Ganaeva E.A., Maslovskaya S.V. MARKETING OF INTERACTION SUBJECTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONThis article deals with the problem of managing the quality of interaction between subjects of the educational process in the system of additional professional education on the basis of methodical aspects of marketing interaction. The idea that the current state of the educational organization in the system of additional vocational education is largely determined by the level of interaction between the subjects of the educational process is substantiated. The purpose of the article is to identify the factors influencing the marketing of interaction on the quality of educational services in the system of additional vocational education. The article reveals the main problems of the system of additional vocational education to identify the spheres of influence of marketing interaction on the quality of educational services in the system of additional professional education. Particular attention is paid to identifying ways to overcome the problems of modern additional vocational education. The article analyzes the temporary logical change of organizational models of additional vocational education. The author comes to the conclusion that competition in the sphere of additional professional education has created prerequisites for developing new views on the provision of educational services, developing a strategy for the image activity of the educational organization, and improving the quality of education. Based on the work of D. Cravens, the author defines the main characteristics of marketing based on the specifics of his key functional areas, identifies in it the procedural structure: work with marketing information (collection, analysis); decision making (marketing mix); execution of decisions (supervision and control over the results). The author identifies and describes the prerequisites that influence the formation of marketing interactions in the system of additional vocational education, taking into account effective technologies of cognitive marketing (consumption marketing).Key words: marketing of interaction between subjects of the educational process, system of additional vocational education, marketing information, quality of educational services.
Kamenskiy A.M., Lukina L.E. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF INITIAL CLASSES IN THE SYSTEM «COLLEGEš— UNIVERSITY»An analysis of federal state educational standards and the professional standard of the teacher shows that an important direction of the professional training of the primary school teacher is the development of his research competence. As a result of clarifying the essence of this concept, the components included in its structure (cognitive, operational and technological, etc.) are revealed, and components reflecting the specificity of the activity of the primary school teacher (translational-modeling and social-value) are identified. Practice shows that it is impossible to solve the tasks of developing the research competence of a primary school teacher at one of the levels of vocational education (secondary vocational or higher), so an optimal solution to the problem of preparing the future primary school teacher will be learning in the “collegeš— university” system.
The system “collegeš— university” is a complex multilevel innovative complex of interrelated educational programs implemented in the conditions of a single educational space and contributing to the creation of unique educational routes, as well as productive interaction within the children-adult communities (for example, an integrative inter-level scientific society). The analysis of the effectiveness of the development of the research competence of future primary school teachers in the “collegeš— university” system is carried out on the basis of diagnostic tools that allow to reveal quantitative and qualitative indicators of the dynamics of the development of components of research competence (case studies, observation, testing, questioning, conversation, content analysis of documentation , research products research activities, etc.). On the basis of a comparison of the findings of the stated and comparative-generalizing stages of the experiment, it can be asserted that the development of the research competence of the future primary school teacher in the “college-university” system will be effective if the development model includes the content-technological, subject-procedural, performance-appraisal, blocks. Approbation convinces that an important tool for developing the research competence of primary school teachers is a set of social and pedagogical technologies (design research, portfolio, coaching, student-tutor, technology of social partnership and inter-level interaction as the leading and providing interaction with “external” social partners and the formation of “internal” links between different levels of education within the same educational organization).Key words: research competence of the future primary school teacher, “collegeš— university” system, complex of social and pedagogical technologies, technology of social partnership and inter-level interaction.
