Glukhikh M.A., Kalganov A.A. DYNAMICS OF SOIL FERTILITY IN THE TRANS-URALSFor many years of research, the content of humus, as the main indicator of fertility, in chernozem soils of the Trans-Urals varies depending on the conditions in a rather large range, and in the absence of erosion processes it remains in relative equilibrium. Periodically, other, directly opposite results appear in the press, but most authors start from the fact that the soil of all variants of the experiment has the same initial properties, which in nature does not exist. Therefore, it remains an open question about the dynamics of organic matter with sufficiently long-term agricultural use of soils. Long-term stationary experiments in grain-steamed crop rotation have been carried out to study the dynamics of the organic matter content in the soils of the Shadrinskaya Experimental Station. T.S. Maltsev, the northern forest-steppe of the Trans-Ural region, depending on different methods of soil cultivation and fertilization levels, selected layer by layer to a depth of 50šcm since 1969. The humus content remains at the same level for 20 years. This is also noted with very intensive tillage, and in the steam field — even twice. Some change in the humus content of the soil of only the upper horizons is noted. When dumping without fertilization, the humus content in the 0–20šcm layer remains at the same level. With soil-free tillage without fertilizers, there is a tendency for it to decrease when fertilizers are introduced and this phenomenon disappears. It was revealed that the humus content for different methods of soil treatment for almost thirty-year period, despite quite significant fluctuations in the years, remains at the same level. In the experiment using different doses of organic and mineral fertilizers, the revealed difference in the content of humus in the soil between the variants is not due to fertilizer doses, but to variegated soil cover.
Kallas å.V. DIVERSITY OF HUMUS PROFILES OF SOILS OF ECOTONE, TAIGA-STEPPE SOUTH-EASTERN PART OF WESTERN SIBERIAKnowledge of the history of soil formation and building models describing or even predicting their evolution are among the main challenges of genetic soil science. Such knowledge and models may help improving the prediction of the behaviour of soils and landscapes in a changing natural and built environment. The soil integrally reflects and records the action over time of all factors of pedogenesis in its properties and performs a global function in the biosphere — the information. One of the most reliable memory carriers is soil humus, which structure remains in the soil for a long time. The humus soil profile is a kind of “archive” that holds the encrypted information about the evolution of the environment at different stages of the soil formation. The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of humic profiles and to show the diversity and complexity of their structure, reflecting the changing natural environment on the territory of the ecotone, taiga-steppe South-Eastern part of Western Siberia. Humus profiles as carriers of “soil memory” are considered on the example of soddy-podzolic soils and gray forest of soils under-taiga on the Tom-Yaya interfluve and chernozems of forest-steppe zone on Salair plain. Humus profiles reflect the contrasting evolution and fixed the phases and stages of soil formation in its structure, associated with changes in moisture and temperature. In humus profiles revealed several maxima the relationship of carbon of humic acids to carbon of fulvic acids, which also indicates a change in climatic conditions during the formation of soils. Thus, humus profiles save information about the features of the natural environment over a period of formation of the soil body in its characteristics, and therefore can serve as a “tool” for the reconstruction of the paleogeographic environment and can be used to construct models of the behaviour of soils in the future.Key words: soil ecotone of taiga-steppe, the humus profile, the phases and stages of soil formation.
Nekrasova O.A., Dergacheva M.I., Uchaev A.P. TO RECENT BASE FOR PALEOECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTIONS BASED ON HUMUS OF URAL PALEOSOLSWhen carrying out the reconstruction of the natural environment of the past by paleopedology methods the humus composition is used as one of the significant diagnostic features. Interpretation of materials is based on the recent basis — similar characteristics of modern soils of different formation conditions on both the territory of location of the paleosols and adjacent to them. Revealing the Holocene-Pleistocene evolution of the Ural natural environment requires the materials of exploring the specific features of the humus composition of different types of soils in its different regions including the Middle Urals for which data on humus are not generalized. On the basis of the original and literary material data generalisation of the humus composition specific features of the modern Middle Ural types of soils, the closeness of most humus characteristics and the reliable differences of some of them in the most common in this region plain sod-podzolic and brown mountain-forest soils are revealed. It was established that the differences in the content of individual groups of humus substances and the integral index Cha:Cfa are unreliable. Significant differences were revealed only for the following characteristics of humus composition: the content of total organic carbon, as well as FA1a, FA2, and FA3. The parameters of the composition of humus in gray forest soils of the Middle Urals are typical for similar soils of other regions of the Urals and adjacent territories. The obtained limits of variation of the integral indicator of the composition of humus in soddy-podzolic, brown mountain-forest and gray forest soils of the modern Middle Urals, will allow to reconstruct the conditions of humus formation in paleosols in similar bioclimatic conditions. It has been established that the sod-podzolic and brown mountain-forest soils of the Middle Urals, forming within the boundaries of a single bioclimatic zone at different positions in the relief, have close characteristics of the qualitative composition of humus.Key words: soil, humus, paleoecological reconstructions, Ural.
