio of the identified species of divisions from the territory of the field was carried out. The greatest specific variety was observed in the test №š6 (control), the lowest was revealed in the test №š5 (boulders of the old dump). Floristic similarity of samples was analyzed by applying Serensena-Czekanovskii coefficient which showed lower level of similarity taxonomic composition of floras. High value of coefficient was in the tests №š1 andš3 (50š%). Low value (9š%) was between test №4 with other tests.Key words: soil algae, cyanobacteria, taxonomic structure, ecological structure, Murtykty field deposit, Republic of Bashkortostan.
KorotkovÁ A.M., Lebedev S.V., RusakovÁ E.A. DNA-DAMAGING EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLES NIœ AND NIO FOR EXAMPLE A PLANT SPECIES TRITICUM VULGAREThe effects of spherical nanoparticles of nickel Ni˚ diameter of 70š±š0,3šnm and nickel oxide NiO diameter of 94š±š0,3šnm in three dilutionsš— 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1šM at the root of the 4-day seedlings of Triticum vulgare. After 48šhour incubation with nanoparticles plants recorded dose dependent increase in DNA fragmentation. Electrophoretic separation of DNA showed the change in mobility from the perspective of reducing the amount of content the least migratory agarose gel closest to the start of the fragments formšI (1000šbp), constituting the largest amount in the control samples, and the transition of the bulk of the DNA fragments from -flowing nucleotides (formšIIš— less than 1š000šbp). Thus, under the influence of NPs Niœ and NiO in concentrations 0.025–0.1šM there was an increase of less than 1š000šbp fragment (formšII) to 53–59š% and 55–59,8š% with simultaneous reduction of formšI at 16,6–20,9š% and 15,6–22š%, respectively, compared to the control. The calculated results for the coefficient electrophoretogram of DNA damage in the case of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1šM nickel nanoparticles was 1.052š±š0.009, 1.126š±š0.043 and 1.2š±š0.03, and nickel oxide nanoparticlesš— 0.982š±š0.02, 1.053š±š0.013 and 1.192š±š0.21 (against the background of the control 0.398š±š0.05), respectively. Linear DNA profile electrophoregrams testified that nanoparticles at low concentrations (0.025 and 0.05šM) cause system degradation to discrete DNA fragments from the nucleotide-flowing transition from the bulk of the DNA in the region of less than 1š000šbp and the concentration is 0.1šM appearance of apoptotic "steps" represented by a group of split peaks located descending area, in which a multiple number of DNA 180šbp.Key words: Triticum vulgare — nickel nanoparticles — reactive oxygen species — oxidative stress — the degradation of DNA.
Kulagin A.Yu., Tagirova O.V. MONITORING OF TREE PLANTATIONS OF SILVER BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH) IN TERMS OF THE UFA INDUSTRIAL CENTERResearch was conducted during the period from 2011 to 2014. In the territory of the city of Ufa 14šconstants of the trial areas by standard techniques were put. For definition of the morphological features used for an assessment of stability of development of plantings of a birch (Betula pendula Roth) on each trial square 10štrees were numbered and from each tree during the vegetative season samples of leaves were monthly selected (till 20–30 pieces). The size of an integrated indicator of stability of development of plantings of a birch in the conditions of the Ufa industrial center, both in the territory with industrial pollution, and in the territory with the raised recreational loading is received. The analysis of an integrated indicator of stability of development of separate trees of a birch in plantings in the territory of the Ufa industrial center allowed to reveal considerable distinctions in indicators of asymmetry of sheet plates. The integrated indicator of stability of development of plantings is received. The analysis of results of researches testifies that dynamics of formation of a leaf of a birch is broken. The leaf is formed with deviations. That characterizes reaction of plants to a stress factor. Frequency of occurrence of indicators of stability of development depending on a growth zone was determined. Materials are generalized, the conclusion about frequencies of occurrence of asymmetry depending on pollution zones is made. On the basis of monitoring conclusions are drawn that the condition of wood plantings in the conditions of the Ufa industrial center needs to be investigated with the numbered trees on a network of the constant trial areas.Key words: birch, integral index, asymmetry, stability, industrial area, recreation area.
Kurlov S.I., Perezhogin Y.V. PALEOGENE-NEOGENE FOSSIL FLORA OF NORTHERN TORGAY (CENTRAL KAZAKHSTAN)To identify patterns of modern distribution of plants is necessary to study the genesis of the formation of the flora in the past. So far, there were scattered data on the species composition of the Paleogene-Neogene flora of the Torgay deflection. For the first time on the basis of literature data and their own authors fees compiled a summary of fossil Neogene-Paleogene flora and map its location in the North Torgay. Neogene-Paleogene fossil flora Kostanay region is represented by 108šspecies from 66 genera and 35šfamilies. The stratigraphic relation to fossil flora refers to the following periods: Oligoceneš— 8šspecies; Oligocene-Mioceneš— 1šspecies; Oligocene-Plioceneš— 2šspecies; Mioceneš— 82šspecies and Miocene-Plioceneš— 15šspecies. At the end of the Oligoceneš— early Miocene in the watershed of the North Torgay large area occupied by coniferous and deciduous forests. In the Middle Miocene (with the onset of marine transgression) forest area declined sharply.Key words: Neogene-Paleogene flora, the location, the North Torgay.
Mukhitov L.á., Timoshenkova ô.á. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TRITICUM DURUM VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF ORENBURG CIS-URAL STEPPE Arid conditions are rather usual and frequent for Orenburg Cis-Ural steppes. The drought impacts negatively the processes of wheat growth. This scientific work highlights peculiarities of morphological features of differently originated varieties of spring durum wheat. In different years stable ears produce the following varieties: Bezenchukskayaš205, Bezenchukskaya stepnaya (or Bezenchukskaya of steppe), Gordeiformeš1683, Orenburgskayaš21, Kharkovskayaš3 and Kharkovskayaš23. Several varieties are marked by big length of a stem under the conditions of insufficient moistening and high temperatures of environment. They are Bezenchukskayaš205, Gordeiformeš1683, Orenburgskaya tselinnaya (or Orenburgskaya of virgin lands), Kharkovskayaš3, Kharkovskayaš23 and Tselinnayaš2 (or of virgin landsš2). It means that the varieties mentioned above are higher drought-resistant. They showed lower depression of growth processes. Numerous tests revealed strong interrelation of morphological features and productivity. Productivity increase with growing of ear length, stem length and upper internode length is observed up to a certain point, and then comes decrease of productivity. Optimum parameters of ear length for hard wheat are 7.5–7.7 cm; of stem lengthš— 110–114 cm and of upper internode lengthš— 52–55 cm. These values help to obtain high crop productivity in the mentioned conditions of the region. Optimal rate of stem length and ear length for the central part of the Orenburg region is about 17.7–18.2 units. The highlighted varieties are recommended to be used in the function of parents for being included into selective breeding programs of spring durum wheat under the conditions of the Southern Urals steppes.Key words: durum wheat, variety, ear length, stem height, length of an upper internode, productivity.
Perezhogin Y.V., Kurlov S.I. ADDITIONS TO THE LIST RARE AND ENDANGERED PLANTS KOSTANAY REGION (NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN)Inventory of wild rare and endangered plants in Kostanay region is of great environmental value. The main purpose is to prevent the of his death. Earlier, we were allocated 85 such species recommended for protection in the region. Based on the authors' own fees fromš2005 toš2015 was further identified another 39šrare plant species that require urgent measures to protect in the region. The resulting research konspekt of rare species of flora will be the basis for the creation of botanical nature monuments in Kostanay region for individual species of rare plants.Key words: flora of Kazakhstan, rare species, the location.
Petrova M.V., Yamalov S.M. SYNTAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF STEPPE COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTH OF THE BASHKIR CIS-URALSSteppes in the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan Cis-Urals are fragmented and are mostly located on the south slopes in steppe and forest-steppe zones. At the present time these communities are insufficiently studied in the region. The aim of article is to reveal the diversity of the floristic composition of the RB Cis-Urals south part steppes and represent it in Braun-Blanquet system units. The analysis was conducted with using the computer software: Turboveg, Twinspan, Juice. 19šgeobotanical releves of plant communities made during the field season of 2013 by authors are the basis of analysis. According to results of syntaxonomic analysis three associations and two community without rank were allocated. They belongs to the meadow steppes order Festucetalia valesiacae and true steppes order Helictotricho-Stipetalia (class Festuco-Brometea). Bunch grasses dry steppes are presented by association Artemisio austriacaeš— Stipetum lessingianae. petrophytic communities on the limestones are combined in association Salvio nutantisš— Stipetum korshinskyi É community Artemisia lerchiana-Krascheninnikovia ceratoides. most mesophytic meadow steppes is classified in association Poo angustifoliaeš— Stipetum pennatae. Low species richness pastures combined in basal communities Festuca pseudovina [Festucetalia valesiacae] É Stipa capillata [Festucetalia valesiacae].Key words: floristic composition, steppe communities, the Cis-Urals, the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Pikalova E.V. BIOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAIN HOTBEDS OF AMBROSIA TRIFIDAšL. IN THE ORENBURG REGIONIn article results of researches of invasive species Ambrosia trifidašL. are given. The features of the biology and distribution of ambrosia are shown. The study of biological features of Ambrosia trifidašL. plays an important role in the understanding of its invasive success in the new habitats.The morphometric parameters plants of ambrosia are characterized by high values of coefficient of variation, but in comparison with neighboring regions the level of variability of morphometric parameters is relatively low. The lowest values of most morphometric parameters marked in cenopopulation Krasnoyarka. Accordingly, the lowest values of coefficient of variation in the populations, located along the roads, and highestš— in the populations, occupying the floodplain habitats, ravines, croplands. Among the indicators of morphometrics greatest variation have plant height, sheet width, length of the root, number of lateral branching, and among generative organsš— the length of the inflorescence. Also it is established, this spesies on the territory of the Orenburg region is anthropotolerant, populating various synanthropic habitats, moreover, the seizure of new territories is proceeding successfully. There is an active introduction of spesies in natural communities or disturbed community with displacement of indigenous species, that brings to so-called to "floristic pollution of the territory". Lists new centers of localization on the territory of the Orenburg region and compiled a list of hotbeds, need control. A total of reliably detected ninety one of cenopopulation. The reason for such wide distribution of A.štrifida can serve as a violation of the processes of self-regulation of ecosystems under the influence of anthropogenic impact. A map of the distribution of species is made. Further extention of Ambrosia trifida secondary areal in the region is predicted.Key words: invasive species, cenopopulation, Ambrosia trifidašL., coefficient of variation, morphometric parameters.
Ryabinina Z.N., Ryabukhina M.V. FEATURES ANTI-EROSION CONIFEROUS FORESTS FORESTRY AKBULAK ORENBURG REGION EXPOSED TO THE SAWFLY-WEAVER STARThe article presents the results of the study of anti-coniferous forests of the Civil Code "Akbulaksky forest", subject to the effects of ochagovovomu sawfly outbreak weaver stellate Lyda nemoralis Thoms. And calculate the possible damage to the forest fund in the absence of effective measures to combat the entomological pest.Key words: forest, forest fund, shrinking forests, the focus of the impact, in regulating surface runoff properties of forests, forest absorption properties.
Sandakova G.N., Eliseev V.I. THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON THE PROTEIN CONTENT IN GRAIN SPRING WHEAT IN CONDITIONS OF THE ORENBURG URAL REGIONClimatic and soil conditions of the Orenburg region is favorable for grain yield of durum wheat with a high content of protein eat. Fluctuations in weather lead to high variability of protein. Due to this being the constant search for agronomic techniques of cultivation, providing improvement of its content. Great importance is attached to improving nutrition spring durum wheat by applying mineral fertilizers. Previous research was conducted on the basis of short-term experiments. Identifying the benefits of different types, doses and combinations of mineral nutrients on the protein content of spring wheat in long-term stationary experiment taking into account the meteorological conditions of this area is relevant for today. The basis for the study was taken many years (1974–2013 years) experimental data on protein content in grain of spring hard wheat, obtained in a stationary experiment with different types and doses of mineral fertilizers on soils of ordinary Chernozem of the Central zone of the region, and agro-meteorological data for the same period of time. Was performed grouping the conditions of the growing season spring wheat largest hydrothermal coefficient (SCC). Influence of weather factors on the efficiency of different mineral nutrients was estimated according to the probability of obtaining superior protein for each group of years. Evaluation of protein links to weather factors and elements of mineral nutrition carried out using methods of mathematical modeling. The mathematical regression models of the effect of weather factors and elements of mineral nutrition on the protein content of spring wheat identified quantitative values that indicate the formation of a high-protein grain and fertilizer efficiency of the implemented initiatives.Key words: durum wheat, protein, weather, fertilizers, regression model.
Safonov M.A. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN BIODIVERSITY OF WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGI OF THE ORENBURG REGIONThe hydrographic network has a large impact on the natural features of the regions, participating in the formation of the relief, soil and vegetation cover. Especially great is the influence of permanent watercourses on the biota of the steppe zone. In this case, floodplain habitats become havens for many mesophilic species. A large part of the Orenburg region is located within the steppe zone and the river network of the region also affects the micro- and mesoclimate, and also forms specific complexes of biota within the floodplains of various sizes, and also in adjacent areas. Especially brightly it is at the expense of growth in floodplains forests, which are intrazonal for the steppe zone. One of the most important essential components of the biota of floodplain forest are wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi. The article presents data on the species composition of wood-destroying fungi biota of floodplain forests of the Orenburg region, accumulated as a result of generalization of many years of field research data. The list of species includes 125šspecies from 69šgenera of the division Basidiomycota. The results of systematic and ecological analysis of studied mycobiota are given. Marked the highest frequency of occurrence in floodplain habitats of Phellinus igniarius, Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius. Marked species, penetrating floodplain habitats to the North and South of the main boundaries of the area. That is accessible conclusion of the substantial contribution of floodplain habitats in a diversity of wood-destroying fungi biota of the region, especially in the steppe zone of the Orenburg region.Key words: wood-destroying basidiomycetes, mycobiota, border of areal, the floodplain forests, Orenburg region.
Siromlya T.I, Zagurskaya Yu.V., Bayandina I.I. THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE EXTRACTS FROM THE HERB HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. GROWN IN THE REGIONS WITH HIGH TECHNOGENIC LOADCd content in Hypericum perforatum raw materials often exceeds the maximum allowable concentrations, as this species is the hub of cadmium. However, the degree of extraction of Cd does not exceed 23š% in decoctions, and 5š%š— in tincture of the total content in the raw material. High isplacement of Pb and Ni and very lowš— Fe and Sr was detected. The content of almost all the chemical elements in the tincture was lower than in the decoction. Plants of Hypericum perforatum L. were grown seedling method of genetically homogeneous material in the three regions of the south of Western Siberia, distinguished by the level of anthropogenic contamination. The total content of chemical elements was determined in pharmaceutical raw materials, water decoctions (raw materials: distilled waterš— 1: 20) and alcoholic tinctures (raw material: 40š% ethanolš— 1: 10) by atomic emission and atomic absorption analysis. Total ash content (3.75–4.87š%) and the amount of insoluble residue (0.31 and 0.73š%) complied with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI and was lower than in the studied pharmaceutical raw materialsš— 5.60 and 1.15š%, respectively. In the H.šperforatum grown under a anthropogenic condition, both potassium (5š910–10š690šmg/kg) and lead (0.3–0.4) concentrations were significantly lower than that of the pharmaceutical raw materials (18š662 and 1.4šrespectively). In contrast, the nickel (2.6–5.0), manganese (94–114), zinc (49–60) concentrations was increased significantly than that of the pharmaceutical raw materials (0.7, 17 É 22šrespectively). Total content of ód in H.šperforatum plants from three regions ranged from 0.42 to 1.64šmg/kg, the mean values are generally greater than the maximum permissible concentration established Sanitary rules and Norms 188.8.131.528-01 for herbal dietary supplements. Cadmium content in H.šperforatum raw materials often exceeds the maximum allowable concentrations, as this species is the hyperaccumulator of cadmium. However, the degree of extraction of Cd in decoctions does not exceed 23š% in tinctureš— 5š% of the total content in the raw material. Very low isplacement was identified for iron and strontium, high — for nickel Ánd lead, potassium has a maximum isplacement. Almost all the chemical elements in plants of Western Siberia move to water extraction on average 1.3–3.4 times (Cdš— 4–5, Srš— 7–8) higher than in water-alcohol extract. The degree of extraction of chemical elements from raw materials harvested in different regions of Western Siberia is significantly different. For plants grown in industrially polluted regions showed a trend towards an increase in the content of readily available forms of chemical elements.Key words: Hypericum perforatum, St. John's wort, medicinal raw materials, chemical elements, tincture, decoction.
Khardikova S.V., Verkhoshentsev J.P., Tikhonova M.A., Mursalimova G.R., Ivanova E.A., Turmukhambetova A.S. EKOLOGO-FIZIOLOGICHESKIE ASPECTS OF INFLUENCE OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAPLINGS OF GRAPES FROM THE TRUNCATED SHANKSResults of researches on influence of humic preparations on growth and development of saplings of grapes from the truncated shanks are given in article. As object of research saplings of grapes of grades Russian early and Agathe Donskoy served. From humic preparations applied: organo-mineral fertilizer a humate of Prompter potassium and complex fertilizer on the basis of a potassium humate with macro — and microcells. Time in 10šdays carried out watering of saplings solutions of these preparations. In total for the experimental period made 6 waterings. Having watered saplings it was carried out as required. Frequency of experience 3-fold, on 100šsaplings in each option. In control option saplings watered. Researches showed that introduction of humic preparations had positive impact on formation processes, both root system, and land part of saplings of grapes from the truncated shanks which are grown up in climatic conditions of South Ural. Under the influence of humic preparations at skilled plants the increase in the following indicators is noted: quantity of roots of the first and second orders; length and diameter of a root; length and diameter of escape; quantity of leaves on escape; area of a sheet plate. The greatest effect is gained from watering by a humic preparation on the basis of a calcium humate with macro- and microcells. It is caused by that this fertilizer besides a humate of potassium contains still a complex necessary for a plant macro- and microcells. The made experiment shows that application of humic preparations at the accelerated reproduction of grapes in the conditions of South Ural significantly increases quality of landing material. Key words: saplings, grapes, grade, humic preparations, root, escape, area of a sheet surface, South Ural.