Krapivina M.Yu., Eremina N.V. TEACHING COMMUNICATION IN THE HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICSIn this paper, we present a study of the main theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of teaching communication in different periods of human history. It is shown how pedagogical thought developed and changed depending on the needs of society and man. The main characteristics and properties of the concept of communication are singled out and its role in the series “languageš— speechš— communication” is defined. The dual function of communication, its possibilities in the formation of human communities, the organization of productive interaction is revealed. The author conducted a thorough analysis of the works of authors from different epochs, reflecting the main trends and methods of teaching different forms of communication. The study included such periods as ancient history, antiquity, the era of classicism, the Middle Ages, revival, enlightenment, as well as periods of new and modern history. A comparative analysis of the approaches of Western and Russian scientists is carried out. The significant influence of various forms of communication on the processes of transferring experience between generations is shown, the development of scientific and technical thought, education, interpersonal and production relations is shown. The importance of the problem of teaching communication in the changed conditions of modern society is substantiated and, based on a review of historical pedagogical approaches, a projection on a modern approach to learning communication is made. In particular, the needs of modern students of different countries in obtaining linguistic training and mastering various forms of communication have been studied. The article also shows the essential role of interpersonal communication in the current conditions of development of technical means of virtual, mediated communication.Key words: communication training, interaction, historical retrospective, communication channels, rhetoric, social influence, mentality, communication models, reflection of moral values, technological progress.
Ksenofontova A.N., Ledeneva A.V. THE VISIBILITY OF THE PROBLEM OF DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL CAREER OF A TEACHERThe problem of the development of a professional career refers to different areas of human activity, including pedagogical. A modern teacher needs to meet not only the requirements of society, but also the professional standard, as well as the qualification framework determined by the educational organization. In this connection, the article is devoted to an actual topic that reveals the problematic field of development of the professional career of the teacher, its characteristics, features and content. The article confirms the timeliness and severity of the study of the career growth of the teacher, provides normative and analytical data indicating the need to develop the professional career of the teacher in accordance with the stages and types of the phenomenon being studied. On the basis of interdisciplinary analysis, the definition of the professional career of a teacher is defined, based on the category of “relationship” to the profession and pedagogical activity in general. The stages of the career, the basic human needs, the classification of the main types, types and models of the career, the content of which was included in the substantiation of the essence of the professional career of the teacher, are shown. The main content of the article is based on the characteristic of technological support for the development of the professional career of the teacher. Disclosing the ways of career growth, it is justified that the most successful among them is the method of “managerial duels” and methods based on the use of software and software applications. The conclusion of the article is the construction of a perspective for the development of the professional career of a teacher in continuous education (courses of advanced training, training in magistracy, professional retraining, in-house training, self-education). Integration of the formal, informal and informational education of the teacher predetermines the success of the development of his professional career along with the professional competencies necessary for effective professional activity.Key words: professional career, professional growth, teacher's professionalism, teacher's career, career development technology.
Litvak R.A. PROBLEMS OF MODERN SOCIALIZATION OF THE PERSONALITYThe article reveals the essence and structure of the term “personality”.The problems of socialization are highlighted in the activity and communicationprocess. The article presentsthe concept “socialization” by G.M.šAndreeva, A.V.šPetrovsky, B.G.šAnanyeva, I.S.šKona.The value of the life environment in the individual socialization is determined.The features of the periods of the social and mental development of the individual are stressed. The levels of social development are determined.The article reveals the essence of social and psychological adaptation. The vectors of successful adaptation are emphasized. The article notes that the study of social adaptation is possible at three structural levels:macroenvironments (societiy), microenvironments (social group) and intrapersonal adaptation (individual).Key words: personality, socialization, self-actualization, life environment, macroenvironment, microenvironment, intrapersonal adaptation, adaptation.
Markova T.O., Bolovtsov E.N., Mrikot A.K. ADAPTATION OF THE BUGS INFRAORDER GERROMORPHA IN THE SECTION OF THE ENTOMOLOGY COURSE OF THE HIGH SCHOOLIn the Primorsky Territory of the Far East of Russia, to date, 77šspecies of amphibious Heteroptera from 25šgenera belonging to 15šfamilies and 4šinfraorders have been identified. In the Primorye Territory, 22šspecies of the infraorder Gerromorphaš— Mesoveliidae (5), Hebridae (1), Hydrometridae (1), Veliidae (2), Gerridae (13šspecies) were identified.
The aim of the research was to get acquainted with the evolutionary history and peculiarities of adaptation features of bedbugs of the infraorder Gerromorpha on the example of the predecessors of modern water-meter; consolidation of knowledge about the structure and adaptations of amphibious Heteroptera by the example of representatives of the infraorder Gerromorpha.