Safonov M.A., Cherdintsev A.A., Malenkova A.S. WOOD-DESTROYING BASIDIOMYCETOUS FUNGI OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF KUMERTAU (BASHKORTOSTAN)The problems of reforestation and afforestation are important for many regions of Russia, especially with developed agriculture. Thus on the foreground the problem of creating sustainable spaces that moth would for a long time to perform its functions. The problem of artificial plantations is of particular importance in regions with relatively low forest cover, including in the South Ural. One of the conditions for the stable existence of artificial forest ecosystemsš— the study of the contribution of all components in their formation. In this respect, one of the most important components of forest ecosystems are wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi. The article discusses the results of a study of wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi conducted in Year 2012–2015 in artificial plantations in the vicinity of Kumertau (Bashkortostan) at the dumps of Kumertau lignite mine and plantings on Uralskaya mountain. The result of research is check-list including 101šspecies of fungi belonging to 58šgenera. The greatest number of species were found at the pine timber. Mainly observed species of fungi live on dead wood and only 4šspeciesš— on growing trees. Complexes of species in plantations on industrial dumps differ significantly from the other complexes in species richness and composition. The article provides an annotated list of species that are new to this region of Bashkortostan and the Orenburg region, the places of their findings and characteristics of the substrate are given. Key words: wood-destroying fungi, basidiomycetes, mycobiota, artificial tree stands, forest ecosystems, Bashkortostan.
Chibrik T.S., Lukina N.V. THE HERBACEOUS SPECIESMYCORRHIZA FORMATIONON THE DIFFERENT AGENICKEL DEPOSIT DUMPSThe study of mycorrhiza features formation of herbaceous species in plant communities, emerging in the process of overgrowing 8šdifferent ages (4–36 year olds) Cheremshansky mine dumps Ufaley nickel deposit, located 15škm north-east of VerchnyUfaley, Chelyabinsk region are presented in the article. The species dumps consist mainly of weathered serpentinite submitted clay material and boulders equally reaction (pH) varies from slightly alkaline to neutral, the availability of nitrogen and phosphates available is very low, the exchange of potassiumš— medium and high. Vegetation survey showed that 4–6šyear old dumps is the formation of plant groups represented by single individuals and weed-ruderal meadow weed species. In the 11–36-year-olds dumps formed the forest communities, with the dominance of Pinussylvestris L., Betulapendula Roth. The grassy projective cover tier depends on the degree and stony substrate. The studies have shown that the roots of most herbaceous plants there arbuscularmycorrhiza presented aseptate fungal hyphae, vesicles and arbuskules. With increasing age of the dumps and degree of development of plant communities growing proportion mycotrophic species. In the 4–6-year-old young dumps share mycotrophic kinds of 52.4–58.8š%, on a 11–36-year old dumpsš— 91.7–100š%, reaching a value characteristic of the natural phytocenoses. Indicators such as the degree of mycotrophic, frequency of mycorrhiza, mycorrhizal infection rate also increases with increasing age dumps and depend on the environmental conditions (degree of stony and moistening of the substrate).Key words: plant communities, the phytocenoses dynamics, arbuscularmycorrhiza, nickel blades.
Shibareva S.V., Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P. VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND PLANT SUBSTANCES STEPPE ECOSYSTEMS SOUTH CHELYABINSK REGIONThe study of plants and plant material for Katen gradient in the steppe zone Zauralye included a definition of successive changes of vegetation in the steppe ecosystems are in full commandments. As a result, removal of anthropogenic load of ecosystems in plant communities kateny marked trend towards mezofitizatsii.Key words: plant, above plant matter, below plant matter, production, litter, standing crop.
Tagirov B.B., Yanbaev Yu.A., Tagirova A.A., Redkina H.H. INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF HEIGHT INCREMENT OF SCOTS PINE`S UNDERGROWTH IN ABANDONED AGRICULTURAL LANDThe article contains results of analyses of individual variability of annual height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisšL., Pinaceae). Region of research is presented by forest-steppe of Bashkir Trans-Urals, where in recent decades a large-scale of natural reforestation of Scots pine in out-of-use agricultural landš— abandoned arable, hayfields and pastures is occurred. 30šareas of Scots pine`s self-seeding were selected on the territory of Uchaly region of Republic of Bashkortostan on a provisional transect `north-south` length of nearly 100škm. The amount of the annual increment in height in the years 2009–2013 was measured at 4š000 copies of undergrowth (30šplants / year for each test area). The study proved that the variability of a feature within separate reforestation areas is mainly determined by genetic characteristics of undergrowth rather than by environmental conditions.Key words: abandoned agricultural land, growing over of woody and shrubby vegetation, Scots pine, undergrowth, variability, annual increment in height.
Bokov D.A. REPRODUCTION IN ELEMENTARY POPULATIONS OF THE SMALL WOOD MOUSE (SYLVAEMUS URALENSIS PALLAS, 1811): EFFECTIVE RANGE AND MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATIONThe goal is to find a connection and interdependence of the female wood mouse's phenomenological reproduction processes, based on the verification of metasystem regulation mechanism. Using the field, the population-statistical and morphological (including histological) methods, we've studied the complex phenomena of small wood mouse (Sylvaemusuralensis Pallas, 1811) reproductive activity at different biosystem's levels (tissue, organ, organism and population). We studied the changes in the age-reproductive and age-ontogenetic structure of elementary populations of wood mouse, and also the level of fertility and features of the involvement of females in reproduction, dynamics of folliculogenesis in the conditions of change degree of heterogeneity of environmental conditions. Here the phenomenon of gonads' hypoplasia or active blockade of folliculogenesis is common. In background territories limit the entry of females in reproduction is happening. In such animals immediately after rising to the surface, hyperplasia of gonads and a new level of folliculogenesis dynamicsš— reaching terminal preovulatory forms ovo-somatic gistions are observed.Females with earlier onset of reproductive activity prepared for the new conditions of entry into reproductive activity during ontogenesis.This period is shifted to an earlier time.It the same time, the period of ontogeny, when the first ovulation becomes possible, is changing. In particular, the proportion of females involved in reproduction, retained worse environmental conditions. We defined the adaptive capabilities of all named parameters. Intensification of processes of reproduction and maintaining of the functional-reproductive structure of groups determine of the success of the species and its persistent properties.Key words: wood mouse, reproduction, population structure, folliculogenesis, ovary, adaptation.
Bolshakov V.N., Vasilev A.G., Vasileva I.A., Chibiryak M.V. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF SMALL MAMMALS IN FLOOD-PLAIN FORESTS OF SAKMARA RIVER (ORENBURG REGION)During field study period since 1972 up to 2015 in two localities of Orenburg region (Kuvandyk city and Chorny Otrog township) at flood-plain forests of Sakmara River and some other attached biotopes, including steppe fragments, we found 19šspecies of rodents and 6 species of insectivorous mammals. For the above time interval we revealed a decrease of proportion of some species and taxonomic groups in the structure of communities of small mammals. Among them there were: gray voles of genus Microtus (arvalis, agrestis, oeconomus), the Northern Birch Mouse (Sicista betulina), shrews of genus Sorex (araneus, minutus), however the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) was identified in last years (2010, 2014–2015) only. Using long-term July data on small mammals trapping at flood-plain forests of Sakmara River sinceš1986 up to 2015šyear period we found parallel decrease of biological diversity in the two localities inferred from 10šbiodiversity indices assessing species richness, dominance, diversity and evenness. In Chorny Otrog locality the dominant relations among species within community were changed in just recent years: now the Pigmy wood mouse (Sylvaemus uralensis) became a dominant (the most abundant) species instead of the Bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Population ecology analysis of Bank voles and Pigmy wood mouse has revealed parallelism in changes of their population features (age ratio and some reproductive indices) connected with conditions of the year of comparison. The rate of reproduction in populations of both species decreased inš2015 in comparison withš1986. Differences between populations as well as between species were expressed lower than those between years.Key words: small mammals, Bank vole, Pigmy wood mouse, population ecology, population structure, flood-plain forest.
Solovyh G.N., Vinokurova N.V., Donskova S.A. MACROPHYTES IN THE STRUCTURE OF FORMATION OF THE URAL RIVER ECOSYSTEMMacrophytes are the one of the main objects of bioindication aquatic's ecosystems, since they are environmental component. This indicates to necessity studying of the floristic composition of plant community and its dynamics in conditions of anthropogenic impact. All the plants refer to flowered plants of the two classesš— Liliopsida and MagnoliÏpsida in the flora of macrophytes of the Ural river. Was studied the species diversity of macrophytes and their systematic affiliation. Were identified the main ecological groups of aquatic macrophytes. The most numerous ecological group are hydrophytes, most of which are represented by a group of submerged, rooting hydrophytes. The least numerous group among them are hydrophytes, submerged, rooting. The authors for the first time provide comparative data on floristic diversity of the studied stations in the middle reaches of the Ural river in the Orenburg region with previously obtained data on the flora of water ecosystems of the Orenburg TRANS-Urals and the Orenburg region: the group of hygrophytes prevails in general among plants in the phytocenoses of the Orenburg region. Species richness and dominance of macrophytes on the Ural river in the Orenburg region in 2009 was represented by 10šspecies, while inš2013 17šspecies of macrophytes with different levels of species richness and dominance. As a dominant ecological group of macrophytes was hydrophytes not rooting, exclusive dominance was characterized by the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum, which acted as dominant at 8šstations.Key words: macrophytes, hydrophytes, hygrophytes, helophytae, the index of species richness, index of dominance.
Rechkalov V.V., Golubok O.V., Shimanskaya M.L. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROTIFERS IN LAKES WITH DIFFERENT TROPHIC STATUSThe work is devoted to studying rotifers plankton in different trophic status lakes of Chelyabinsk region. Among the investigated reservoirs are oligotrophic lakes Uvildy and Turgoyak, mesotrophic lakes Big Kisegach and Big Miassovo as well as hypertrophic lake Small Terenkul. Rotifers plancton was cought in aquatic layers with the Jedi; it was confined to the period of the summer thermal stratification. It were found 13šspecies of rotifer, most of which is eurybiontic. Representatives of four most important species are confined to the waters of the trophic class. The greatest number of rotifersš— 9.9šthousand copies/m3 were observed in hypertrophic Lake M.šTerenkul, they were accounted for 37š% of the total zooplankton. In other lakes rotifers plankton was less developed, his strength was fromš0.7 to 4.0šthousand copies/m3, while the share in the total number of zooplankton does not exceed 15š%. A comparative analysis of the vertical distribution of rotifers plankton was produced. The maximum number of rotifers oligotrophic lakes is observed in the upper layer to the horizon of 6šm, while 12šm deep fixed local maximum in the bottom layer rotifers met in small amounts or absent. The mesotrophic lakes representatives of this taxonomic group were concentrated at the surface or in the depths metalimnion ranging fromš4 to 9šmeters. The bottom layers were also sparsely populated. Feature distribution of rotifers hypertrophic lake S. Terenkul was that in addition to the near-surface high dense cluster of aquatic organisms were found in the bottom layer and the adjacent region of the hypolimnion. The role of individual species in the formation of the total picture of the distribution of rotifers plankton was observed and discussed. It was made the conclusion about the prospects of using the species composition, abundance and performance features of the vertical distribution of rotifers to monitor anthropogenic eutrophication of lake ecosystems.Key words: Southern Urals Lake, eutrophication, rotifers, vertical distribution.
Solovyh G.N., VinokurovÁ N.V., GÏlinskaya L.V. THE ROLE OF MACROPHYTES IN THE SELF-CLEANING PROCESS OF THE URAL RIVER WATERCOURSES FROM POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLSThe macrophytes serve as a storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) entering aquatic ecosystems. There were no identified clear correlations between the concentrations of the studied pollutants in water, sediments and macrophytes, but showed interspecific differences in the accumulation of PCBs in macrophytes. The analysis of the absorption coefficient of PCBs from macrophytes revealed clear differences in the accumulation processes of these pollutants in different species. Found that the most active drives toxicants Ceratophyllium demersum (Kbš— 2š967.74), Lemna minor (Kbš— 2š933.33), Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (Kbš— 1š225.81). Group-specific hubs PCBs can be considered rooting macrophytes, which can act as the main object for diagnostic monitoring of the current ecological status of the Ural River. Probably the removal of this vegetation from the water environment can be used to activate the processes of self-purification and reducing the secondary pollution of PCBs. There is shown that during the growing season is a redistribution of entering the body of water between the components of the ecosystem polychlorinated biphenyls: their content is reduced in water and bottom sediments in autumn, but increases in macrophytes, which contributes to the temporary removal of PCBs from ecotopia, i.e. the migration of PCBs are carried out in the ecosystem of the pond through the chain of "waterš— macrophytesš— bottom sediments". Identification of this fact to identify practical recommendations: to reduce water pollution PCBs should be carried out mowing (removal) of the macrophyte ponds that will prevent the return of contaminants in the ecosystem in the process of withering away. Key words: polychlorinated biphenyls, macrophytes, accumulation.
Chirkova E.N., Zavaleeva S.M. MAKRO-MICROMORFOLOGY HEART OF ORDINARY MOLE (TALPA EUROPAEA) These days information about the morphological modifications of the cardiovascular system is not enough in the scientific literature, including the heart animals characterizing the main types of adaptationš— land, water, wood and flying. Despite the fact that these days the basic provisions of the laws governing the macro and microstructures of various representatives of the animals sets out on the range of compensatory-adaptive possibilities authority structures in ontogenesis, remain controversial and unresolved a number of questions. In connection with this problem have been delivered: 1) to determine the topography, the size and shape of the heart of a representative group of underground-burrowing mammals (ordinary mole); 2) to establish the structural characteristics of the myocardium of the atrial appendages and ventricular walls; 3) to investigate the organization and conducting of contractile cardiomyocytes on the sub-cellular level. The methods of preparation, light and electron microscopy studied the heart of an ordinary mole, as a representative of an environmental group subterranean mammals. Mitochondria fill substantially the interstices between the myofibrils, but there are, and for the sarcolemma. Near the core of their relatively small. The shape of mitochondria is no different variety. Mostly they are round or oval. Location cristae and arcuate cross. Rare mitochondria with granular inclusions in the matrix. The sarcoplasm cardiomyocytes atria and ventricles are presented and other ultrastructure: agranular sarcoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, lysosomes, and liposomes. Atypical cardiomyocytes differ in character from the contractile myofibrils arrangement, in which the latter are oriented not only in parallel to the plasma membrane of cells, but randomly. Found sarcoplasmic reticulum structure which form a system of membrane tubes are not connected with the plasma membrane. Some new features of ascertaining relative histofisiological workers (typical) and conductive atypical cardiomyocytes that let you do the conclusion that the heart of an ordinary mole characterizes adaptive changes in body underground digging type adaptations.Key words: ordinary mole, morphology, heart, morphometry, cardiomyocytes.
áleshina å.S., Drozdova E.A. ESTIMATION THE BIOTOXICITY OF CARBON NANOTUBES USEBASEDLUMINESCENT MICROORGANISMSDespite the fact that carbon nanomaterials (CNM) was opened thirty years ago, it is still expanding the range of their application, as well as the amount of research devoted to the determination of their biological effects. In the literature, are constantly emerging data about the possible adverse effects caused by the CNM, developing at different levels of the organization alive. Therefore, the study questions the potential risks of their use still seems paramount. A possibility to use for this purpose natural and recombinant strains of luminescent bacteria is very important. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biological effects of carbon nanomaterials represented 8šsamples and includes both single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes and nanofibers, methods of bioluminescence assay using luminescent recombinant Escherichia coli strain K12 TG1 with cloned luxCDABE genes of marine luminous bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi 54D10 marketed in a lyophilized form and natural strains Photobacterium phosphoreum-17 677f (based on commercial test systems "Mikrobiosensor-17 677f"). In experiments on E.coli CNM for compounds dispersed in distilled water, followed by ultrasonic treatment with EC20 and EC50 values were calculated fromš5 to 8šCNM. When used as Photobacterium phosphoreum EC20 values were established forš7 ofš8, and an EC50 ofš5 toš8 CNM. It was found that the natural luminescent strain Photobacterium phosphoreum in 17-677f characterized by severe and rapid response to the impact of CNM than recombinant strain of Escherichia coli K12 TG1. At the same time the details of the response to use the touch-term strains determines they are not mutually exclusive, but complementary use.Key words: luminescent microorganism, biotoxicity, carbon nanotube.
Gerasimova E.A., Plotnikov A.O. BIODIVERSITY OF AMEBOIDAN PROTISTS IN SALINE WATER BODIES OF ORENBURG REGIONBiodiversity of 16 species of unicellular ameboidan protists (Heterophrys marina, Polyplacocystis coerulea, Pterocystis pinnata, Heteroraphidiophrys australis, Raineriophrys erinaceoides, Raineriophrys raineri, Choanocystis ebelii, Choanocystis perpusilla, Choanocystis pelagica, Acanthocystis astrakhanensis, Acanthocystis dentata, Acanthocystis myriospina, Acanthocysti nichollsi, Acanthocystis pectinata, Acanthocystis taurica, Acanthocystis turfacea) in ecosystems of saline water bodies with salinity 2–22š of Orenburg region was studied. Twelve species of protists (P.špinnata, R.šraineri, C.šebelii, C.šperpusilla, C.špelagica, A.šastrakhanensis, A.šdentata, A.šmyriospina, A.šnichollsi, A.špectinata, A.štaurica, A.šturfacea) were revealed for the first time in ecosystems of saline and brackish continental water bodies of Russia. Seven species (P.špinnata, R.šraineri, A.šdentata, A.šnichollsi, A.špectinata, A.štaurica) were described previously as freshwaters; based on our data it described as euryhaline. Nine cenrtohelidian species (P.špinnata, R.šraineri, C.šebelii, C.šperpusilla, C.špelagica, A.šastrakhanensis, A.šnichollsi, A.štaurica, A.šturfacea) was revealed for the first time in Orenburg region, three of these (P.špinnata, C.šebelii É C.špelagica) are new for heliozoans fauna of Russia. Data on mineralization of the studied biotopes and scanning electron micrographs of heliozoan are presents in the paper.Key words: Centrohelid heliozoa, biodiversity, saline water bodies.
Davydova ï.ë., áleshina å.S., Zhilenkov á.V. USE OF THE LUMINESCING STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS AT RESEARCH OF FULLERENES DERIVATIVES BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY DEPENDENCE ON THEIR SURFACE CHARGE VALUEProduction of nanomaterials and their successful application in various spheres causes concern about their uncontrollable receipt in environment and, as a result, impacts on live organisms that raise a question of development of the express analysis of danger/safety of nanomaterials with use original sensory and the reporter test-systems on the basis of luminescent and non-luminescent microorganisms. In the presented work the biological (antimicrobial) activity of ó60- and ó70-fullerene derivatives is estimated and the mechanisms which are its cornerstone and determined by formation of physical contact with bacterial cell targets are discussed. The method of the bioluminescent analysis was used for determination of concentration of 12šoriginally synthesized ó60- and ó70-fullerene derivatives, causing suppression of bioluminescence by 60th minute of contact for 50š% of control values (EC50). It is shown that use of a sensory strain of Escherichia coli K12 TG1 allows to reveal antibacterial activity of a greater number of functionalized fullerene derivatives (atš6 ofš12) and the level of sensitivity, than when using Bacillus subtilis B-10548 (atš3 ofš12). Application of the modified gel electrophoresis method allowed to estimate the value and the size of electrophoretic mobility of the used ó60- and ó70-fullerene derivatives and a role of electrostatic interactions in their biological activity. On the basis of the received experimental results it can be concluded that the obtained data can be used for creation of the innovative nanodisinfectants, are of interest to practical use in medicine and veterinary science.Key words: bacterial biosensors, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, fullerene derivatives, biological activity.