The work includes the development of a lecture and seminar session on the topic: “The study of the evolutionary history and adaptations of bedbugs of the infraorder Gerromorpha”; “Study of the Heteroptera infraorder Gerromorpha” with the use of active learning methods. The presented material can be included in the course of disciplines “Zoology of invertebrates” and “Entomology” in higher education, and also used by biology teachers as a regional component of the educational program.Key words: amphibious Heteroptera, adaptation, infraorder Gerromorpha, Gerridae.
Matvievskaya E.G., Shavshaeva L.Yu. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS ON THE PROBLEM OF FORMING THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF SENIOR PRESCHOOLERSModern socio-cultural conditions, the requirements of normative documents actualize the need for continuous professional development of teachers of preschool education. The implementation of federal state educational standards for preschool education presupposes the solution of one of the most significant problems of social and communicative development: the formation of the emotional intelligence of preschool children. Inadequate readiness of teachers to form emotional intelligence of children of senior preschool age determines the need for the realization of psychological and pedagogical support for the professional development of the teacher on the indicated problem. Based on the analysis of the research, the content of the investigated concept is presented. The need to implement a personalized model of professional development is indicated. The directions of psychological and pedagogical support of the professional development of teachers on the problem of forming the emotional intelligence of senior preschoolers are examined: research and formative. Based on the results of implementation of the research area, the difficulties of teachers of preschool education are revealed in the formation of emotional intelligence: the definition of the content of the concept of “emotional intelligence”, the identification of age-specific features of the phenomenon, designation and implementation of technologies for the formation of the phenomenon under investigation. The insufficient orientation of the listeners of the courses of raising the qualification for the formation of the emotional intelligence of children of the senior preschool age is noted. Special difficulties were revealed in the organization of interaction with the parents of older preschoolers. The realization of the forming direction is presented. The implementation of the formative direction took place in accordance with the highlighted difficulties of teachers of preschool education within the framework of the stages “I Know”, “I Wish”, “I Act”. In the work with teachers at the stage “I Know” methods of interactive lecture and discussions were used; receptions of emotional feedback, emotional associations; technology: interactive. In the work with teachers at the stage “I wish” methods were used: discussion, role play, analysis of emotional experience; technology: interactive. At the stage of “Acting”, interaction with parents of children of senior preschool age is planned and implemented. The need to study the effectiveness of the activity in providing psychological and pedagogical support for the professional development of teachers by studying the formation of the emotional intelligence of older preschool children and, in general, the professional competence of pedagogical workers in the framework of the problem under consideration.Key words: psychological and pedagogical support, professional development, teacher, advanced training, emotional intelligence, senior preschoolers.
Prosvirkina I.I., Drovnenko Y.D. MENTAL MAPS AS A METHOD OF FORMING A SECONDARY LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY IN TEACHING RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGEThe article deals with the problem of formation of secondary language personality with the help of new technologies, in particular, the technology of mental maps, which in recent years has become popular in various fields of teaching. The authors suggest to use this technology in teaching Russian as a foreign language, because they believe that if the culture of the learner and the culture of the language studied is not identical to each other, the “acceptance” of other people’s values will contribute to the enrichment of the dictionary concepts that can be recorded with mental maps.
The authors propose to start this work at the elementary level, forming the core of the semantic field, which is gradually expanding from stage to stage and, in fact, formed to the first certification level. The article provides a mental map, which shows the stepwise work on one of the lexical units.
In the end, the authors conclude that mental maps not only form a secondary linguistic personality, but also make it possible to track changes in cognitive and linguistic consciousness and make adjustments, if necessary. Thus, the use of the technology of mental maps is promising for the formation of secondary Russian language personality in the classroom in Russian as a foreign language.Key words: secondary linguistic personality, new technologies, mental map, Russian as a foreign language.