Drozdova E.A., áleshina å.S. ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF STRAINS PROBIOTIC PREPARATIONS AGAINST TEST ORGANISM SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS AND EFFICIENCY OF THEIR JOINT USE WITH ANTIBIOTICS WAS DETECTEDThe result of the experiments was determined by antibiotic resistance and antagonistic activity of the strains entering into probiotic preparations in respect of the test organism Salmonella enteritidis and their possible combined action with antibiotics. The experiment was set in conditions in vitro. Against the background of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of various infections develop microecological bowel disorders such as dysbiosis. For the treatment of the effects of the most studied direction at the present time is the use of probioticsš— biological drugs based on representatives of the normal microflora of man. The feasibility of the simultaneous application of probiotics most used in clinical practice, antibiotics are currently the subject of discussion, as probiotic microorganisms are sensitive to many antimicrobial agents. In this regard, we have conducted the following studies and research to substantiate the effectiveness of the joint application of probiotics based nonsporeforming bacteria with antibiotics in the treatment of Salmonella infection in in vitro.Key words: microflora, probiotics, antibiotics, test organism Salmonella enteritidis, antibiotic productivity, antibiotic resistance, antagonism, synergism, an additive effect.
Bazhina N., Ondar E., Ochur K., Dergacheva M. HUMUS OF MOUNTAIN TUNDRA SOILS OF WESTREN PART TUVAThe features of the composition of humus mountain tundra soils depending on the position in relation to the glacier formed under different environmental conditions the western Tuva.Key words: composition of humus, mountain tundra soils, environment conditions of formation, the Western areas of Tuva.
Vasilchenko A.V., Vojvodina T.S. THE PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OIL POLLUTION OF SOILSThe analysis of the regulatory requirements on the content of oil in the soil in accordance with Russian and European regulatory legislation. It was found that the Russian Federation is still the norm oil content in the soil is not installed, there is no clear criterion estimates the degree of disturbance, which creates a problem of restoration of contaminated soils. To solve the problem of recovering oil-contaminated soil is necessary to define the criteria that can be considered safe for all objects in the environment. However, the specifics of different regulations on this issue no. In connection with this urgent problem is the imperfection of environmental legislation in relation to the MPC oil in natural soils. The results of research areas in the zone of the impact of the gas station, adjacent to the main highway. The concentration of oil in the soil of the objects. An assessment of their quality. By analyzing a wide variety of grades of grade oil content in the soil, we have found a discrepancy in the comparison of all these documents. Recommendations for reclamation of disturbed areas.Key words: gas stations, oil-contaminated soil, the concentration of oil in the soil, assessment of pollution remediation.
Verkhoshentseva Y.P., Hardikova S.V., Ukenov B.S. THE CHANGE OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS ROADSIDE AREAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY AND PLANTATIONSThe largest contribution to the pollution and degradation of natural ecosystems at the present stage automotive. Transport is a specific source of pollution of the natural environment, consisting of many ground-based point sources, focused on different highways. Areas of environmental pollution, generated by emissions of motor transport, characterized by high values of pollutant concentrations and distributed over a large area. The role of a single vehicle in the change of state of the roadside zone is negligible. However, when the regularity of such exposure, it is multiplied. A transport stream is converted into a permanent source of anthropogenic pollution. Anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of roadside areas leads to air pollution, the change of physico-chemical properties of soils, their compaction, contamination by pollutants, in particular heavy metals (HM), which causes an increase in their phytotoxicity, leading to deterioration of growing conditions of green spaces. Green plantings of the roadside areas to reduce the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment, improve physico-chemical properties of the soils adjacent to the roadway. The paper presents the results of research of influence of shelterbelts on properties of soils roadside areas of Orenburg region. The characteristic of some physical and chemical properties of the roadside soil, the improvement which occurs as the distance from the road surface. Their maximum values these indicators reach the forest belt and in the zone of its influence. The study of phytotoxicity of soils showed that the highest indicator is characteristic of the soils located near the road surface, as the distance from the phytotoxicity is reduced, but remains at moderate levels. Key words: vehicles, roadside areas, soil contamination, phytotoxicity, chemical and physical properties.
Voevodina T.S., Rusanov A.M., Vasilchenko V.A. EFFECT OF OIL ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY CHERNOZEM SOUTHERN URALSThe degradation of soils and landscapes is now a global phenomenon and is one of the main problems of ecology and soil science. Among the many factors of soil degradation is the contamination of its oil. The change of soil properties when oil pollution, as well as the processes of migration, accumulation and metabolism depend on the physico-chemical composition and amount of oil spilled, the soil-climatic and landscape conditions, soil type, availability of the different biochemical barriers, channels of migration and diffusion in the soil profile. At oil pollution is noticeable first of all change the chemical properties of the soil. The consequences of soil pollution by oil depends on the composition of hydrocarbons, its concentration and distribution in the soil profile, from the exposition period. A particularly negative impact on soil crude oil, which leads to changes in the chemical properties of soil and their strongest salinity. Oil contamination causes an abrupt increase in the content of organic carbon in soil from 3.5 to 9.8š% and contributes to the deterioration of the nitrogen regime of soils (the ratio of C:N ranges fromš30 to 289) and the decrease in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus (average of 3.5štimes). Soil pollution commodity oil (desalted and dehydrated) does not affect the acid-alkaline balance of the soil and crude oil causes an alkalinization of various degrees of soil solution that is depending on the oil concentration. Analysis of the aqueous extract of oil-polluted soils showed that when contaminated with crude oil dramatically increased the solids content, the nature of salinity is determined by the accumulation of sodium and chlorine ions, which is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the content of calcium ions in the soil solution.Key words: soil, oil pollution, crude and product oil, chemical properties of soils.
Voropaev S.B., Nadein A.V., Kotegawa A.A. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND WATER-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS OF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ORENBURG REGIONThe Soil cover of the Earth is a critical component of the biosphere of the Earth. It is soil shell determines many processes in the biosphere. The most important value of soil is accumulating organic matter, various chemical elements, and energy. The soil performs the functions of a biological absorber, the destroyer and neutralizer of different contaminations. If it is the part of the biosphere will be destroyed, then the current functioning of the biosphere irreversibly disturbed. That is why it is extremely important the study of global biogeochemical importance of soil, its current state and changing under the influence of anthropogenic activities. Determined by the regional characteristics of the black soil plains of agrolandscapes slightly changed; the change in the basic properties of soils in agricultural use, anthropogenic influence and urbanization, presents estimates of the structural-aggregate composition of soils (structure, density) and permeability. The diversity of conditions of soil formation in the southern Urals caused the formation of very complex of soil cover. The territory of the Orenburg region is characterized by consecutive change of types and subtypes of soils. In zonal row virgin soils of the region, the decrease of the capacity of the humus horizon in the direction from North to South and as a result of their agricultural use. Assessment of the structural-aggregate composition of soils showed that the typical chernozems are characterized by a high qualitative and quantitative indicators in comparison with the ordinary black and southern. The density of the soil in a number of the typical black soilš— ordinary Chernozemš— Chernozem southern natural increases, but the rate on the land exceeds such on the virgin snow. Key words: morphology, soil structure, permeability, density.
Dergacheva M.I., Bazhina N.L., Ondar E.E., Ochur K.O., Ryabova N.N. ENVIRONMENTALLY INDUCED COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF HUMIC ACIDS IN SOILS OF WESTERN TUVAThe correlation between the composition and properties of humic acids in western part of Tuva climatic parameters calculated for each individual object. It is shown that humic acids having a certain value of the ratio of H:C match as certain values of temperature and humidity (rain) at which the humic acids formed in such ratio of these forming elements.Key words: humic acids, the environmental conditions of formation, the western part of Tuva.
Dostova T.M. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOIL QUALITY VIRGIN AND ARABLE TERRITORY OF ORENBURG PREDURALIEEarth Orenburg region characterized by high natural fertility. The share of the most fertile soilš— chernozem leached, typical and ordinary accounts for more than 40š% of the regional soil, and with southern black earth, this share rises to 56.6š% of the total area of the region. Among agricultural land, this percentage increases to 75š%. Currently, the area of arable land has achieved great performance and is 56.6š% of the agricultural land and 49.6š%š— of the total area of the region. Intensity of use of land resources of the Orenburg region accompanied by a change of soil properties and increasing negative processes, which reduces soil fertility and, as a result, the yield of crops. According to the natural and agricultural zoning of land assigned to subboreal soil-climatic zones of the central steppe and steppe soil-biological field or forest-steppe, steppe and dry steppe natural and agricultural zones. Large areas of the Orenburg region lie in the area of black earth soils. Only in the south recorded dark chestnut soils in the north marked a small area of gray forest soils. Research quality of soil located under the well-preserved natural vegetation and in areas of intensive agricultural use was carried out on the territory of Orenburg Ural region and involves certain agro, agro-chemical and agro-ecological properties of soils. Experimentally established decrease in quality parameters of fertility soils under study as a result of intensive agricultural use. Analysis of laws between agrophysical, agrochemical and agro-ecological properties of soils allow the use of the materials obtained in the performance of eco-economic monitoring of agricultural landscapes of Orenburg Ural region, as well as significantly improve the accuracy of forecasting models to determine the direction and rate of change of the fundamental properties of soils as a structural and humus condition of chernozems. In order to improve the quality of arable soil areas, it is recommended to carry out the development of soil-mapping groups of Orenburg Preduralja agrophysical, agrochemical and agro-environmental indicators.Key words: soil quality; agro, agro-chemical and agro-ecological properties of the soil.
Kallas E.V., Nikitich P.A. CONSERVATION INFORMATION ABOUT PEDOGENESIS IN HUMUS PROFILES OF SOILSThe soil integrally reflects and records the action over time of all factors of pedogenesis in its properties and performs a global function in the biosphereš— the information. One of the most reliable memory carriers is soil humus, which structure remains in the soil for a long time. The humus soil profile is a kind of "archive" that holds the encrypted information about the evolution of the environment at different stages of the soil formation. Humus profiles as carriers of "soil memory" are considered through the example of soils of the Tom-Yaya watershed. Humus profiles of grey forest soils developed in the taiga–forest-steppe ecotone, reflect the complex contrasting evolution due to the displacement of landscape boundaries in the Holocene and leading to different stages of pedogenesisš— change the steppe (meadow ) of the type of soil on the forest. The steppe (meadow) soil type replacing the timber soil type is reflected in the profile as a second humus horizon sharply different in the composition of humus from up- and under-lying areas of the humus profile. In particular this layer has a high accumulation of humic acids and calcium humates, a significant decrease in fulvic acids and extension of the relation Cha:Cfa toš2 or more units, which is typical of black earth soils and meadow-chernozem type of soil formation. On chernozem (meadow-chernozem) soil types, grey forest soils were formed in the Holocene Optimum, as evidenced by radiocarbon age of humic acids (3š750 years). It is shown that humus profiles reflect the characteristics of the evolution of soil and store in their properties and structure the information about the change in environment during the period of formation of the soil body, and therefore can serve as a "tool" for the reconstruction and used for modelling the behaviour of soils in the future.Key words: evolution of soils, humus profile, stage, phase.
Kulizhskiy C.P., Rodikova A.V. THE SOILS OF SUBORDINATE POSITIONS OF ZAURALYE STEPPE ISOLATES (FOR EXAMPLE SHIRA STEPPE)Isolated steppes of Central Siberia is a very specific ecosystems. Territorially they are located in the nuclei of the intermountain basins. In this connection, the soils formed under the additional receipts of substances from the slopes of the mountains surrounding them, may differ in their basic properties from the analogous models of soils of European Russia. The objects of study in this paper served as a soil heteronomous positions, developed in conjunction with zonal automorphic. The composition of the soil of the study area is very diverse. Heterogeneity of components and their genesis ensures the availability of most difficult of the elements release mechanisms by weathering of rocks, as well as moving as a result of migration processes, accompanied by subsequent transformation and (or) their accumulation in the soil profile. The article briefly reviewed the conditions of soil formation Shira Steppe. The semiquantitative emission spectral analysis fulfiled by an accredited laboratory Geoecocentre State Geological Enterprise "Berezovgeologiya" (Novosibirsk) and part of the gross elemental composition of soils was determined on this basis. Geochemical conjugation heteronomous and autonomous soils with using the ratio of the same name is evaluated. The data statistical processing of medium and modal content of trace elements in soils various types of landscapes are submitted. Possible options for lateral migration of elements with Kr>1 and peculiarities their behavior in the studied objects, operating in arid conditions are viewed.Key words: steppe soils, soils of subordinate positions, Khakasia, Shira Steppe.
Nekrasova O.A., Uchaev A.P. PALEOECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN SUBBOREAL SUBATLANTIC PERIODS AND FOREST-STEPPE ZONE SOUTH URALThe peculiarities of composition and properties of paleosols exposed in Baturino quarry and archaeological site Stepnoe-7 in the Southern Urals are studied. Diagnostics of paleoecological conditions in the Subboreal and the Subatlantic periods within the modern forest-steppe of the Southern Urals was carried.Key words: paleosols, humus, humic substances, subboreal, sub-Atlantic period, the Southern Urals, paleoenvironment.
Rusanov A.M., Eliseeva M.V. THE EFFECT OF ASYMMETRIES ON WATERSHED AREAS VEGETATION COVER OF STEPPE OF THE URALSSoils are a major component of the natural environment, and their properties reflect the complex interactions of the biosphere with the lithosphere. Soil processes affect vegetation and fauna, form a plant Association, the active form of the upper shell of the globe. For the Orenburg region one of the leading factors of soil formation which is a relief. Since river valleys of the Steppe near the Urals and their tributaries are characterized by a distinct asymmetry that is manifested in neravnomernosti interfluvial uplands, this in turn affects landscape complexes, which are formed on the slopes of different expositions. The paper presents the results of a morphological study of soil condition and vegetation cover of the Steppe near the Urals. The study was carried out inš2015 on the watershed plateau, Northern slopes and southern exposure. Thus, it should be noted that in the vegetation groups of the North slope is dominated by feather-grass vegetation, and on slopes South of fescue. The study of projective cover on the slopes showed that the slopes of Northern exposure have higher projective cover than the southern slopes, and is 75–80š%, 60–65š% respectively. This is also reflected in the ratio of underground to above-ground biomass on the Northern slope of the ratio of underground to above-ground biomass is higher than in the South.Key words: the asymmetry of the landscape, vegetation, projective cover, usual black.
Sokolova O.Y., Naumenko ï.á., Bibarceva å.V., åvstifeeva T.A. THE TOTAL CONTENT OF LEAD AND ITS MOBILE FORMS IN GROUND REGIONS ORENBURG REGIONOne of the important problems of modern ecology is the accumulation of heavy metals (HM) in ground in the plant communities of which is reflected in all components of the biosphere. Analyzed the accumulation of heavy metalsš— lead in different plant ground steppe zone Orenburg region. Soil science has significant dates about the patterns of behavior of trance elements in soils. The content and distribution of trace elements depends on many chemical, physical and physical-chemical properties of the soil, the main of whish are state grain size, content and quality of humus, the reaction medium. However to find quantitative relationships between different indicators of soil properties, and the content of trace elements is very difficult, because the soil is a complex heterogeneous system. Studying the influence of the properties of soils and rocks on the content of trace elements in the topsoil have been devoted to domestic and foreign scientists. Many studies have shown that the accumulation of trace elements in soils primary rove belongs to the soil-forming rocks. The material resulting from the destruction and weathering of parent rock, naturally reflect their composition in relation of micronutrients. Soil, geochemical usually, inherit the trains of their parent rocks, but on the content and distribution of trace elements in the soil-forming process is applied influence. Content as a gross and moving forms of trace elements in soils determined by their concentration in soil-forming rocks. Significant impact on the migration of trace elements in soil environment. Closely related relative activity of the cations and anions of a chemical reaction between the elements and thus the formation of there or other natural compounds characterized by different solubility and availability for plants. Heavy metals can accumulate in the lower soil horizons, regardless of their origin. The total content of mobile forms in less characteristics of sandy soils in much greater-for loamy. That is, there is a close relationship between the content of mobile forms of elements and the composition of soil texture.Key words: lead, heavy metals, ground, ecology, accumulation.
Ukenov B.S., Voropayev S.B. INFLUENCE OF THE STATE FOREST BELT "THE MOUNTAIN CHERRYš— THE CASPIAN SEA" ON SOILS OF ADJACENT TERRITORIESOne of the most important conditions of course of genetically caused pochvoobrazovatelny process is the climate, a landscape thermohydrology. Essential changes of atmospheric mesoclimate and climate of soils of the Orenburg region resulted from development of a lesomelioration at the beginning of the second half of the 20th eyelid. From the moment of landing of forest strips together with changes of the water and temperature modes of soils intensity and an orientation of other elementary soil processes, for example, quantity and quality of organic substance, physical, physical and chemical and chemical properties of the soil change. In this regard the purpose of researches was an assessment of long-term influence of the state forest belt "the mountain Cherryš— the Caspian Sea" on properties of chernozems ordinary the Orenburg Cis-Urals. Research problems included identification of extent of influence of a forest belt on water and physical and chemical properties of soils of the arable land located on various removal from the lesopokryty territory. During works it is established that in process of removal from a forest belt density of soils increases at simultaneous reduction of speed of water penetration. According to dry sifting on Savvinov's method the assessment of structural and modular structure of soils on coefficient of degree of structure was made. The conclusion is drawn that the structural and modular structure of the soil worsens in process of removal from lesopokryty space. Influence of the state forest belt was reflected and in the maintenance of a humus of soils of arable sites of adjacent territories. In the soil under a forest belt the greatest number of soil organic chemistry is observed. Key words: state forest belt, humus, water penetration speed, structure of soils, density of chernozems.
Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Ya.T., Salmanova E.F. OPTIMIZATION OF SOIL HUMUS CONDITION STEPPE AGROECOSYSTEMSThe development of virgin land and arable use leads to a decrease of humus content in the soil, which is accompanied by the gradual destruction of valuable units and leads to the development of erosion processes, degradation of vast areas of steppe ecosystems. Restoration of disturbed steppe ecosystem is to recover as the natural vegetation and soil steppes. Perennial grasses form a large amount of organic matter and promote the formation of humus, activate vital activity of the soil microflora, provide cycling of matter, the formation of soil aggregates, and others. Thanks to a strong root system of perennial grasses also provide erosion protection of the humus layer of the flushing and blowing. The research is devoted to studying the role of perennial grasses to stabilize the soil with humus Zauralye the Republic of Bashkortostan. It was revealed that under perennial grasses, especially under the natural grass communities there is an intensive restoration of humus, which is closely correlated with the parameters of a biomass plant. Increased humus content decreasing the size of the units is accompanied by an increase in their water stability (rš=š0,62). Introduction to the field crop rotations sown perennial grasses allows 2–3 years to increase the humus content in the soil at 0.3–0.5š%. Create Agrostep contributed to the restoration of natural vegetation and a positive balance of humus, the soil close to the virgin nature of the content and profile distribution. The most effective humification process occurs under steppes in the version with 4-kratnym disking on the background of fertilizers.Key words: humus, perennials, phytomass, agrostep.
AlekhinÁ G.P., Misetov I.A. INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON SOME POPULATION-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BIVALVE UNIO PICTORUMLarge bivalves, benthic invertebrates and higher algae are an important component of self-purification of water bodies, so that changes in the structure of the population, of course, affect the ability of the pond to cleanse itself. The object of the study were freshwater bivalves class Bivalvia, members of the family Unionidae selected from the points differ in the intensity of human impact. Processing of samples was performed by standard techniques, species of mollusks and microorganisms belonging determined using standard determinants. Earlier studies have allowed to define a wide range of individual and population parameters Unio pictorum, analyze the chemical composition of water in the test points and hold the selection and identification of microflora shellfish. In order to identify the most important relationships and dependencies of ecological status of water bodies and population-species characteristics of the bivalve Unio pictorum correlation analysis was performed. The result showed that the factors influencing each mollusc and factors affecting the whole population are not isolated from each other. These pressures at the reservoir primarily affects the individual characteristics mollusk (weight, length, age) and then through the breach microflora clam manifested in the reduction of biomass, population density, i.še. affects the population Unio pictorum in general, all this leads to reduce reservoir capacity for self-purification and water ecosystem destabilization of the middle reaches of the Ural River and its tributaries.Key words: shellfish, the population of microorganisms, water pollution.
Bokov D.A., Neverova P.S., Obidchenko M.P., Senchukova M.A., Shevluk N.N. EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OFTOXIGENIC PATHOLOGYEMBRYOGENESIS: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Using patented models of experimental gastric cancer on the subacute formaldehyde chronic intoxication background, it has been studied its effect on the laboratory rats' pregnancy and development of the embryo and fetus.The results reveal a disorder of the volume and direction of the histological and organ differentiation process that determines the subsequent animals' stillbirth. Particularly, histological examination has found that stillborn rats have fetal and even embryonic organs. Their lungs werein the saccular stage of development. Cuboidal epithelium of saccules was not changed on squamous one. Strom was presented by only cellular elements, its elastic fiber component wasn't expressed.Formation of adequate alveolar-vascular relations was delayed.These structural factors contribute to the inability to maintain an effective gas exchange.The kidneys of these animals were on the metanephrogenicblastema stage.The digestive tube was at the epithelial plug stage.In the skeleton there were no centers of ossification.The whole complex morphogenetic phenomena allows to prove unviability of newborn rats: a significant proportion of their stillbirths.At the same time, fertility, the possibility of pregnancy and its parameters are suppressed, that resulting in a decrease in weight and number of newborn rats. Long-term intake of subthreshold concentrations of formaldehyde, caused by the accumulation of the substance in hydro- and edafosfere, proves embriotoxic value of xenobiotic and poor prognosis of pregnancy and the end of gestation, considering carcinogenic effects and cancer of the mother's stomach.Key words: embryogenesis, formaldehyde, germ cells, gonads, fertility, developmental disorders.
Vasilyeva T.N., Nesterenko Yu.M., Polyakov D.G., Halin A.V. ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES AND PRODUCTIVITY PHYTOCENOSIS CENTRAL ORENBURZHYESouth Ural is one of the anthropogenic changes in Russia. The presence of water in the soil is one of the most important conditions for chemical, biological, physical and chemical processes. Geomorphological heterogeneity of the steppes is the determining factor of their biodiversity. The main reason is the redistribution of moisture in relief. Findings of the soil moisture of the Orenburg region are the result of field research conducted during 2014 and which included a route survey of soils in areas with sampling cloyam of 0–10šcm, 10–20šcm, 30–40šcm and 40–50šcm. edaphic factors are all parts of a typical ecological series. A prerequisite biogeotsenologicheskih research is to describe the floristic composition of the studied areas. To do this, they collected samples of herbaceous plant species and analyzed the frequency of species, the relative density of the population in all 23šareas of the Orenburg region. During the study identified about 250šspecies of plants belonging to 36šfamilies. We studied the productivity of plant communities. To find that the species belonging to different groups of plants is reflected in the distribution of phytomass between them. Throughout the growing season examined the number of litter meadow. During the growing season increases the mass of litter meadow, and the proportion of basic grains, the end of the vegetative mass of accumulated litter meadow max. All fields of the dominant benchmark sites are perennials (90.2š%). Structure and productivity of grasslands depends on environmental factors and on fenosostoyaniya plants. The basis of the eluvial grass area is a group of plants xerophilous environmental series, ie, xerophytes, xeromesophyte: FestßcavalesiÂca (fescue), Agropyroncristatum (crested wheatgrass), Stipacapillata (feather hair-worm), ArtemÎsiaabsÎnthium (wormwood). It should be noted that some types of ubiquitous, i.še. in at superaqual and ellyuvialnyh areas, so for example ArtemÎsiaabsÎnthium (wormwood), Phleumphleoides (steppe timothy), Brōmusinērmis (brome), Festucapratensis (meadow fescue).The study revealed the influence of relief on soil moisture elementary landscapes. Soils superaqual (floodplain) and accumulative-eluvial landscapes (lowland) moistened better than the eluvial (hills and slopes) or urbanozem. Accordingly, higher productivity and biodiversity superaqual (floodplain) than eluvial landscapes.Key words: flora, analysis, productivity, phytocoenosis, phytomass, humidity, soil, meadow.
Sandakova G.N., Eliseev V.I. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AND MINERAL NUTRITION ON THE YIELD OF SPRING WHEAT IN THE URALS REGION OF ORENBURGOrenburg region is one of the leading regions for the production of spring wheat. This culture is more demanding to the edaphic-climatic conditions and agrotechnical methods of cultivation and yields to the yields of spring soft wheat. Fluctuations in weather lead to high variability of yield across years. Due to this being the constant search for agronomic techniques of cultivation, providing improvement of its productivity. Great importance is attached to improving nutrition spring durum wheat by applying mineral fertilizers. Previous research was conducted on the basis of short-term experiments. Identifying the benefits of different types, doses and combinations of mineral nutrients on the yield of spring durum wheat in long-term stationary experiment taking into account the meteorological conditions of this area is relevant for today. The basis for the study was taken many years (1974–2013 years) experimental data on the yield of spring durum wheat, obtained in a stationary experiment with different types and doses of mineral fertilizers on soils of ordinary Chernozem of the Central zone of the region, and agro-meteorological data for the same period of time. Influence of weather factors on the efficiency of different mineral nutrients was assessed by changes in the level of productivity on the average in the favorable and dry years, and using the hydrothermal coefficient (SCC) to assess the drought areas. Evaluation of the relations of yield with weather factors and elements of mineral nutrition carried out using methods of mathematical modeling. The mathematical regression models of the effect of weather factors and elements of mineral nutrition on the yield of spring durum wheat identified by their quantitative values, determining the formation of high yield and efficiency of introduced fertilizers. To increase the stability of production of hard wheat and effectiveness of implementing agrotechnical measures, in particular of mineral nutrition, it is necessary to consider the peculiarities of the weather of the upcoming season, presents the regression model can be applied in practice to develop recommendations for the production of spring wheat in different weather conditions.Key words: durum wheat, yield, weather, fertilizers, regression model.
Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P., Prudnicova T.N., Kudrjashova S.J., Vishnjakova E.K. ESTIMATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE VEGETATIVE COVER INUNDATED THE RIVERS HUNDELEN EKOSISTEM HUNDELENš— HOYTUš— GOL (UBSNUR HOLLOW, MONGOLIA)In article results of routing inspection of a vegetative cover the flood plain river Hundelen of territory aimag Ulaangom, Mongolia, in Ubsunur hollow territory of submitted. As a result of the lead researches the degree of degradation of pastures in ÐÏÊÍÅ the rivers is determined. It is established, that operation of a pasture will not be coordinated to a mode of correct use.Key words: inundated ÜËÏÓÉÓÔÅÍÙ, a pasture, specific structure, vegetation, pasturable loading, aimag Ulaangom, Mongolia.
Myadelets M.A., Siromlya T.I., Syso A.I. THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF CHELIDONIUM MAJUSšL. URBAN ECOSYSTEMS (FOR EXAMPLE, NOVOSIBIRSK AND ISKITIM)Researched and evaluated for hygienic and biogeochemical criteria content of 30šmacro- and micronutrients in soils and plants Chelidonium majusšL. (aerial organs, roots) anthropogenically modified areas. Excess of chemical elements, normalized by GN and SanPiN, not detected. The calculated coefficients of biological accumulation, and root barrier. A comparison with literature data and elemental composition of pharmaceutical raw materials. The content of chemical elements (CE) in the studied soil samples corresponds to the background quantities in the soils of the South of Western Siberia. The excess of the tentative allowable concentrations of total content of CE of the MT 184.108.40.2061-09 and maximum permissible concentrations of their mobile forms of the MT 220.127.116.111-06 not found. In the soils of city Iskitim statistically significantly higher total contents of B, Ca, Si, P, Sr, Zn, but lowerš— Na; also detected elevated concentrations of mobile forms of Ca and Sr, which is the reason for the decrease in the mobility of the group of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, etc. In the aerial part Ch. majus statistically significant difference in the content of CE is absent. Probably, the content of CE in plants Chelidonium majusšL. has a greater impact relative constancy of the elemental composition of the species. Content of heavy metals in the samples of vegetable raw materials (see table) not exceed the maximum permissible values, normalized by SanPiN 18.104.22.1688-01. All the studied plant material complies with the standards of the State Pharmacopoeia by the total ash and ash insoluble in 10š% HCl. When compared with the percent abundance values in plants the land, in the samples there is a high concentration of Al, Cd, Co, Ga, K, Pb, Sr, and lowš— Cr, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn, Zr. However, the content of CE is the same as that in the samples of plants Ch. majus from the European part of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Samples of pharmaceutical raw materials Ch. majus differ in content Co, La, Cr, Ni, Mn and Zn. Our results confirmed Cu and Zn concentration in aboveground part of Ch. majus. High values of the coefficient of biological absorption observed for K, P, B, Mg, Ca, Sr and Cd. The ratio of the root barrier is less than unity for B, Ca, K, La, P, the maximum values are typical for Al, Cr, Fe, Na, Ti (highly variable).Key words: Chelidonium majus L., chemical elements, soil, environmental pollution, Novosibirsk region.
Naumenko ï.á., Sokolova ï.Y., Bibarceva E.V. CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC FEATURES TO BIND CADMIUM TREES CITY OF ORENBURGIn this article the problem of specific feature of bodies of wood plants (leaves and bark) of the city of Orenburg is considered to accumulate cadmium. The main way of intake of cadmium to trees of the city of Orenburg is not the root, but foliarny way, and the main source of cadmium for trees of the city of Orenburg is an atmospheric precipitation. The total coefficient of biogeochemical activity showed that kadmiysvyazyvayushchy ability is higher at wood plants from the area with low cadmic loading that testifies to inclusion by trees from areas with high loading cadmium of the physiological barrier mechanism. The content of cadmium in leaves and bark depends on a species of wood plants and level of anthropogenous pollution and exceeds maximum concentration limit at a birch warty (Betula pendulašL.) and poplar black (Populus nigrašL.) from the area with authentically high level of pollution by cadmium of the soil and a snow cover. The content of cadmium in leaves and bark of other studied species of wood plants meets standard. The vidospetsifichnost of ability of wood plants to cadmium accumulation which is reliable above at a birch warty (Betula pendulašL. is revealed.). A specific number of trees on ability of leaves to connect cadmium following: birch warty (Betula pendulašL.)> poplar black (Populus nigrašL.)> elm fine-leaved (Ulmus pumulašL.)> ash-tree ordinary (Fraxinus excelsioršL.). For gardening of an urban environment of Orenburg it is expedient to use a birch warty (Betula pendulašL.) as a look capable to high accumulation of cadmium in elevated bodies, and capable to absorption of cadmium not only from the soil, but also from atmospheric air.Key words: cadmium, heavy metals, trees, city.
Nemtseva N.V. SYMBIOTIC INTERACTIONS OF HYDROBIONTS AND THEIR USE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL STATE OF WATER RESERVOIRS IN THE SYSTEM OF MONITIRINGIn the article methodic approaches of microbiological assessment of ecological state of water reservoirs with different level of mineralization, suitable for system of biomonitoring were substantiated on the basis of symbiotic approach. New innovative methods of assessment of ecological state of aquatic ecosystems including both quantity and quality indicators of biota were suggested.Key words: microorganisms, symbiosis, biotic factors, abiotic factors, environmental condition, biomonitoring.
Semenova I.N., Kuzhina G.Sh., Seregina Y.Y., Yagafarova G.A., Zulkarnaev A.B., Musin Kh.G. USE OF PLANT TEST SYSTEMS TO ASSESS THE TOXICITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTSThis article is devoted to research the variability of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn) in sediments of r. Belaja on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan of Beloretsk district. The study of metals in their average content in the sediment form the following decreasing number of elements: Fe>Mn> Zn> Ni> Cu>Pb> Co> Cd. The concentration of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, Ni, Co in the sediments of the river exceeded the value of background: Óopperš— in the 6–15štimes, zincš— in the 13–20štimes, cadmiumš— in the 10–13štimes, nickelš— in the 1.5štimes, ironš— in the 9–11štimes, cobaltš— in the 155–185štimes, leadš— in the 1.6štimes. The concentration of manganese in all soils studied watercourse was within the geochemical background. Total index of contamination ranged from 201 to 243. The evaluation of the toxicity of the river sediments were determined by bioassay using the seeds of Lepidium sativumšL., Raphanus sativusšL., Triticum aestivumšL. Learned test systems according to the degree of sensitivity can be arranged in the following decreasing series: Lepidium sativumšL.š> Raphanus sativusšL.š> Triticum aestivumšL. The greatest sensitivity to contamination had such a test responses as seed germination and seedling root length. In this paper, the connection between the content of heavy metals in bottom sediments exceeding the geochemical background, and a manifestation of the properties of the indicator: increase in the concentration of copper and nickel inhibits seed germination, root length, and seedling dry weight of the plant model. The use of these plant test systems allowed to conclude that the studied soils of r.šBelaja are moderately toxic pollution degree, except for the alignment after the confluence r. Tirlyan characterized by narrow riverbed and, as a consequence, increase the speed of its flow with a predominance of the processes leaching of toxic elements from the sediments.Key words: river Belaya, sediments, heavy metals, toxicity,biotesting.
Seredina V.P., Shaykhutdinova A.N., Ovsyannikova S.V. FEATURES OF BEHAVIOR OF MOBILE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS IN THE SOILS OF THE KUZBASSIn the paper give a description the content and laws of spatial behavior of mobile forms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, cobalt, chromium) in the soils of the monitored grounds of Kuzbass. The coefficient of the radial differentiation of soils (R), which describes the distribution of mobile forms of heavy metals in the profile. It allows you to set the direction and influence of the type of soil formation, granulometric composition and soil properties on their behavior in a variety of soils investigated automorphic series. On the basis of the content of mobile forms of heavy metals and maximum allowable concentrations calculated the coefficient of the total pollution (Zc). By the dual analysis of the basic properties of the studied soils (content of physical clay, carbonate, organic matter, pH) assessed their buffering capacity. Comparative analysis of the contamination factor and the buffering capacity of the soils studied in the territory of Kuzbass in relation to heavy metals makes it possible to assess their ecological and geochemical condition. Negative factors of soil pollution and high levels of buffering capacity suggests a relatively favorable ecological situation in the territory of Kuzbass with respect to mobile forms of heavy metals.Results of research can be used in the development of soil-ecological monitoring of the territory of Kuzbass, to solve different problems of land use, protection and soils reclamation.Key words: Kuzbass, soil, mobile forms of heavy metal, pollution.
Turbina I.N., Mantrova M.V., Kravchenko I.V. TOWARDS THE QUESTION OF THE INTRODUCTION OF LEATHER BERGENIA IN CONDITIONS OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS AREAš— UGRAThe article is devoted to the analysis of some aspects of leather bergenia introduction in conditions of Surgut, namely, it considers the dynamics of photosynthetic pigments of chloroplast and heavy metals content in green leaves of bergenia at different stages of seasonal development. The content of green pigments in leaves varied during the vegetative period in the range from 0.58 to 0.69šmg/g with an accumulation maximum in summer months. Throughout the vegetative period gradual strengthening of the share of chlorophyll "a" was noticed, its level exceeded the level of chlorophyll "b" 1.5–3.0štimes. The content of yellow plastid pigments throughout the entire period of research was considerably inferior to the level of chlorophyll. So, the maximum value of the share of carotinoids was 0.39šmg/g during vegetation. The assimilating bodies of bergenia participate in accumulation of chlorophyll, carotinoids, and low concentration of chemical elements indicates their main accumulation in fabrics of the root system. Thus, the content of photosynthetic pigments in green leaves of bergenia throughout the entire period of supervision varied with an accumulation maximum during vegetation. Low concentrations of the analyzed heavy metals at different stages of seasonal development are in green leaves of bergenia at the level, characteristic for uncontaminated places of growth. Specific features and differentiation of bodies of a plant to accumulation of these elements are also noted.Key words: leather bergenia, photosynthetic pigments, heavy metals, development phase.
Yakovleva L.V., Utaliev A.A. AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF TOTAL NITROGEN CONTENT IN SOILš— VEGETATIVE COMPLEXES OF THE ASTRAKHAN REGIONIn the work features of receipt and accumulation of nutritious phosphorus in soil-vegetative complexes of meadows of medium and lower levels of delta of Volga are considered. Dependence of formation of vegetative communities on position in a relief and humidifying degree is established. The data about accumulation of phosphorus in soil-vegetative complexes of meadows of medium and lower levels is obtained, it is established that their concentration in many respects depends on specific structure of vegetative communities, their position in a relief and distinction of physical and chemical characteristics of a soil cover. For not embanked sites higher maintenance of phosphorus in elevated parts of plants is peculiar, and embanked territories are characterized by higher maintenance of phosphorus in tree waste and underground parts of plants.Key words: nitrogen, soil fertility, deltoid territory, hydromorphic soil, biogeocenose, soil.