Sikorskaya G.A., Gamova N.A., Kulish N.V. ABOUT THE PREPARING OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR THE UNIFIED STATE EXAM IN MATHEMATICS ON THE BASIS OF THE PRINCIPLES OF STUDENT-ORIENTED EDUCATIONUniversities are interested in strong applicants, able to harmoniously integrate into the educational environment of the university. USE, as an independent examination of students’ knowledge, requires systematic, competent training, which can be achieved only in the process of systematic, thoughtful work. The inadequacy of the methodology for preparing for the USE is one of the problems facing the school teacher today.
The main role of the teacher in the preparation for the USE is to orient the student to different levels of complexity of the program material. A close relationship between the supply of educational material through personally oriented tasks with value orientations and personal relations to educational and cognitive activity was revealed. Personally oriented tasks are based on the characteristics: the nature of the requirement, the composition of the source data, the way of implementation. The developed basis for the transformation of traditional tasks into personalized ones allows us to find the most optimal methods for solving problems. The trajectories of modeling the personally developing situation through personally oriented tasks on the basis of the structural-component composition of problems with parameters form the ability to analyze, to search for creativity, and to evaluate the result.
At the end of the work done, on the preparation of high school students of the lyceum for the Unified State Exam on mathematics on the basis of personally oriented assignments, the mathematical literacy of the trainees increased sharply, and overall performance was improved. Acknowledgment of the success of the training is consistently high points of the Unified State Exam on mathematics of the lyceum graduates, and, subsequently, high rating indicators of their academic performance at the university.Key words: unified state examination in mathematics, personally oriented education, personally developing situation, personally oriented tasks, cognitive independence of the trainee, senior pupil, entrant.
Tavstukha O.G., Muratova A.A. ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ADDITIONAL EDUCATION TEACHER IN VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF STUDENTSVocational guidance of students is standardly fixed in quality of function of the additional education teacher by the Federal law “About Education in the Russian Federation” and the professional standard “Additional Education Teacher of Children and Adults”. Vocational guidance assumes implementation of a complex of actions for formation of the active personality with the created subject position which is independently defining the professional destiny realizing the professional requirements imposed to her, the opportunities. Modern vision of vocational guidance proceeds from need of development of this direction in connection with globalization and development of the world market of work. The maintenance of the studied phenomenon is most fully reflected in the term “vocational guidance” (the professional management) is expressed in the help in the choice of the profession, most suitable for the person (the professional direction, sphere of activity of the person) which as much as possible corresponds to his abilities. Such help has to include: definition by the pupil of own opportunities, correlation of the potential professional choice with expectations of people around; awareness of possible risks; understanding of available options of receiving profession; understanding of the required qualification, remunerations for work; design of the career purposes; determination of additional competences and qualifications; studying of ways of job search; development of necessary personal qualities and ways of their development; development of resistance to stress and positive perception of unpleasant situations.
Vocational guidance demands from the additional education teacher of special preparation within continuous formation, search of technologies and options of preparation for the professional choice. Vocational guidance of pupils assumes implementation of the comprehensive psychology and pedagogical support aimed at sensibleness and validity of choice of profession and causing performance of functions by him: diagnostic, tactical, practical, analytical. Professional orientation activity of the additional education teacher includes the following areas of work: diagnostic, educational, advisory, organizational. Owing to specifics of the professional activity the additional education teacher is capable to exert positive and productive impact on choice of profession by the pupil. Key words: vocational guidance, professional management, additional education teacher, student, choice of profession, additional general education program, psychology and pedagogical maintenance.
Boldyreva T.A., Thorzhevskaya L.V., Konopleva O.V. LATENT ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN THE SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY WELL-BEING OF á 7–9 YEARS CHILDThe events of school life, the child's success in education often become the reason or cause for breakdown in family relationships. Practical experience of psychological accompaniment of primary schoolchildren suggests the existence of a bi-directional connection between the features of the child's adaptation to school and well-being in the sphere of family relationships. The idea, formulated by O.V. Kraasnova, connected with the development of the personality as an evolution of the personality-society, striving for the integrity of the system, reveals the methodological validity of such a connection. However, modern psychology is developing, although not enough, only one side of the problem: the impact of the quality of family relationships on the socio-psychological functioning of the child in school. Studies on the second vector of relationships between the family and the school have not been discovered. The research undertaken to reveal the unobvious role of the teacher in the subjective evaluation of family well-being included two psychodiagnostic techniques: “Family drawing” and RenÊ Gilles’ test film, primary schoolchildren were the object of the study (second year pupils) whose parents asked for advice because of the growing problems in family relationships at the beginning of school. Statistical treatment, performed by means of regression analysis, made it possible to detect the non-obvious role of the teacher in the structure of intra-family relationships. Mutual relations with the teacher act as a significant factor that affects both the subjective representation of the child about his family well-being and the attitude to the mother. The empirical confirmation of the influence of the interaction of the relationship with the teacher and the family relationship draws the attention of the practical psychologist to the compulsory registration in the process of psychological accompaniment of the primary school child and his family of two vectors of influence of the family and school that will allow to optimize the process and ensure the stability of the positive changes achieved in the process of psychological work.Key words: primary schoolchildren, family well-being, ontogeny, adaptation to school, relationship with the teacher, RenÅ Gilles film-test, family drawing.
Gardanova Zh.R., Manina V.A. THE NOTION “OVERCOMING” IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGYThere are many foreign psychologists research focused on the study of notion “overcoming” that are the founders of the study of the psychological construct. One of the first scientists who turned to the study of this notion G. Allport, E. Fromm, Z. Freud, K. Levin, E. Erickson, A. Adler, etc. The notion “overcoming” is considered in the context of strong-willed behavior, motivation of actions. It also indicates that the process of overcoming the obstacles to a person different from the process of overcoming the animals, a person in the process of overcoming the determining factor is the volitional component. Composition action at human collision with an obstacleš— objective or subjective, not determined by the primary motive and character barrier, depending on the characteristics arisen subsequently formed barrier behavior strategy. Some psychological scientists point out that the notion “overcoming” is considered not only in the context of will, but researchers think that overcoming is a complex process in which temperament, individual properties of the nervous system, personality properties, decision-making process, motives, self-regulation skills and others are involved psychological constructs. The conclusion is that this concept is an interdisciplinary and there is a need to further explore the notion “overcoming” and the possibility of the formation of the ability to overcome a person. The notion “overcoming” was studied in most foreign psychological concepts in the scope of studying different psychological facts. Some foreign researchers consider the concept of “overcoming” as a component of volitional behavior, other researchers consider this concept as an independent psychological construct. Key words: overcoming, psychological barriers, stress.
Kolosova T.A., Golikov D.V. MOTIVATION FOR ADMISSION TO THE FAMILY OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIESThe motive of accepting a child with limited health opportunities into the family is one of the important factors of the mutual adaptation of the child and the replacement family. The study of the motivation of admission to the family of a child with limited health opportunities allows you to create an effective psychological and pedagogical support.
As a result of the study, it was possible to establish the dominant motives of mothers who took children with disabilities and with normal development into the family. For mothers of both groups, the leading motives are “the desire to pull the child out of the state system of education”, “the desire to help at least one child.” At the same time, one of the leading motives for mothers who adopt a child with LHO is the motive of “solving material problems at the expense of foster children”, while for other mothers this motive is defined as not the leading one.