Gorichev Ju.P., Davydychev A.N., Jusupov I.R. QUERCUS ROBUR L. IN THE SOUTH URAL RESERVEOn the basis of the results of research and fixed-route summarizes the distribution of Quercus robur in the South Ural Reserve. The participation of Quercus robur in the formation of various types of natural and secondary forests. A general assessment of the role of Quercus robur in shaping forest communities. The reserve Quercus robur common in the western part, in the area of broad-leaved coniferous forests. In the area of research areas met estesvenno deciduous forests dominated by Quercus robur. It is an old forest with large old trees Quercus robur, Aser platanoides, and Tilia cordata. In all societies marked by a low number of undergrowth Quercus robur, with a higher number of other broad-leaved species. These communities occupy local areas. Ecotopia characterized by the most favorable thermal regime and maximum rates of heat supply. Natural communities are also communities with domination Aser platanoides. Lots of communities larger area. In these communities Quercus robur takes 10-20% of the weight of the tree layer, occurs sporadically in the composition of the undergrowth. In the semi-deciduous communities with domination of Tilia cordata as a part of the tree layer and undergrowth sporadically present Quercus robur, often it is not. The reserve Quercus robur is also found in semi-deciduous conifer communities, as well as derivatives of secondary communities with domination and Betula pendula and Populus tremula.Key words: South Ural Reserve, English oak, deciduous forests, climax community.
Kalashnik N.A. CHROMOSOME NUCLEOLAR REGION POLYMORPHISM IN LARIX SUKACZEWII UNDER DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONSChromosome nucleolar region polymorphism studies were conducted in Larix sukaczewii growing at the territories of Chelyabinsk Region and Bashkortostan. 5štest areas were analyzed under different ecological conditions, among them one under the conditions of heavy industrial pollution (Zlatoust town), one test areas under the conditions of moderate industrial pollution (Miass town) and three under optimal and control conditions (the settlements of Veselovka, Karaidel, Zilair). The results of the research stated that the average number of secondary constrictions per karyotype in the analyzed test areas was within the limits of 3.42š±š0.25 ÄÏ 4.98š±š0.31, the total number varies fromš10 toš16, constant constriction number varies fromš1 toš3, non-constant constriction numberš— fromš8 toš13. The highest number of secondary constrictions was observed in test areas under heavy industrial pollution, the middle values were observed in test areas under the conditions of moderate pollutions, the lowest valuesš— under optimal and control conditions. The use of one-strain polynucleotide probe labeled with radioactive isotopes let us determine that the number of 18–25šrRNA gene sites in Larix sukaczewii is equal toš4. On the whole, in the analyzed test areas of Larix sukaczewii there is observed a clear tendency to increasing the number of chromosome nucleolar regions under the conditions of anthropogenic stress. Larix sukaczewii growing under industrial pollution conditions is likely to undergo a considerable pressure of stress factors which leads to activation of latent nucleolar loci, in other words compensatory mechanisms are included for complete genome functioning. In total the obtained results testify to the increase of functional activity of chromosome nucleolar regions in Larix sukaczewii under ecologically unfavorable conditions. Key words: chromosome nucleolar regions, Larix sukaczewii, different ecological conditions.
Kolodina M.V., Rysaev F.B. ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONThe article deals with problems of implementation of administrative regulation in the field of environmental protection. Designated the role of federal and regional target programs aimed at addressing environmental problems. Made suggestions on improving the efficiency of the use of financial funds to provide environmental protection. Because the number of natural disasters and technological accidents is growing, role of administrative regulation in this sphere increase. It should be recognized that the market self-regulation can not provide adequate measures against the dangerous changes in the ecology of the planet. State intervention in this area is inevitable. It should be formulated scientifically based strategy of state regulation, to select the main priorities of the state environmental protection activities. It should include environmental components in the program of international economic cooperation. The world economic crisis is particularly important factor to promote efficiency of environmental measures. State target programs are the financial mechanism of interaction executive authorities in the field of environmental protection. Programs provide systematic, purposeful and effective use of budget funds in this area. It needs to make use of the potential of law enforcement authorities to protect the environment. It should be provided by the interaction of environmental protection and law enforcement.Key words: Administrative and legal regulation of environmental protection, federal and regional programs.
Ryabinina Z.N., Golovin M.V., Ryabukhina M.V. MODERN CONDITION OF FLORA COMMON SYRT AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROTECTION OF CERTAIN SPECIES OF PLANTSThe article presents the results of the study of flora and Common Syrt sovremennyey complex environmental conservation of rare and endangered plants.Key words: flora, steppe, aptropogennaya load vegetation zonal vegetation, PA.
Saneeva T.A. PHENOLOGICAL SUPERVISION OF TYPES OF THE TETRAPLOID SORT PADUS MILL., GROWING IN THE TERRITORY OF THE ORENBURG REGIONTypes of the tetraploid sort Padus Mill Bird Padus. are valuable ornamental, lesomeliorativny, medicinal, vitamin, food and technical plants. Cerasus Mill hybrids and Padus use in gardening as clonal stocks and for improvement of assortment of cherry, a bird Òadus. Look Bird Òadus ordinary, or bird's P. avium Mill. differs in polymorphism on signs, on its basis active selection work is conducted, there are zoned grades. However so far an important source for replenishment of the selection P.šavium resources is selection of wild-growing forms. In the botanical and selection plan P.šavium and some other types in the Far East, by P.šavium in the south of Western Siberia are most in detail studied. In the territory of modern Orenburg Cisural area only P.šavium dated for the inundated woods and damp habitats grows in a wildgrowing state. But populations of this type of Padus remain in Orenburg Oblast almost not studied. In parks of Orenburg and other Areas of Cisural area the look introduced from North America the Bird Òadus virginsky Padus virginianaš(L.) Mill. This lookš— pozdnotsvetushchy, decorative, differs strong in an otpryskoobrazovaniye, in the conditions of Cisural area is poorly studied. Investigations wild array Padus avium and growing in gardens Padus virginiana in the territory of the Orenburg region by attributes. Identified oil logical phases. We studied the drought and heat resistance of bird padus leaves.Key words: fenonablyudeniya, drought resistance, heat resistance, high-quality signs, physiological indicators.
Sedova E.N. MODELING OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC INTERACTION BASED ON QUANTILE KUZNETS CURVE The article is devoted to the empirical testing of the hypothesis of environmental Kuznets curve at the intra-regional level (by Orenburg region municipalities). Official statistic data provided by the Local Agency of Federal State Statistics Service of the Orenburg region is the information base of research. The data include the information about the total amount of pollutant emissions from stationary sources (by municipalities of Orenburg region) and the information about the value of the gross regional product of the Orenburg region in the period 2000–2012 years. The problem of the lack of statistical data on the gross domestic product in the context of municipalities is solved by using estimates of gross municipal product by the method of the Global Urban Observatory, acting within the framework of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. The author was first invited to consider the environmental Kuznets curve model as a model of quantile regression to obtain a more complete understanding of this phenomenon and to account for a significant differentiation of the Orenburg region municipalities in terms of emissions. According to the assessment results it is concluded that in the reporting period hypothesis does not contradict sample data only for a small quantiles. We can expect economic growth reduce pollution only for municipalities with small volume of air pollution emissions. In areas with high volumes of emissions (top quintiles) hypothesis of environmental Kuznets curve is not confirmed. The results significantly change the perception of conjecture environmental Kuznets curve for the Orenburg region "on average".Key words: environmental Kuznets curve; ecological and economic modeling, pollution, quantile regression, panel data.
Barysheva E.S., Obedkova Y.A. DEVELOPMENT GENOMIC METHODS TO DETERMINE THE AUTHENTICITY OF FOODS OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN BASED SPECIFIC BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULESThe objective of this study was to develop a method for genomic confirmation of authenticity of food products and quality of raw materials used, based on the determination of specific biological molecules, in particular genomic DNA. Monitoring of this parameter is allowed, to make an indirect assessment of the quality of raw materials used for the manufacture of food products. The structures (DNA) are the natural biological objects, as well as the human body, which gives grounds to speak about the greater reliability of the genomic method to verify the authenticity of food products and identify the raw materials used. Thus, the genomic DNA contained in the test foods, served as an indicator substance that is initially present in the product and, therefore, no need to add it in the course of research that will reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the analysis results of the study. Objective: to put into practice the methodology for the analysis of genomic DNA damage degree of animal and vegetable origin, in order to confirm their authenticity. The object of the study were products of vegetable or animal origin, in combination: a product in the "native" state and its derivatives. The work performed in the laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, using techniques horizontal eletroforeza DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by visualization transilluminator manufactured by Vilber Lourmat (France), at a wavelength of 254šnm and processing the received data in the program ImageJ (developer UnitedStates Department of Healthand Human Services, versionš1.45, 2011). Articleš5 is set out on pages using the 2šfigures.Key words: authenticity, genomic DNA, foodstuffs of plant and animal health.
Mikhaylova E.A., Fomina M.V., Kirgizova S.B. MICROBIC ECOLOGY OF PALATINE TONZILSAT PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITISDespite some progress in treatment, chronic tonsillitis (CT) takes a leading place in the structure of ENT morbidity and is considered, according to the International classification of diseases and health-related (MCB), as the disease associated with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes. Other microorganismsš— Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilusinfluensae, β-haemolytic streptococci of groupšA, more rarely Streptococcus groupsšC andšG, are actively producing β-lactamases are consideredcopathogenš— microorganisms colonizing the upper respiratory tract, but do not play a predominant etiologic role in the development of inflammation. A controversial opinion in the scientific world regarding the etiology of the disease is associated with regional characteristics of microorganisms and methods of sampling and research methods. The level of microbial contamination of the elements lymphadenoid pharyngeal ring is often underestimated. The disease often takes a chronic, protracted course, there is the risk of life-threatening complications. In this regard, a particular problem of conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis is the identification of pathogenic microorganisms, localized in the tonsils with subsequent elimination of the pathogen. The paper presents the results of the study the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora in the mucosal surface of the tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis before and after treatment with drugs traditional treatment Protocol. The comparison of the results of the level of microbial contamination of habitat. Key words: Key words:chronic tonsillitis, microbic ecology of palatine tonsils.
Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S., Mullagulova E.R. HEAVY METALS IN HAIR OF RURAL POPULATION IN SOUTH-EASTERN BASHKORTOSTANThe study of heavy metals in the soils of the south-east of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Abzelilovsky, Burziansky, Zianchurinsky, Zilairsky District), as well as in the hair living in this region of the population. It was revealed that the total content of copper and zinc in all studied soils do not exceed the maximum permissible concentration, with the exception of soil village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District. Exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of copper detected mobile content in soils and Zianchurinsky and Zilairsky District, mobile zincš— in the soils of the village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District. High levels of iron found in the soil of the village Malinovka Zianchurinsky District, cadmiumš— in the soils of the village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District and village Abdryashevo Abzelilovsky area. In all the investigated soil samples found elevated levels of manganese, with the exception of soil Burzyansky area in which the contents of the mobile forms of the element does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration. The lead content in the soil does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration. Studies have microelement hair composition of the population of the Bashkir Trans-Urals showed that the content of a number of essential chemicals in the body does not meet the test persons optimal performance: revealed elevated levels of iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, lowš— copper, cobalt, chromium. This fact requires the development of scientific and practical measures to prevent imbalances of the body elements of the population and its correction.Key words: the rural population, heavy metals, analysis of hair.
Tumasheva A.G. FEATURES MINERAL METABOLISM AND BONE METABOLISM IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMENThe totality of the problems arising in postmenopausal women, the growing attention to the many allied health professionals. Hormonal changes the body due to the involution of the reproductive system is accompanied by changes in body composition and promotes the formation of post-menopausal syndrome. According to statistics about 10š% of the total female population today are women in the postmenopausal period. The most frequent complications in postmenopausal women include cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis (OP). The World Health Organization carried osteoporosis five major socially important human diseases, such as heart attack, stroke, cancer and diabetes. Health and social significance of OP acquired as a result of increasing the proportion of older people in the population and the high risk of fracture with little trauma, contributing to the growth of morbidity and mortality. So 22š% of the population of the Orenburg region left a woman older than 50šyears. Calcium metabolism and bone health entire skeleton are controlled by parathyroid hormone which affects the calcium mobilization from bone depot and therefore regulates the level in the blood. Also on the calcium content of bone tissue affected and calcitonin secreted by thyroid parafollicular cells and estrogens stimulate calcitonin secretion. among postmenopausal women the major contributor to the emergence of their osteoporosis is the lack of estrogen and calcitonin. Thus, the relevance of studying the problems of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal disorders of mineral metabolism and bone metabolism in the Orenburg region is not in doubt.Key words: osteoporosis, postmenopausal, estrogen deficiency, densitometry.
Fomina M.V., Kirgizova S.B., Aznabaeva L.M., Mikhailova E.A. NEW OPPORTUNITIES DRUGS USED IN TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS, FOR THE PREVENTION OF BACTERIA CARRIERSanation / preventive measures of carrier state from the bodyš— one of the problems of modern medicine. Search for fundamentally new approaches, which should include an environmentally sound and individualized methods needed to improve the rehabilitation / prevention of bacteria. The possibility of using biologically active substances (endogenous interferon inducers and antibiotics) used in therapy for the prevention of bacterial infections Staphylococcus aureus carriers on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract was investigated. Anticarnosine sign of staphylococci that in the differential diagnosis of transient resident of bacteria, was the most highly informative and the ability of bacteria to biofilm formation, is caused by infection and long-term persistence of the pathogen in the body used to work as a biological targets. It was found that the most significant reduction in anticarnosine feature of the original value recorded under the influence of substances of synthetic origin. The highest result of inhibiting drugs accounted for interferon inducers of class acridoneš— Neovir (71.2š±š10.0š% ↓) and Cicloferon (74.6š±š7.9% ↓). Chosen concentration and studied the action subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics ampicillin and ceftriaxone. It was revealed that in subbacteriostatic concentrations, they have the same in direction but at different severity of effect on the ability of bacteria to form a biofilm. Both drugs inhibit the ability of bacteria to form a biofilm, thus more effective was ceftriaxone (67.7š±š3.5% ↓) compared with ampicillin (55.1š±š3.9% ↓). The data on the nature of the impact of drugs on the persistent characteristics of staphylococci can be used for the selection of promising new drugs for preventive measures of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria carriers.Key words: bacteria carriage, Staphylococcus aureus, interferon inductors, antibiotics.
Vetshtein V.O., Stroganova E.A., Shimuk A.P. THIS ARTICLE IS AN ANALYTICAL REPORT ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL SYNTHESIS OF NOT DESCRIBED IN LITERATURE SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS BASED ON POLYCONDENSATION REACTION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH ANTIPYRINE.The article is divided into 3 sections: introduction, objects and methods of research, results and conclusions. Introduction includes relevance, theoretical and practical importance of work, common information about applying of surfactants in petrochemistry. Practical part contains schemes of the reactions and description of the expected products of synthesis. It also comprises features of new synthesis. The structure of the obtained compounds is proposed by the data of IR-spectroscopy.Key words: surfactants, naphthalene, toluene, antipyrine, condensation, IR-spectroscopy.
Dubrovskaya S.A., Raikhov R.V. THERMAL STRUCTURE AND ABNORMALITIES MAGNITOGORSK RESULTS INTERPRETATION MULTISPECTRAL IMAGESDifferences of temperature of a surface of the urbanized territories from surrounding natural landscapes it is connected with the anthropogenous transformation of space which is expressed in density of building, the small area of wood plantings, pollution of the atmosphere, activity of the industrial enterprises, transport and other sources of thermal pollution. All above-mentioned forms the "islands of heat" influencing comfort of accommodation of citizens. For receiving cartographical model of the urbanized territory and identification of thermal structure and steady anomalies of the city of Magnitogorsk, pictures in the thermal infrared range from Landsatš5, Landsatš7, Landsatš8 satellites, with the spatial resolution of 100šmeters are used. The analysis was carried out by means of software products ENVIš5.1, ArcGISš10.2, with application of algorithm of uncontrollable classification of raster images ISODATA. Thermal abnormal areas of the city of Magnitogorsk are subdivided into constants (steady, revealed in all pictures, having the identical area), constantly unstable (come to light in all pictures, having the different area), temporary steady (are defined in the pictures only of a warm season having the identical area) and temporary (unstable, shown only in some pictures), technogenic influence of industrial enterprise of Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, background thermal radiation. The areas of thermal anomalies connected with technogenic manifestations are separately allocated (pollution of water and soil objects, snow). The created cartographic materials on the basis of a decodifying of thermal data of space shooting, allow allocating the objects having the strongest impact on the general intensity of thermal radiation. Presence on the card of thermal anomalies testify about existence in an urban environment of the areas of ecological intensity influencing natural and technogenic structure of the city and comfortable accommodation of citizens.Key words: decoding, unsupervised classification (algorithm ISODATA), thermal infrared, clusters, tehnogeosistems.
Zhirnikova å.Yu., Kunavina E.A. IR-SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE DRUG "DICLOFENAC" DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERSThis article provides an IR-spectroscopic characterization of popular on the pharmaceutical market drug "Diclofenac" in pill form three different manufacturers — "Ozon", "Hemofarm", Pharmaceutical company "Obolenskoe". The comparative analysis of infrared spectra. In all the samples based on the data of the IR spectra identified the main active ingredient of the medicinal product sodium salt of 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-phenylacetic acid. In the experimental part presents the methodology of analysis of investigational product, lay down the conditions for recording infrared spectra. It is shown that the method of IR spectroscopy is applicable for the evaluation of authenticity of pharmaceutical drug "Diclofenac" and with a sufficient degree of accuracy can confirm the presence or absence of the medicinal product main active ingredient stated on the packaging.Key words: drug "Diclofenac", identification, IR spectroscopy, sodium salt of 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-phenylacetic acid.
Kanygina O.N., Anisina I.N. NATURAL CLAY FROM ORENBURZHYE AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR FONCTIONAL CERAMICSFor new ceramic materials with desired properties requires careful assessment of the state of natural resources and prospects of the development of new ceramic materials with the use of mineral resources, in particular, the Orenburg region. Installed promising natural montmorillonite and kaolinite-containing clay as a raw material for functional materials. It is shown that the optimization of the composition of the ceramic mass allows to develop ways of shaping and firing modes, determines the kinetics of drying, roasting, and the formation of structures with a wide range of characteristics. Technological properties of ceramic materials and 4šspecies, drawn from natural unenriched containing montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, identified by primary macroparameters sintering processes: volumetric shrinkage and weight loss during sintering, the density of the resulting ceramic. The maximum value of mass loss (12š%) are observed for the blend, which contained 60š% montmorillonite and containing 40% kaolin clay, fired at 950šœC (2h) with intermediate hours at 500šœC and 700šœC. Optimal shrinkage values (about 11–13š%) of the samples obtained during the firing of 950 and 1š100šœC are indicative of a satisfactory rate of sintering and observed for the blend of the same composition. Changing the montmorillonite clay content in the range 40–60š% has no effect on shrinkage at high temperature firing. Increasing the firing temperature generally leads to higher density, except for batch containing 80š% montmorillonite clay, glass phase which starts to boil and form large clusters pore occupying the volume of the sample toš0.5.Key words: ceramic, clay, charge composition, shrinkage, loss of weight and density.
Kushnareva O.P., Perekrestova E.N. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF COPPER AND LEAD ON THE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND THE CARBON CONTENT IN LEAVESThe article is devoted to the problem of the influence of different concentrations of copper and lead on chlorophyll formation and accumulation of carbon in the leaves of plants. The urgency of the topic, the choice of objects for research and applied techniques. Quantitative results obtained for barley and peas. Contains graphic material and links to bibliographical sources. Used theoretical concepts on the mechanisms of influence of heavy metals on plants for data analysis.Key words: heavy metals, photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carbon content.
Makarow A.G., Razdobreev D.A., Sagida M.O. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE SENSITIVITY OF IRON DITELLURIDE ELECTRODE TO ION H3O+Influence of temperature on ability of iron ditelluride electrode to feel change of concentration of ion H3O+ in solution on the example of acid-base electrometric titration with use of a glass electrode as a standard for measurement of Òî, is investigated. Dependences of potential of a ditelluride of iron from Òî are constructed and coefficients of an inclination of linear sites in the range of temperatures fromš20 toš60šœC are calculated. Influence of temperature (in the specified range) on reversibility of electrode process at consecutive change Òî from sour (2–2,5šÒî) to alkaline (10–11šÒî) areas and back is investigated. It is noted, that divergences between two branches of titration increase (towards increase of values Òî) fromš20 to 40šœC, and then to 60šœC considerably decrease. From the point of view of reversibility of electrode process, the best results were received atš20, 55 and 60šœC. Existence of an alkaline mistake of iron ditelluride electrode at value Òî more thanš10.5. Differential curves titration are constructed at various temperatures, and correlation of the received peaks with indicators of constants of ionization of the acids, which are a part of titrable mix (acetic, phosphoric, boric acids), is executed. The studied electrode on a basis of a ditelluride of iron, unlike traditionally used glass electrode, doesn't demand application of a thermal compensator for measurement Òî at various temperatures, and also possesses quite inert surface which isn't losing mirror gloss at contact with sour or alkaline solutions, water and air for a long time.Key words: iron ditelluride, electrometric titration, indicator electrodes.
Mishukova T.G., Osipov A.A., Salnikov I.A. DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN DRINKING WATERS OF ORENBURG OBLASTMicroelements normalizes metabolism, affect the vital organs and the General State of health. With minimal content in natural water, they activate critical biochemical processes in cells and tissues of the body. This article contains information on the contents of essential and toxic trace elements in drinking waters of Orenburg oblast. It has been established that the content of iron, copper, manganese, chromium and zinc does not exceed the maximum allowable concentration. But in all the analyzed samples of drinking water there is a hardness that may lead to the formation of stones in the gallbladder, kidneys, urinary bladder. Drinking water of the Orenburg region differ low zinc content, which can lead to increased accumulation of iron, copper and cadmium, frequent colds and reduce fertility. The inhabitants of these areas you must diversify your diet by eating food rich in fats, vitamins and microelements.Key words: Ecology, health, water, trace elements, Orenburgskaya oblast.
Ponomareva P.A. DETERMINATION OF THE LIMITING STAGE OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION OF IODINE FROM SALT-FREE SOLUTIONS BY ARRANGEMENT ALKYLPHOSPHONYL ETHER-ISOOCTANEThe article contains results on the determination of the limiting stage of the process of extraction of elemental iodine from salt-free model solutions composition alkylphosphonyl etherš— isooctane in the Lewis cell. As extractants were used compositions tributyl phosphate and Di-2-EGPC with isooctane.Key words: extraction, iodine, tributylphosphate, the rate-limiting step, the mode of extraction.
Salnikova E.V., Osipova E.A. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC IN THE ORENBURG REGIONIn recent decades in Russia there are significant changes in the structure of nutrition. The food and the lack of drinking water vital macro- and microelements, and in some cases an excess of toxic substances leads to disruption of vital processes, reduce the body's adaptive capabilities and the deterioration of public health. For example, essential trace elements zinc uptake can be inhibited by heavy metals, especially copper. Orenburg region belongs to the so-called natural and antropobiogeohimicheskim provinces and tehnogennoobuslovlennym imbalance of a number of trace elements. However, the environmental assessment of the distribution of zinc in the Orenburg region was not carried out. In this regard, current research is needed, and the content of zinc in foods produced in the Orenburg region (milk, meat, fish), in drinking water and soil. The study found that the soil, water, food in Adamova, Gaisky, Kvarkensky, Kuvandyksky, Novoorsky, Svetlinskoye Yasnensky District and contain high amounts of zinc. Residents of the central Orenburg region need food enriched with biologically active substances, including zinc. However, the use of such products should be implemented under the supervision of medical specialists. It is necessary to control the level of zinc status of the population of East Orenburg region, as there is already an imbalance of trace elements, due to the proximity of the metallurgical industry of Orenburg region and the metal processing industry the neighboring Chelyabinsk region, where the zinc plant.Key words: zinc, trace elements, Orenburg region, ecology.
Stroganova å.á., Ulyadarova V.E. SYNTHESIS AND RESEARCH OF STRUCTURE OF NEW FUNCTIONAL COMPOUND BASED ON 4,4-METILEN-BIS-(1,2-DIHIDRO-1,5-DIMETHYL-2-PHENIL-3-PIRAZOLONE) The paper proposed the development of new method of synthesis of functional derivative of 1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazolone (antipyrine) with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Compiled alleged scheme most likely reactions converting antipyrine involving glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Based on the schema and data of IR-spectroscopy suggested the most likely structure of the product synthesis. The article has a distinct structure and includes the following sections: introduction, objects and methods, results and conclusions. In the introduction the topicality, theoretical and practical importance of work. Denotes the use of derivatives of 1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazolone in analytical chemistry or in a sorption extraction separation and concentration of the d-metals as well as rare and trace elements. Also emphasized the complexing ability of derivatives of antipyrine, which allows us to consider these substances as ligands in the preparation of, in particular, stable molecular magnets. Experimental part spelled out in stages. Schemes of the reactions and the synthesis of a number of possible products. Preparation of the condensation reaction was carried out by aldehydes with 1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazolone. The starting reagents used ethylene glycol, antipyrine and benzaldehyde. The first synthesis step was carried out the oxidation of glyoxal to ethylene glycol and an aldehyde. At the second stage reacting the resulting product of benzaldehyde and oxidation with 1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazolone under acidic conditions. In the third phase synthesis was carried condensation product separation and purification of the substances. Personality synthesis product installed on the melting temperature range. By IR-spectroscopy to determine the nature of the functional groups. On the basis of the proposed schemes is most likely the reactions and data infrared spectrum proposed structure of the substance.Key words: antipyrine, diantipyrylmethane, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, homolog synthesis, condensation, structure, IR-spectroscopy.
Taranovskaya E.A., Sobgayda N.A., Alferov I.N., Morev P.V. SEWAGE TREATMENT USING CHITOSANThis paper studied the unique properties of chitosan and its use. The technology of obtaining chitosan from shellfish waste recycling field, ie the shell of walking limbs Kamchatka king crab. The characteristics of the chemical composition of the shell. Showing the steps of isolating chitin chemicallyš— a stage of demineralization and deproteinirovaniya. The technology of chitosan production is the reaction from the cleavage of the structural unit of chitin acetyl groups represented in the article. Chitosan is obtained by the presented technology used for wastewater treatment from cations of heavy metals and suspended solids. We prove that the wastewater treatment from suspended solids using chitosan is more effective in a shorter period of time. Includes photographs of wastewater containing suspended solids without and after treatment with a solution of chitosan. Also investigated were the model waste water containing heavy metal cations (Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+), which was added to purify the chitosan solution in 2% acetic acid in different ratios. It was found that the optimal ratio of chitosan solution to the model drains is 10šml per 1š000šml of solution, further increasing chitosan supplements are not advisable. Efficacy effluent from heavy metal ions by chitosan is fromš50 toš80š% and depends on the nature of the metal cation. The most effective wastewater treatment is achieved for cadmium cations. Key words: chitosan, clean up wastewater, heavy metal cations, suspended solids.
Tkacheva T.A., Salikova A.N. RECEIVING, ESTABLISHMENT OF STRUCTURE AND DETERMINATION OF THE ETILENDIAMINOV SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF THE S DIPIRIDOHINOKSALINOM COš(II) AND NIš(II) COMPLEXESComplex transition metal compounds are of interest as systems with directional charge transfer and energy. It is known that the d-elements such as palladium and platinum to form such compounds. For the first time metal chelate compounds of Coš(II) and Niš(II) with dipiridohinoksalinom of interest for further research. Improved previously known methods for the synthesis of ligands and metal complexes thereof. The physical parameters of ethylenediamine complexes of Coš(II) and Niš(II) with dipiridohinoksalinom. Low temperature melting intervals confirm purity of compounds obtained. Information on the solubility of the compounds needed for further research. IR spectroscopy is informative enough to establish the structure of the compounds obtained, finding connections and functional groups in their structure. Confirmed structure of the synthesized compounds. Changes in the set of functional groups by complexation. The optical properties of the substances. Comparison of the absorption spectra of the free ligands and metal complexes indicates that complexation leads to a shift of the maxima in the spectrum at longer wavelengths (bathochromic shift). Type is set to electronic transitions in accordance with the Koopmans theorem. It is shown that electronic transitions of the metal-ligand absent.Key words: metal chelates, systems with directional charge transfer and energy, types of electronic transitions, IR-spectrometry.
Stroganova å.á., Sherstobitova T.Y., Ovechkin í.V. STUDY OF CR-MIL-101 SORPTION CAPACITY RELTIVELY TO IONS OF COPPERSorption properties of the metalloorganic coordination polymer (MCP) on the basis of a tereftalat of Cr-MIL-101 chromeš(III) in relation to copperš(II) ions are studied. Influence Òî on a charge of the taken ion, and also equilibrium parameters of sorption (the full static exchange capacity (FSEC), distribution coefficient, selectivity coefficient) is defined. It is shown that MKP can be applied in processes of sorption concoction of copperš(II) from water solutions in wide area Òî, but the greatest capacity of a sorbent is observed at pHš=š8. This supervision can be explained with introduction in large cavities of a framework of metalloorganic polymer of mix of polynuclear ions (Cu2(OH)22+, Cu2(OH)3+, Cu3(OH)42+) and the oligomers of molecular oxidic clusters of copper. This assumption is confirmed by experimentally established total fractional charge of the taken particles, and also data of the electronic microscopic analysis of cupriferous samples of a sorbent. Results of work allow to consider metalcomplex Cr-MIL-101 polymer as a sorbent carrier of large hydrolytic forms of copper.Key words: sorption, full of static exchange capacity, the ion charge, the coefficient of selectivity, titrimetric analysis.
Sciences about Earth
Beregovaya N.G., Gerasimenko V.V., Molchanov S.A., Morozov M.M. OUTLOOK RECYCLING SPENT TYPE ZEOLITE NAX ORENBURG GAS CHEMICAL COMPLEXNaH type zeolites used in industry for drying and deep fine purification of gases and liquids, for the separation of gaseous and liquid mixtures, separation of a mixture of hydrocarbons in a cryogenic air separation plant. Used zeolites Orenburg gas chemical complex is placed on authorized landfill gas production management and refers to the IV and Všclasses of hazard. Zeolites are unusable production waste. The paper presents experimental data on the reuse of waste zeolites. Laboratory studies were carried out on the basis of a branch of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in Orenburg. A variant of asphalt production with the introduction of the grain portion of these zeolites. On the basis of the experiments selected the optimal component composition of the experimental asphalt. A variant of the use of waste zeolites — putting them in the concrete mix as a placeholder. It was found optimal amount of spent zeolite added to the composition of the resulting samples. A technique for obtaining samples of concrete mixtures and their composition. Determine their strength properties, such as water saturation, swelling, tensile strength, and coefficient of frost-grade asphalt and concrete strength. Depending on the strength of the samples revealed the content of the waste in their composition zeolite the possibility of using zeolites in agriculture. The developed technology allows to relieve the landfill and reduce the environmental burden on the region. Implementation of the proposed technologies in production will be accompanied by extra profit.Key words: zeolite, asphalt, concrete.
Vorobyev A.E., Orcuhaeva Z.Sh., Alferova N.N. HYDROLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHANNEL DEFORMATIONS OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS (FOR TEREK RIVER EXAMPLE)This article deals with the problems of channel deformations in the lower reaches of the Terek river. The studies the authors reviewed the historical aspects of formation of strain bank of the Terek, which were the result of floods in the flood period. Also, the authors paid attention to change the channel and the bottom of the Terek river a result of increased sediment load. The processes and causes manifestations of vertical and horizontal deformation of the river bed. Identifies and describes the characteristics of sediment yield increase due to lower transport capacity of flow caused by abstraction of water in irrigation and water channels, which corresponds to the emergence of targeted accumulation in river delta watercourses, reduced cross-sectional area between the flood protection dikes, increase the likelihood of flooding. Considerable attention is paid to the average annual consumption of suspended sediment in the river section from the top of the delta to the station. Kargalinskaya. Particular attention is paid to the deformation of the longitudinal profile of the river bed below Kargaly waterworks. The article examines the processes of regressive erosion of the banks, which led to a decrease in cross-sectional area of the river, and led to an increase in the area of flooded land. The article also examined the characteristic vibrations of the Caspian Sea and the cause of the Delta in the lower reaches of the Terek river. As a research task has been defined by the authors attempt to assess the features of channel deformations of mountain rivers, and the conclusion on this issue.Key words: Terek river, coastal erosion, channel deformations, waterways.
Ledovskiy N.V., Khodyachikh I.N. ECOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SOUTHERN URALS UNEVEN DEPOSITS OF STEPPE ZONEOne of the most urgent problems in the Orenburg region as well as in other steppe regions of the country is the restoration and conservation of steppe communities and component species on disturbed lands. Over the last two decades in Russia about 26šmillion hectares of arable land are withdrawn from agricultural use and moved into the category of uneven deposits. But, currently, due to the increasing need to ensure economic and food security of the country, these lands are newly mastered. For the active monitoring of the succession processes in vegetation and soil deposits in order to use the land effectively in agriculture and for the protection of environment there is a great necessity in comprehensive information on all plant communities of the studied areas. In this regard, there arose a necessity of special study of the peculiarities of overgrowing of abandoned arable land, the assessment of plant species composition, stages of overgrowing and their duration, the possibility of restoring the fertility of the soil in the overgrown deposits and prospects for their use in the steppe zone of Southern Urals. The knowledge of the structure and dynamics of vegetation of different types of deposits is of great practical interest and allows you to make the environmentally correct decision about using them again, either to transfer into the group of arable lands or to keep as a reserve for the restoration of the steppe biome of Russia. Three groups of uneven deposits: the little-aged (from one to five years), middle-aged (ten to twelve), old-aged (fifteen years and older) were objects of study as well as intermediate stages of fallow land characterized by fragile species composition and coenotic groups. The results of the studies of fallow lands in the steppe zone of the southern Urals revealed the main ecological groups of plants in relation to moisture, they also gave an opportunity to make a phytocoenotic evaluation of uneven-aged deposits.Key words: deposit, xerophytes, mesophytae, phytocenotic groups, vegetation.
Nesterenko M.Y., Tsvyak A.V. GEODYNAMIC STUDIES HYDROCARBON DEPOSITS SOUTHERN URALSConsidered man-made effects on the earth's crust areas of oil and gas in the Southern Urals region, leading to a decrease in reservoir pressure and changes in the level of reservoir water. The correlation between the decrease in pressure in the water system with geodynamic and seismic activity subsoil. It was found that the water filling the tectonic faults in the geological environment, accelerate the transfer of power generated pressure gradient in the reservoirs beyond the producing fields. The analysis and comparison of the centers of seismic events with the geological and tectonic structure, natural and technogenic disturbed gidrogeodinamikoy. In the developed deposits of hydrocarbons decrease in pressure in the "hydrocarbonš— produced water" violates existing natural geodynamic equilibrium containing geological structures, which becomes the cause of their movements and seismic events In addition, the exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits, due to the decrease in reservoir pressure significantly pressure changes in the groundwater, the direction and velocity of movement as well as the permeability and other properties of capacitive and surrounding geological environment. In the developed deposits of hydrocarbons in the South Urals is fixed at an average of 20–30 years of seismic events with magnitude MLš=š1–2 or more, which is ten times more common than outside. At the same time, technological geodynamic processes in the upper crust in the areas of development of hydrocarbon deposits occur relatively quickly (compared to natural geodynamic processes), and tend to have long-term consequences. To control the negative developments on the ground action geodynamic processes can be applied geodetic observations on the reference points of profile lines of leveling, however, given the significant land area developed deposits of hydrocarbons, the use of this method of monitoring the development of geomechanical, geodynamic and, under certain conditions, permafrost processes is not always appropriate (high cost work, a significant duration of time, etc.). Seismological monitoring allows to register geodynamic processes in the rock mass with an estimate of their depth continuously. The methodology of construction of geodynamic polygons on the basis of seismic observations. According to the analysis made on a number of hydrocarbon deposits of the Southern Urals observations in accordance with the proposed method of geodynamic monitoring organization, it was established a manifold increase in seismic activity in the areas of subsoil hydrocarbon producing fields. The maximum activity of the geological environment was a space dedicated to the hydrodynamic funnels, concentrating in the areas of greatest fall reservoir pressure and tectonic faults.Key words: geodynamic polygon, hydrodynamic, seismology, South Ural, production of hydrocarbons, tectonic.