Mothers who have adopted children with impaired development are more characterized by higher rates for all types of empathy, as well as the total rate of empathy, however, no significant differences were found. Mothers who adopt children with LHO are more dependent on public opinion, they are more susceptible to social impact. The desire to look worthy,” to be no worse than others “ leads to the fact that such women take on the education of a child with LHO. With age, women are less willing to take in the family and raise their children. There is evidence in favor of the fact that an increase in the number of children the level of empathy of the parents is reduced; less expressed, installation, promote empathy; the parents believe that they can count on help in old age.Key words: limited health opportunities, motivation, foster family, motivation for admission to the family
Sorokin V.M. SEMIOTICS OF THE IMAGE OF A BLIND PERSON IN THE SPACE OF FINE ART (M.V.šNESTEROV «IN RUSSIA: THE SOUL OF THE PEOPLE»)Psychology traditionally uses the method of analyzing the products of activity and their content side. Similar products are works of art, which are rarely the subject of psychological analysis other than the psychology of art. Unlike art criticism, the psychological analysis of works of art is aimed at reproducing the very process of creating a pictorial, sculptural or literary work. Art itself is capable of penetrating deeply into the phenomena of the psychic and in a number of cases makes it more effective than psychology itself. So the sphere of feelings, relationships and personality are studied in art more comprehensively than in the sciences of man. The appeal of psychology to the analysis of works of art is the interaction of two forms of cognitionš— emotional-figurative and categorical-conceptual. In this sense, it is logical to address the psychology of dysontogenesis to the analysis of the artistic representation of the attitude of society towards persons with developmental disabilities. The article shows that the art often refers to the image of a sick person. The motives for such treatment can be very different. But most often they are associated with the implementation of simple open symbolic images that are well understood by the viewer. Such as sadness, misfortune, loneliness, injustice, heartache, etc. Among all groups of disabled people, most often in the space of simple symbolism, the image of a blind person is used because of the most expressive and comprehensible plastics. The blind man is easily recognizable along with the armless or legless cripple. The images of a disabled person, devoid of self-aim and simple symbolism, are a rare phenomenon and are more likely to be found in works of art that are essentially a philosophical message. First of all, such works include works by M.V.šNesterov, in which the image of the patient is a symbol of the strength of the spirit.Key words: blind, blind way, social stereotypes, the potential of persons with developmental disabilities.
Chaikovskaya I.A., Chardimskaya O.Yu. POSSIBILITIES OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATIVE TOLERANCE IN ADOLESCENCEIn the development of human society, one of the possible ways of overcoming various forms of tension and intolerance is the development of communicative tolerance in the younger generation.
The problem of communicative tolerance is one of the most urgent and complex in modern science. It is no accident, in recent years, the study of various aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance has become an important subject of research.
One of the most important periods for the development of communicative tolerance is adolescence. It is during adolescence that identity and consciousness are formed, as well as the development of the communicative skills of the emerging personality. Active inclusion in adulthood, meaningful communication with peers determines the direction of development of a teenager, which will depend on how he treats himself and others around him.
In adolescence communicative tolerance develops in two opposite tendencies: expansion of its sphere on the one hand and growing individualization on the other. To develop communicative tolerance is possible through means of social and psychological training, in which adolescents can learn to communicate, tolerate, tolerate the opposite opinion, develop reflection.
The implementation of socio-psychological training aimed at developing the level of sociability, the ability to multiple interpretations and to a more flexible assessment of the manifestations of another person, the reduction of negativity in assessments, the development of reflection, will promote the development of communicative tolerance in adolescence.
The main mechanisms for the development of communicative tolerance in adolescence are decentralizationš— a mechanism for overcoming the egocentrism of the individual, arising in the form of points of view, the position of the subject as a result of the collision, comparison and integration with positions different from one’s own, and reflection is a thought process aimed at self-knowledge, emotions and feelings, states, abilities, behavior.Key words: communicative tolerance, development, social and psychological training, tolerance, interaction.
Scherbinina O.A. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY, SOCIOMETRIC POSITION AND SELF-EVALUATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDRENBecoming a teenager follows different changes, connected with increasing the quantity of relationship systems, where a teenager is becoming to be a member. It’s also connected with changing from educational activity as leading into personal communication with their peers. It’s closely connected with active formation of personal identity (self-awareness), self-reflection. Decreasing interest to the studying, which we see among fifth graders, follows increasing demands to their study from the parents. The above-mentioned items demand from teenagers some skills: evaluate their own qualities properly, take and save the wanted status (position) in the group and some others. All these things establish the conditions for increasing level of personal anxiety among primary school children.
In psychology the anxiety is considered as an indicator of dysfunctional family upbringing, as a factor of violation in personal adaptation, the emergence of suicidal hazard, formation of social awkwardness and other disadvantages. All these things add value to the process of searching correlates of personal anxiety among the primary school children to establish goals for psychological influence (impact) on the process of prevention and correction the level of their personal anxiety.
Here we have shown that the same situations both attract and concern the fifth graders at the same time. These are situations connected with school, situations of interpersonal relations, self-evaluation, thinking about something magic and supernatural. We have found the largest discrepancy between the levels of claims and self-evaluation upon the most significant things for the respondents: “Mind” and “Beauty”.
It allows us to speak about their strong differentiated self-evaluation. Also we can speak about the most favorable distribution (sharing) of the respondents’ sociometric positions in studying as there are no isolated or rejected sociometric positions in this field. With the help of correlation analysis, we have found reliable (valid) direct relations between interpersonal and self-evaluated anxiety among teenagers, and between the general level of self-evaluation and teenagers’ self-evaluation of their own personalities approximately. We have found the connection of such a factor as self-confidence with the sociometric position in the field of entertainment. The results, which we had, show us the necessity of the systemic work with fifth graders that has the aim to form communicative skills in different relations and to form positive image of myself.Key words: primary school children, anxiety, level of claims, self-evaluation, sociometric positions.
Vershinin A.A., Petrov A.M., Zaynulgabidinov E.R., Karimullin L.K. OIL POLLUTION AND MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOILSContent of microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) in light-grey forest medium loamy soil, grey forest light loamy soil, dark-grey forest light loamy soil, sod-podzolic sandy loamy soil and sod-podzolic medium loamy soil under different levels of residual content of oil products was studied. The nature of change of microbe biomass carbon and share of microbial carbon in organic substance of soil (Cmic/Corg) dependent on soil type, granulometric composition and residual content of oil. Increase of non-polar hydrocarbons concentration led to decrease both microbial biomass carbon and Cmic/Corg. Among the soils studied microbiota of sod-podzolic sabulous soil appeared to be the most sensitive to oil pollution. Carbone content of dark-grey forest light loamy soil remained at high level and virtually unchanged even high doses of pollutant. The lack of inhibitory effect on the basal respiration of studied soils within the using range of pollutant concentrations indicates sufficiently intensive degradation of oil hydrocarbons. Against the background of absence of influence of pollutant concentration on the speed of basal respiration, increase in content of oil products led to a increase in the speed of substrate-induced respiration. This effect is most pronounced in the experimental varianrs of light sod-podzolic sandy loamy soil. The decrease in activity of substrate-induced respiration of dark-grey forest light loamy soil in 10š% is registered only in variants containing 4,94 and 6,45šg/kg of oil products. Practically in all variants of experiment the inhibitory effect of oil pollution on the growth of wheat roots was recorded. Sod-podzolic sandy loamy soil was most exposed to the negative influence of the pollutant. In other soils, phytoeffect is determinate by the residual oil content in soil. In the course of conducted researches somt interrelation between microbial potential (Cmic and Cmic/Corg ) and toxicity of oil polluted soils was found. The maximum toxicity for higher plants were identified in the sod-podzolic sandy loamy soil, with a minimum reserve of microbial carbon.Key words: oil, microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), organic carbon (Corg), basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, toxicity.
Savin E.Z., Berezina ô.V., Loginchev E.K. REPRODUCTION OF ROOTSTOCKS OF FRUIT CROPS AND GROWING OF SEEDLINGS IN THE NATIONAL PARK “BUZULUKSKY BOR”In the conditions of the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor” the possibility of growing rootstocks and seedlings of fruit crops was studied. A characteristic feature of sandy sod-podboryh soils of boron is their low fertility. They are characterized by weak podzolization, light loamy, carbonate. Sandy soils during the snowless period are freezing deep, while a sharp decrease in the temperature of the upper horizon to critical values is observed. In these conditions, in the queen cell of clonal stocks, the freezing of the head of the bush and a decrease in the yield of the layers are noted. In the nursery on poor soils, despite a high rooting of the rootstocks, a weak development is observed, which negatively affects the yield of seedlings and their quality. Despite the negative consequences, it is possible to grow high-quality planting material by applying organic fertilizers, increasing agricultural technology and selecting the most adapted forms.Key words: rootstock, privo, clone, motherwort, nursery.