Pankratiev P.V., Cotugno A.Y., Sharapov A.F. COPPER MOLIBDENPORFIROVOE GREISEN AND RARE-METAL-ORENBURG MINERALIZATION OF SOUTH URAL The large variety of types of rare-metal mineralization, is currently in the Orenburg southern Ural is not identified the objects of industrial value needed to create the foundations recomendarnos bases in the region. Clarification of regional and local regularities of formation and distribution of deposits of molybdenum will allow for targeted exploration. In article on the basis of generalization and analysis of published and archive materials, the author considers the pattern of distribution molybdenum mineralization in structural-formational zones of the East Orenburg region, distinguished by peculiarities of communication with volcanic and Intrusive magmatism, causing their metallogenic specialization. On this basis, the existence of molybdenum are United in two families: copper-molybdeniferous and rare-metal-greisen. The ratio of Cu:Mo varieties are defined by their (formation). Copper-molibdenovogo family. The ratio of Cu:Mo magnetorheology actually allocated, molybdenum-magnetorheology, copper-molybdeniferous, molybdenum porphyry types of manifestations. They are all associated with the Magnitogorsk volcanogenic troughs of the imposed deflection and the deflections of the East Ural uplift. Enclosing the ore field is confined to volcano-tectonic centers for a long period of development. Thanks polychronic and multi-formational nature of magmatism, mineralization is multistage, polychronic, and in the structure of ore bodies is planned to telescoping. The existence of rare-metal-greisen family is confined to the bodies dwonloding, two-feldspar leucogranites of late Paleozoic (late Permian?) age. Placing productive intrusions is controlled by major regional faults. The main components of this ore type mineralization is molybdenum and tungsten. The research results highlighted prospective areas that have the most favorable conditions for prognozirovanija and evaluation. The analysis of zakonomernostei razmesheniya molybdenum mineralization orenburgskoy region shows that the Orenburg region is highly prospective for the discovery of deposits of rare metals.Key words: copper-molibdenporfirovoe, rare-metal-greisen, patterns, structural and formational zone, family, sub-zone, type of mineralization, specialization, manifestations of mineralization.
Ryabukha A.G. TO THE PROBLEM OF PERIGLACIAL RELIEF ON-SITE ORENBURG REGIONAccording to the latest paleogeographic evidence in the Orenburg region in the Upper Pleistocene was a part of an extensive periglacial giperzonu with continuous permafrost capacity of up to 200–400šm, the temperature of rocks fromš–3 to –5šœC and the domination of the cryo-xerotic conditions. To the greatest extent in the periglacial giperzone we have developed cryogenic, talus and aeolian processes and their correlative forms of relief. In the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, around 10šthousand. Years ago, the permafrost is very fast (for 1000–1500 years) degraded, leaving a crack-wedge polygons, tapered structure cryoturbation, thermokarst depressions, have fallen into a relict state. Analysis of satellite images (Google Earth), supported by the materials of geological, geomorphological and landscape shooting, showed widespread in the Orenburg region relict landforms formed in the Pleistocene periglacial conditions. These forms of relief are not always visible on the ground, but a good read on satellite images. Among them are the development of a wide continental dunes relic thermokarst lake complex microforms relief due to the influence of the geological substrate on permafrostš— block-poly, hilly, depressions, complex nival relief formsš— circuses, niches, trays, etc. The article analyzes the characteristics of periglacial relief formation in the Orenburg region. We consider the relic form of aeolian, cryogenic, nival and thermokarst relief.Key words: periglacial, aeolian processes, continental dunes, thermokarst, polygonal terrain, steppe depressions.
Sivokhip Z.T. ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL SPECIFICS OF SMALL RIVERS AS AN INDICATOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE STEPPE ZONEThis article provides a brief analysis of the ecological and hydrological specifics of the small rivers of the steppe zone within the basin of the Ural River. Characterized by structural and functional features of the local river runoff, primarily observed extreme non-uniformity of the river flow in seasonal and interannual aspects. It is noted that the small D-ki are an essential component of the steppe landscape, fulfilling an important ecological role and prirodoobrazuyuschuyu. First of all, the vital importance of small rivers of the steppe geosystems associated with the formation of complexes with a high natural landscape and biological diversity. The estimation of the main factors transforming small rivers catchment areas, taking into account the nature of the impactš— direct or indirect. Taking into account the specifics of hydrometeorological catchment areas of the steppe zone, the most common types of economic activity are the direct impact of water withdrawals for irrigation and accumulation of runoff (especially spring) ponds. Despite the small water surface area and small volume, ponds have a significant impact on the flow of small rivers, especially in areas of insufficient and unreliable moistening. In general, it notes that, on the basis of a high degree of transformation of the catchment areas, the study of ecological and hydrological specifics of small rivers are among the current research directions. Taking into account the above-mentioned spatial and structural and functional features of the natural systems of small rivers, it is necessary to pay attention to the difficulty of assessing the role of individual factors of transformation of catchment areas.Key words: ecological and hydrological specifics, local river runoff, trans-formational processes, flow control, plowing catchment area.
Tarasova T.F., Baitelova A.I., GuryanovÁ N.S., Baitelov V.I. DYNAMICS OF CHANGES CONSTITUTES ABIOTIC ECOSYSTEMS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CITY ORENBURG REGION (ONAN EXAMPLE OF ORSK)The article deals with changes in the level of air pollution in Orsk various impurities in the period from 2009 to 2013. The coefficients of single pollution index priority impurities and designed a comprehensive air pollution index. The dynamics of changes in the unit and integrated air pollution index.Key words: atmosphere, single index of air pollution, integrated air pollution index dynamics.
Gamm T.A., Gamm A.A. STUDY OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN SOIL RECLAMATION CONTAMINATED WITH SEWAGEIn connection with the formation of a large number of oil-contaminated waste in the oil and gas facilities it is urgent to develop faster and more cost-effective methods of cleaning soil from oil. Soils contaminated with varying concentrations of oil-Sladkovsko Zarechensky deposits washed sewage baths, laundries and consistent domestic waste waters, as well as adding a solution of sunflower husk. The lowest concentration of oil (1390–1450šmg/kg soil) prepared on the variants with the highest concentrations of oil in the soil.Key words: reclamation, contaminated soils, domestic waste water, waste water baths and laundries, liquor sunflower husks, chicken manure, bioindication.
Gamm T.A., Smirnova N.V., Gamm A.A. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY OIL ON THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER AFTER THE TERMINATION OF THE COMPANYOil and petroleum products are the most common contaminants of human origin in the environment. Some authors consider that at low levels of oil pollution, fromš0.06 to 1.22š%, the establishment of uniform permissible residual oil concentrations in soils is impossible, since it depends on many factors. SuslonovšA.V. for the first time found that oil pollution of soil 1–20-year-old leads to changes in floristic composition and reduce total aboveground plant biomass is 2.2štimes the total projective cover 1.7štimes. Also found that oil production affect the state of the small rivers of Bashkortostan and the Orenburg region. Key words: heavy oil products in the soil, water and physical properties of soil, crop Perennial ryegrass (grass), groundwater, soil contamination spotting.
Garitskaya M.Y., Chekmareva O.V. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONAL ZONES IN ORENBURGCity human environment includes both natural componentsš— air, water, vegetation, soil and fauna and artificial human material elements, which are surrounded by and in contact with which flows the livelihoods of people. In the course of human life changes more natural components of the environment of the city, giving rise to many environmental problems. The city is one of the kinds of social and spatial organization of the population, which emerges and develops on the basis of the concentration of industrial, scientific, cultural, administrative and other functions. In a compact footprint of industry, infrastructure and the population has significant social effect, giving people greater access to the self-realization, health, social services, ways of spending free time. But on the other hand, high population density and concentration of industrial facilities, along with a variety of factors arising from economic activity (noise, vibration, etc.) in a limited area, form the human environment, which by its subject-spatial, physical, chemical and biological parameters and other indicators are fundamentally different from the originally genetically adapted.Key words: urban environment, functional areas, pollution, environmental pressures, the concentration factor, ranking.
Gluhovskaya M.Y., Evstifeeva T.A. RATIONALE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TASK OF REORGANIZATION PROTECTIVE PLANTATIONS ORENBURGHigh levels of air pollution in urban areas necessitates the development of more detailed recommendations on the formation of the list of plants with high levels of stability and the main types of getter capacity for landscaping streets and everything SPZ of industrial enterprises in Orenburg, which allows better protection of the population. On the ability to getter gas resistance and investigated 50 kinds of trees and shrubs of Orenburg presented by both local and introduced species. To determine how gas resistance and the ability to apply the methodology getter pilot fumigation with sulfur dioxide. Analysis of the data on all types of stability allowed to isolate from the list of species studied unstable plants, as well as develop recommendations for optimum species composition of green space for the organization of sanitary-protection zones of enterprises and other types of shelterbelts. Key words: gas absorption, gas resistance, protective landscaping cities.
DebelÏ P.V., Kuksanov V.F., Nazin S.A. CURRENT STATUS OF RESERVOIRS SHALKAR-LAKE DISTRICT GETICONIMAGE (IBAS EN-217, REV-002) AND THEIR ROLE IN THE REPRODUCTION OF ANSERIFORMESThe reservoirs of the Orenburg TRANS-Urals and adjacent territories of Kazakhstan known as the place of mass nesting and migratory stopover mass hunting, as well as rare and endangered species of Anseriformes broad Median region of Northern Eurasia. Now they are considered as a kind of critical habitats and key points on the path of migratory flows and a whole range of other waterbirds. However, they are extremely unstable hydrological regime and, as a consequence, significant changes in avifauna. All this urgently demands a constant monitoring of their condition and population dynamics of species inhabiting them. The paper summarizes literary information, departmental and personal collected by standard methods over the last two decades, the materials on the change of state lands, dynamics of distribution and abundance in plant communities and important socio-economic species after the maximum level of water bodies and subsequent reduce the water content site. The research has allowed to develop a typological classification of water bodies, which together form a unique complex Supplement each other land, which all the necessary conditions for vital activity of 16šspecies of nesting geese. Conducted in different years and seasons of censuses provide an opportunity to roughly estimate the state of the local populations of swans, grey geese, dabbling and diving ducks, to determine trends in their abundance at each reservoir that will allow to develop a rational set of necessary biotechnological and environmental measures.Key words: typology of water bodies, flooding, succession, ecosystems, bird communities, anserine.
Egorova I.N., Neverova O.A. ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE POLLUTION MEDICINAL RAW MATERIALS ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L., UNDER CONDITIONS OF WASTE DUMP AT KEDROVSKY COAL MINE ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE POLLUTION IN FRUITThe article presents the estimation of radionuclide pollution of medicinal plant materials (herbs, flowers) Achillea millefolium L., growing on the waste dump of the Kedrovsky coal mine the Kemerovo region, and the estimation of complementary embryonic soils in matter of natural (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226) and artificial (Sr-90 and Cs-137) radionuclides. Analysis of the results showed no contamination of the embryonic soils dumps artificial radionuclides. The content of Sr-90 and Cs-137 is substantially below the regional average. The level of natural radionuclides is within the background levels of radioactive elements in the earth's crust. The analysis also revealed that the content of natural (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226) and artificial (Sr-90 and Cs-137) radionuclides in embryonic soils is higher than in medicinal plant material Achillea millefoliumšL.. the Main contribution to the radioactivity of raw materials gives K-40, it accounts for grassš— 81š%, for flowersš— 76š% of the total radioactivity. The proportion of artificial radionuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 in grass and flowers of Achillea millefoliumšL. is in the range of 1.02...0.458šBq/kg, not to exceed the allowable levels and do not present a hazard to the health of consumers according to SanPiN 22.214.171.1248-01. Analysis of rates of accumulation grass and flowers of Achillea millefoliumšL. radionuclides showed that they are more likely to accumulate anthropogenic radionuclide group Sr-90 and Cs-137. However, KN is less than one and are in the range of 0.56...0.41, which indicates the absence of data accumulation of radionuclides by plants. The obtained data will allow to assess the possibility of using medicinal plants growing on anthropogenically altered the Kemerovo region and get new resource sources and for harvesting of medicinal raw materials for the needs of the region.Key words: Achillea millefolium L., medicinal plant raw material, radionuclides, recultivated lands, waste rock dumps.
Efremov I.V., Gorshenina E.L., Rakhimova N.N., Hismatullin Sh.Sh. MIGRATION OF MOBILE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS OF ORENBURG REGIONOf particular importance is the profile migration of pollutants, which is most intense flows in spring, autumn and summer with the loss of a large amount of rainfall, when there are intense downdrafts soil moisture. The migration of heavy metals limit their deposition processes on geochemical barriers. The study of the profile of migration and accumulation of heavy metals showed that the metals have varying behavior of soils, there is a change in the profile of their contents. The article deals with the dynamics of the distribution of mobile forms of heavy metals in different soils of the Orenburg region, the results of determination of pH in these soils. A method for evaluating the intensity of migration of heavy metals in the profile of chernozem and dark chestnut soils built using regression equations and values of α, which is a constant and depends on the type of soil and the chemical element. It was revealed that the profile of the southern black earth is an increase in the concentration of heavy metals such as lead, nickel, chromium, copper, cadmium, cobalt, zinc and manganese. For chernozem incompletely rubbly decrease the concentration profile of elements such as lead, nickel, copper and cobalt. Dark brown soil: is an increase in the concentration of lead in the soil profile and the reduction of zinc in the profile. For a typical black soil on the profile decreases the concentration of zinc. For ordinary chernozem a decrease in the concentration of manganese in the soil profile.Key words: heavy metals, soil, biogeocoenoses, regression equation migration capacity.
Kazachkov G.V., Levykin S.V., Petrischev V.P., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL THRESHOLD OF ARABILITY FOR STEPPE AGRARIAN LANDSThe tools of steppe agrarian landscape optimizing based upon the converting ploughland biopotential productivity unit into the term of money with cash flow discounting is developed. The ecological and economical threshold of arability for steppe agrarian lands is found.Key words: steppe agrarian landscape optimizing, soil and ecological index, income approach, steppe flatland, biopotential productivity, crop farming, threshold value, "meat belt".
Kalmykova O.G., Mjachina K.V., Velmovskyi P.V. ON VEGETATION COVER IN THE ZONE OF INFLUENCE OF POINT OBJECTS OF OIL AND GAS (FOR EXAMPLE, ORENBURG REGION)This article provides information about the composition and structure of vegetation from operating, liquidated and explored oil and gas production facilities, located in various parts of the Orenburg region. Total surveyed 19špoint objects of oil and gas located in Orenburg, Perevolotskyi, Novosergievskyi, Akbulakskyi,Grachevskyidistricts of Orenburg region. It was noted the general character of vegetation, its structure, extent and causes of violations. Particular attention was paid to the protected species of the Red Book of Russia and the Orenburg region. It is found that the projected wells, and other oil and gas production facilities at the surveyed area often located on an already damaged before (as in the oil and gas production, and as a result of agricultural use) sites. Related to this is a small number of rare plant species found in the surrounding areas. It is shown that vegetation cover of the objects of study is represented by fields of crops with weedy plants, deposits in the initial stages and pastures with a strong degree of pastoral digression, sometimes damaged by the impact of the pyrogenic factor. It is noted that the composition of the vegetation at the sites of oil and gas is largely dependent on the zonal and subzonal provisions of the study area, as well as its environment (especially edaphic) features, but the general character of vegetation and forms of influence on it have similarities in all the studied areas.Key words: oilandgas, vegetationcover, groups of plants, plantcommunities.
Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A. THE NEW ASSESSMENT OF THE TSELINA VIRGIN LANDS CAMPAIGN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF STEPPE SCIENCEThe new interpretation of cradle, specific features, periodization and assessment evolution of the Tselina virgin lands campaign is given. The new and original approach considering Tselina as a tool of steppe renovation is proposed on the grounds of studies on secondary steppes and the constructive model of steppe. Key words: Space version of Tselina, constructive model of steppe, secondary steppe, neosteppe.
Lyubichankovsky A.V., Sviatokha N.Y., Filimonova I.Y. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE AS A SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL REGULATION OF DEVELOPMENT OF TOURIST-RECREATIONAL SPACE OF ORENBURG REGIONTo date, the use of historical and cultural heritage as a social and environmental regulator of the development of the territory is realized by humanity and is actively studied in the multidisciplinary aspect. Nevertheless, the problems of preservation and use of historical and cultural heritage on the one hand, and the tourist-recreational development of the territory on the other hand, are solved independently. The creation of effective tourist network programmed in a way that provide rational and complex use of the entire network allows to overcome this deficiency. Historical and geographical approach is considered by the authors as the most effective in the study of the transformation of the space of the cultural heritage. Analysis of the structural and spatial-temporal differentiation of all identified cultural heritage of the Orenburg region has allowed to the authors to identify four stages of development of cultural and geographical space of the cultural heritage of the region. Analysis of the diversification of the space of the cultural heritage of the Orenburg region within the Russian state shows the geographic pattern of the hybrid, mosaic-mesh territorial structure with elements of linear-nodal structure of objects of cultural heritage. In the Orenburg region there is a need of rational and complex use of space of the cultural heritage as a support mechanism for the development of tourist and recreation areas in the region.Key words: cultural heritage, tourist and recreational space, Orenburg region.
Pavleychik V.M. FEATURES OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK IN THE SOUTHERN URALS AND IN THE PRIURALIEBased on the concept of landscape-ecological framework proposed mapping and analytical foundation for sustainable environmental development and the formation of a promising system of protected areas Zavolzhsko-Uralskiy region. On the basis of data on the parameters of the elements of total areal landscape-ecological framework, a comparative analysis of the spatial structure, revealed differences of anthropogenic transformation of the natural environment in the Southern Urals and in the Priuralie. The information about the level protection of elements framework of the system federal and regional protected areas, suggests that the most important centers of conservation of landscape and biological diversity provided protection status for 20–25š% of Southern Urals and less than 10š% for the Priuralie. Poorly developed and low fragmentation of ecosystems of the mountain forest is a favorable condition for the formation of a network of protected areas. The proportion of protected "zones connectedness" is even less significant and is 7–8š% and 1%, respectively. For this category of framework necessary environmental compliance of use of natural resources combined with landscape and ecological optimization of the structure of land. Despite the active state environmental policy in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions, to ensure sustainable environmental development requires further development and improvement of related regional systems protected areas to ensure adequate protection of the elements of the landscape-ecological framework.Key words: landscape-ecological framework, protection of nature, the Southern Urals, Priuralie.
Rakhimova N.N., Efremov I.V., Gorshenina E.L. THE MIGRATION ABILITY OF THE RADIONUCLIDES CS-137 AND SR-90 IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOILSThe main real source of radioactive contamination of the soil-vegetation complex are the global radioactive fallout from the atmosphere long-lived radionuclides from nuclear tests, as well as air emissions of radionuclides associated with the work of the enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle. As a result of the fallout radionuclides deposited on ground surface, accumulate in the soil, are included in biogeochemical cycles of migration and become new components of the soil. The soil is an important inertial element, the speed of migration of radionuclides in the soil, depend largely on the pace of their distribution throughout the chain. As a result of movement in the soil and subsequent root uptake of the radionuclides enter plant parts representing the food or feed value. The study of radionuclide migration in soil profile is one of the important approaches to the study of anthropogenic influence on the vegetation. Radionuclide migration through the soil profile occurs due to the displacement of soil particles in sost which they belong, due to the movement of soil moisture containing soluble and colloidal form, as well as the processes of adsorption and desorption. This article is devoted to the study of migration ability of radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 in soil profile in different types of soils of the Orenburg region. Evaluation method of intensity of migration of radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the profile of Chernozem and dark chestnut soils using regression equations and values λ, which is constant and depends on soil type. Built the regression equations allow us to estimate the intensity of migration of radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 in soil profile. On the territory of the Orenburg region there are several potential sources of environmental pollution with radionuclides: the epicenter of a nuclear explosion Totsky military exercises, a trace of a radioactive cloud that spread after the explosion. The greatest intensity of migration of Cs-137 on a soil profile is observed at the soils easy on particle size distribution (the dark-chestnut soil), in the soil of chernozems (ordinary, typical, southern), for mineral soils (the chernozem the southern not full-developed shchebnevaty) smaller intensity is characteristic. Intensity of migration of Sr-90 in the soil of the chernozem of the southern not full-developed shchebnevaty is rather low, the greatest intensity of migration of Sr-90 on a soil profile is observed at soils of the chernozem ordinary and southern.Key words: radionuclides, cesium-137, strontium-90, profile migration, correlation analysis, steppe zone, soil types, regression equations.
Savchenkova E.E., Solopova V.A., Rahimova N.N. THE SLOWED-DOWN FLUORESCENCE AS THE METHOD OF RESEARCH OF CHANGE OF AGROCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF THE SOIL COVER AT HEAT TREATMENT (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE STEPPE ZONE OF ORENBURG OBLAST)On the basis of a pilot study the method of research of change of agrochemical indicators of a soil cover of the Steppe zone of Orenburg Oblast at its heat treatment is offered. Sampling of soils when carrying out experiments was carried out by an envelope method on different profiles of the horizons, tests of soils were exposed to heat treatment at temperatures fromš200 to 800šœC within 30šmin. and were analyzed on installation for registration of the slowed-down fluorescence. Experimental groups of soils were also exposed to the chemical analysis on the maintenance of the main agrochemical indicators. The made experiments showed that for all studied types of soils irrespective of the modes of temperature influence the exponential law of attenuation of fluorescence is carried out, but all types of soils are various on an indicator of intensity of a luminescence and coefficient of attenuation. The soil which is thermally processed in the range fromš400 to 600šœC is characterized by the raised maintenance of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, and it Òî increases with temperature increase. In work the algorithm of technology of restoration of fertility of the soil at introduction of the calcinated soil as fertilizer is presented, taking into account Òî and the maintenance of nutritious elements in it on the basis of which it is possible to carry out melioration and recultivation of the soils broken as a result of an industrial erosion.Key words: ecology, agrosystem, the slowed-down fluorescence, soil.
Sviatokha N.Y., Filimonova I.Y. DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL TOURISM IN PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS OF THE ORENBURG REGIONOver the last thirty years, eco-tourism received a wide circulation in many countries, particularly in Russia. National parks, nature reserves and other protected areas of different scales represent a promising market for ecotourism because of their natural and cultural specificity. However, despite the growing popularity of ecotourism in Russia, income from visits of protected areas in Russia is about 40štimes lower than in Kenya, 300štimes lower than in Australia and 1š000štimes lower than in the US. The study and analysis of the network of protected areas of Russia in order to identify opportunities for their use of eco-tourism today is an urgent task. More than 13,000šprotected areas of different levels were created in Russia, 367šof them are in the Orenburg region. The variety and uniqueness of the natural landscapes of the Orenburg region, the presence of a wide network of protected areas offer great opportunities for the development of ecological tourism. The authors propose to develop ecotourism in protected areas of various levels (federal, regional, local) and specialization (botanical, hydrological, geological and other profiles). Insufficient number of developed ecological routes in the region are noted in the article and also recommendations for further development of eco-tourism in these area are given. The authors summarize: the development on protected areas in the Orenburg region of eco-tourism will contribute to the formation of ecological culture and thinking, and will be an effective means of protecting nature.Key words: ecological tourism, Orenburg region, tourist and recreational sphere, protected areas.
Semenova V.E., Semenov E.A. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ETHNO-ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN NATURE AND SOCIETYOptimization of natural resources, protecting the natural environment from destructive human impact is one of the main directions of Geoecology, economic, and social ecology. An important component of research is the study of ethnic specificity of the interaction of nature and society that allows you to determine the best form of coexistence and functioning of various peoples in the surrounding geographic environment. The impact of the surrounding landscapeš— one of the most important, at the same time, not entirely studied determinants of thinking, lifestyle, culture, economic activities and way of life of human communities. The need to fit in with the surrounding landscape causes people to develop a set of specific habits, which together add up to a particular landscape pattern. It becomes "second nature" of man and the main feature of his ethnicity. The first meaningful scientific approaches on the issue of ethnic specificity of the interaction between nature and society in the 18thšcentury. Widely known works of the classical deterministic influence of natural environment in the life of Nations, Montesquieu and J.šHerder. Scientists of the late 19th and early 20thšcentury, Vidal de La Blanche and F.šRatzel, A.šI.šVoeikov and S.šM.šShirokogorov. In the second polovie of the 20thšcentury and now a significant contribution to the study of problems of ethnic ecology, ethnic relations between communities and natural habitats, was made by Russian scientists: V.šP.šAlekseev, Y.šV.šBromley, L.šN.šGumilev, V.šI.šKozlov domestic and foreign, and D.šSteward and E.šHuntington. Important conceptual and theoretical direction of the study of relations between ethnic communities of people, and the natural environment their habitat is the concept of economic-cultural types of M.šG.šLevin and N.šN.šCheboksarova, the theory of "anthropogenesis" V.šP.šAlekseev, the concept of atmogeochemical and interaction mechanisms in the system landscapeš— ethnos by L.šN.šGumilev and conceptual framework of ethnic ecology, developed by V.šI.šKozlov. Key words: ethnic community, ethnic ecology, system landscapeš— ethnicity, antropogeocenoz, etnogenez.
Semenov E.A. GEO-ECOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC THE INTERPRETATION OF TERMINOLOGICAL DEFINITIONS OF VIRGIN OF REGIONALISTICSIn the paradigm of the conceptual and terminological interpretations of the virgin of the science of the best designed and synthesized conceptual framework in the framework of soil science and environmental Sciences. Meanwhile, from the scientific viewpoint of Geoecology and steppe science data concepts and terminology design is not sufficiently developed and systematized, are not clearly formulated, scientifically-regulated and universalize itself the notion of a virgin soil. The development of virgin landsš— the process of interaction between nature and society within the geographical frame of the territory, as the result of which was formed of virgin space with specific features characteristic of land use and agro-ecological and socio-economic characteristics. In the context of Geoecology and nature management of virgin space is a set and the combination of specific forms of land use and management, agro-ecological and socio-economic processes, resulting from new land development occurring in a particular area and developing over time. Within the framework of administrative-territorial differentiation of virgin space, have become widespread notion of a virgin area which has continued to the present time. Meanwhile, there is a contradiction in the definition of criteria and indicators "of zelenochi" areas, based on the definition of the dominant characteristics of their modern identity. In postcalendar agricultural space in the region for 20 years there have been significant changes. In 6 of the 9 former virgin areas markedly reduced the sown area to the size of the early 50-ies. In economic types of agricultural landscapes in these areas are everywhere in the lands and pastures there is a spontaneous recovery quasiperiodic ecosystems. In this regard, on the basis of the criteria developed within the boundaries of the administrative-territorial districts are encouraged differentiation of virgin space allocation postalannex (socio-economic and agroecological criteria most similar to old) and quasicylinder, where a new political and economic conditions spontaneously transformed into deposits of 40-60% of arable wedge not addressed socio-economic and environmental problems. Key words: virgin, virgin space, virgin area of virgin space, criteria for the differentiation of virgin space.
Stepanov A.S., Stepanova I.A., Ivleva J.S., Manuev L.Yu. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS OF URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE OF RADIO AND FACTOR OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION In article questions of increase in sources of electromagnetic radiation of the technogenic nature, and also their dangerous influences on health of the person and a condition of natural ecosystems are considered, the main sources of electromagnetic radiations in habitat of the modern person are characterized. The choice of object of research as source of technogenic electromagnetic radiationš— object of radio television infrastructureš— the Orenburg regional radio television transmitting center locates, the description of the device by means of which measurements were performed is made, the measurement technique is given in compliance by methodical indications of determination of level of the electromagnetic field created by the radiating technical means of television and broadcasting the choice of the measured sizeš— intensity of electric field according to sanitary hygienic requirements to placement and operation of the transferring radio engineering objects is reasoned, data of limit admissible level of electromagnetic radiation of the normalized size for radio television object are provided. The processed results of intensity of electric field during research in the territory of the housing estate adjacent to object of research, on border of its sanitary protection zone and far from a source of technogenic electromagnetic radiation are shown. The sequence of map development in ArcGIS 10.3 geographic information system is described. Final maps by results of all measurements with ranging of ranges of intensity of electric field are shown, the maximum and minimum values of the studied size are explained, the zone of the maximum stable excess of maximum-permissible level throughout all measurements is revealed. Conclusions are drawn on dependence of intensity of electric field on removal on object of research. Influence of a source of technogenic electromagnetic radiation and object of city radio television infrastructureš— the Orenburg regional radio television transmitting centerš— on the adjacent inhabited territory is estimated.Key words: geographic information systems, electromagnetic radiation, electric field intensity.
Stepanova I.A., Stepanov S.A., Ivleva J.S., Manuel L.Yu. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN FACTOR NOISE POLLUTION ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURGIn article features of noise as physical factor of environmental pollution, namely, atmospheric air are considered. Its influence on mental and physical health and efficiency of the person is described. In article it is allocated as the main source of noise for researchš— a transport stream as makes more than a half of all noise pollution and is available to carrying out measurements. For measurements of noise level the choice of the territory of the central region of the city of Orenburgš— the most crowded part of the city with a set of places for a recreation and a dense transport network is reasonable. The purpose of work is drawing up the noise card and identification of zones with excess and observance of standards of maximum permissible noise level. For drawing up the noise card the audio-noise meter of the second class of accuracy by which 280šmeasurements on 23šcity streets were carried out was used: along transport roads, adjacent buildings, recreation areas, the inhabited yards. The measurement technique is given in compliance by methodical indications of determination of the noise level created by a transport stream the choice of the measured size is reasoned. Data of maximum-permissible noise level of the normalized size for the studied objects are provided. The noise card is created with use of geoiformatsionny ArcGISš10.3 system and made without a housing estate. All measured indicators are given in the card in average value during measurement of March, 2015. On a total conclusions are drawn on the general noise pollution of the central region, the reasons for the developed adverse situation in respect of noise pollution on streets with the maximum excess of admissible noise level are described. In work the lowered noise level on the weekend is also reasonable and shielding of noise along highways is considered by green plantings.Key words: noise, noise pollution, noise map, physical factor of pollution, residential development, geographic information systems.
Tarasova T.F., Baitelova A.I., GuryanovÁ N.S., Baitelov V.I. CONDITION OF ECOSYSTEMS IN A POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISESThe paper conducted an environmental assessment of the Joint Stock Company "Poultry Farm Orenburg" as a source of air pollution, natural water and soil. Identify indicators of chemical contamination of soils and sediments, pathogens studied the impact on the quality of surface water and soil, have been ranked on the territory of ecological trouble.Key words: Poultry Farm, indicator of chemical pollution of precipitation, microorganisms, coli titer, staphylococcus, salmonella.
Tsvyak A.V. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT UNAPPROVED INSERTS IN THE PIPELINE AND METHODS OF COMBATING THEMOne of the most pressing and difficult problems is the problem of manual product lines of detection of unapproved inserts and prevent theft of oil from pipelines. The consequences of frames are environmental pollution, economic losses and an increase in terms of delivery of hydrocarbons to consumers. In recent years, one of the main causes of accidents and large-scale environmental pollution leaking oil and petroleum products are unauthorized tapping and sabotage. For this reason, the safety of people is suffering, violated environmental conditions, reduced security of supply of hydrocarbons through pipelines. According to the frequency (rate) of accidents on the highway average intensity of the main pipelines for oil and gas accidents in the last 5šyears is for every 1,000škm routeš— 0.27šaccidents per year. The largest share of accidents (69š%) is due to external influences on the pipeline as a result of unauthorized taps, sabotage. At the present time to detect taps and leaks developed a large number of methods based on different physical laws and phenomena. However, existing methods of leak detection and unauthorized taps does not fully satisfy all the requirements imposed on them. Using existing methods of monitoring leaks difficult to detect unauthorized tapping ofš— their short duration and small volume of leakage does not provide the requirement of efficiency. Therefore, it proposed a system of detection of unapproved inserts in the product pipeline, based on the measurement and analysis of the impact arising from the metal tube wave disturbances using seismological equipment. Services provided by the definition of the fundamental possibility of detecting external influence on the pipeline using seismological equipment showed that the gathers are the following types of signal: background noise disturbance from passing oil transport strike effects on the pipeline, drilling.Key words: unauthorized tapping, oil spills, gather.
Chekmareva O.V., Garitskaya M.Y., Pavlova T.V. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL PROFILES OF SOIL QUALITY IN THE ZONE INFLUECE AKTOBE FERROALLOY PLANTThe modern enterprise is a complex metallurgical industrial complex, including a variety of shops, and sometimes individual plants, which greatly degrade the environment. All the known processes, metal production and subsequent redistribution accompanied by the formation of large amounts of waste in the form of harmful gases and dust, slag, sludge, sewage water, containing various chemical components of the scrap, slag, battlefield refractory debris and other emissions that pollute the atmosphere, water, and earth surface. The main activity ofthe Aktobeferroalloys plant(AFP)š— production offerro-alloysof different grades. It producesferrochrome,ferroselikohrom, chromium metal, as well asadditional products: lime,carbon dioxide, sodium silicate, calcium carbide,refractory products, rubble, ferropyl, ilmenite concentrate, rutile-zirconproduct.Are minedilmeniteis buildinga factoryto producezirconand rutile.Key words: soil contamination, metals, ecotoxicological index rankings, ecological condition.
Chibilyov A.A., Chibilyova V.P. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND PRINCIPALS TO FORM REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF SPECIAL PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORIES IN THE URAL Approaches developed to form a network of special protected natural areas in Ural (SPNA) and criteria to select valuable areas going to a united interregional ecological network are considered. Principal aspects for the further development of the network of SPNA in Ural as federal so regional significance are suggested. In the course of complex scientific expeditions we developed approaches for ecological zoning of Ural and an integral assessment of biological diversity for key types of ecosystems in Ural. A number of key landscapes and geological natural monuments which have been revealed in the course of the expeditions, allowsto arrange a representative network of preserves including natural heritage and natural diversity of the Ural natural country. Key words: special protected natural territories, biological and landscape diversity, nature monuments, landscapes, nature heritage.
Chibilyov A.A. (jr.), Semenov E.A., Grigorevsky D.V. REGIONAL FEATURES OF NATURAL RESOURCE USE PROTECTED AREAS IN THE ORENBURG REGIONToday, in the current socio-economic and environmental situation in the Orenburg region as the main directions of use of the natural resources of protected areas, conservation landscapes and biodiversity was chosen to create science-based network of Specially Protected Natural Areas. Identification of natural areas valuable in economic, scientific, educational and recreational initiated in respect of the area in the 60s. Of particular importance to the work on the identification of protected areas acquired during the transition period to a market economy. It is worth noting that today, in the Orenburg region most of the natural resources, involving intensive recreational development, accounts for protected areas. This situation is caused by their inherent special mode of management, to avoid the negative human interventions, agricultural and industrial development, promoting conservation of landscape aesthetics and recreational attractiveness of the area. With the existing imbalances accommodation facilities of recreation and tourism in the Orenburg region, it is important to emphasize that the current level of development of recreation in most areas of the Orenburg region is quite low compared to the potential. The article describes the characteristics of protected areas, assesses their recreational resources, the analysis of the characteristics of the natural resources of the region in terms of their use of the recreational potential and perspectives of the organization of new forms of protected areas, formulate conclusions and recommendations on the rational use of natural resources.Key words: Orenburg region, natural resources, protected areas, recreation, recreational resources.
Chirkova V.S., Sobgayda N.A., Alferov I.N., Rzazade F.O. SEWAGE TREATMENT GALVANIZING PLANT (ON THE EXAMPLE LLC EPO "SIGNAL" ENGELS)This paper studied the major environmental problems of mechanical engineering in Russia, the main ones being the wastewater etching and electroplating facilities. The analysis of the wastewater treatment system galvanizing plant engineering plants LLC EPO "Signal" (Engels, Saratov region). The main source of pollution of the environment in this production is the electroplating, which according to the FZ-116 on Juneš21, 1997 attributed to the hazardous production facilities. After chromium plating process produces waste water for cleaning the reagent used in the enterprise process (neutralization), whose efficiency reaches 60š%. The analysis of wastewater Ltd. EPO "Signal" after neutralization indicated that the content of heavy metal cations and oil discharge ratios than in urban sewer systems and requires additional purification. The article proposes to upgrade the existing wastewater treatment scheme Ltd. EPO "Signal", by using a reverse osmosis membrane and ozonation. Enhanced cleaning allow reduction of pollution to 95–98š%. Calculate the concentration of heavy metal cations in the effluent LLC EPO "SIGNAL" after a three-stage purification significantly lower limit values, which will provide closed water and use purified water for washing parts, as well as to eliminate the penalties to the company.Key words: engineering, sewage treatment, cations of chromium electroplating wastewater neutralization.
Popova O.B. INTEGRAL TOURISM CAPACITY IN ORENBURG REGIONIn the administrative districts of the regions must be reevaluated known tourist resources and new research in connection with the development of domestic tourism. A comprehensive assessment of tourist-recreational potential of the territory necessary to optimize the spatial organization of the existing tourist and recreational system. Integral indicator of the tourist potential of the territory represents a combination of several components: tourism and infrastructure capacity, natural-recreational and cultural-historical. The basis for the study was the collection of statistical data on the cities and districts of the Orenburg region. Obtained integrated factor, which determines the differentiation of the level of development of tourist-recreational systems in the territory, showed uneven distribution of potential. The Orenburg region has a relatively low level of development of tourism industry, lack of cultural and historical resources, but high values of the availability of natural and recreational resources. For the formation of tourist-recreational systems at the regional level it is recommended the simultaneous creation and development of tourism and supporting infrastructure in local areas systems in the administrative districts with the highest indicators of integrated tourist and recreational potential. Key words: territorial tourist-recreational system, recreational and tourist potential of the area, methods of assessment of tourism potential of integrated tourist and recreational potential, Orenburg region.
|Sergey Aleksandrovich |