Pokatilova A.N. THE DYNAMICS OF BUFFERING OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM IN NORTHERN FOREST STEPPE ZONE OF THE CHELYABINSK REGION WITH LONG-TERM IRRIGATIONBuffering acid is one of the most important integral characteristics, which allows to evaluate the resistance of soils to acidification. Issues associated with its assessment have become increasingly important due to progressive acidification of soils in some regions of the planet under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. Currently, soils of the Chelyabinsk region is subject to high anthropogenic load, especially on black earth soil in long-term agricultural use. Scientists found that soils in long-term agricultural use subject to degradation processes, resulting in change of water-physical, physical-chemical and agrochemical parameters of soils. The paper studied the dynamics of the size of buffering in the acidic pH range of leached Chernozem in Northern forest steppe zone of the Chelyabinsk region in terms of long-term irrigation. The amount of buffering substances of acidic character were determined by the method of Arrhenius. As a quantitative measure of the buffer. Key words: leached Chernozem, buffering to acids, the actual acidity, hydrolytic acidity, soil degradation.
Reut A.A. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY OF RARE PAEONIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF CULTURE One of the ways to enrich, preserve and rationally use the species diversity of floral and ornamental plants is the cultivation of introducents in collector sites. Thanks to the accumulated experience, botanical gardens are the most suitable institutions for the conservation of rare and endangered species. B research tasks included the study of biological features, decorative and economically valuable traits, as well as an assessment of the adaptation of four representatives of the genus Paeonia L. introduced into the Botanical Garden Institute of the Ufa Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, classified as rare and endangered and determining the prospects for their introduction into culture (Paeonia anomalašL., P.šhybrida Pall., P.šmlokosewitschii Lomakin, P.štenuifoliašL.). As a result of the introductory studies, it was revealed that in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Predural, P.štenuifolia blossoms first in the second decade of May, while in the five-year-old bush, up to 25šflowers are formed, of which 10–15 bloom simultaneously. The plant is highly decorative (86špoints). A few days after P.štenuifolia, P.šhybrida blooms (22.05š±š2). On one plant there are 4-5 flowers, 2-4 of which bloom simultaneously. The duration of flowering is 7-8 days. Flowers are open, small, up to 6šcm in diameter, with a strong aroma. Petals are oval, even, purple, in quantity of 8špcs. One to two days after P.šhybrida, P.šanomala blooms (24.05š±š2). In an adult bush, you can count 14-16 peduncles. Each of them carries on a drooping, cupped, purple-pink flower with a specific flavor. The duration of flowering is 10-12 days. At the same time, 3-5 flowers bloom. Their diameter is 8-10 cm, the petals at the ends are damaged, obovate, in an amount of 8-9 pieces. Simultaneously with P. anomala blooms P. mlokosewitschii. On the bush you can count 6-8 peduncles. Duration of flowering — 6-7 days. At the same time, up to two small flowers bloom, up to 7šcm in diameter, with a weak aroma. Petals are broadly ovate, pale yellow, in number of 8špcs. located in a row. When assessing the 100-point scale of decorativeness, all the peonies studied received more than 80špoints, and on the 50-point scale of utility characteristics — more than 40špoints, which characterizes them as promising, i.e. they are characterized by prolonged flowering; are highly productive, multi-stems, are not affected by diseases and pests. According to the scale of species adaptation, P.štenuifolia (58špoints) and P.šanomala (56) are promising for introduction. The remaining species (P.šhybrida, P.šmlokosewitschii) are classified as “medium perspective” (44-49 points). Thus, both local (P.šanomala, P.šhybrida) and tested inorionic species of peonies (P.šmlokosewitschii, P.štenuifolia) are highly plastic adapted to climatic conditions and can grow successfully in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Predural. Promising and medium-perspective introducers are recommended for replenishment of the zonal assortment of cultivated plants in the Republic of Bashkortostan.Key words: rare species of peony, geography, phenology, introduction, adaptation.
Safonov M.A., Shamraev A.V., Dubskyi E.V. THE ABILITY OF TTRAMA OF TRUE POLYPORE (FOMES FOMENTARIUS FR.) TO OIL SORPTIONOil and oil products are among the most toxic environmental pollutants. There is a wide range of substances with necesarului ability, which include mineral and organic sorbents. The use of organic sorbents are more environmentally friendly due to their genesis; as the sorbents are oil-impregnated they can be used as fuel. Search and evaluation of new organic sorbents is an actual problem of ecology. The ability of the oil sorbing by trama of basidioms of Fomes fomentarius Fr. was studied. This species is a cosmopolitan widespread in many regions of the world and occurring on dead wood and weakened trees of many genera of deciduous trees. In the experiment were used 3šcanisters filled with distilled water containing oil products with a concentration of 5, 10 and 15š%. In each canister was dropped segments of fruiting bodies with a thickness of 1, 1.5 and 2šcm were dropped. For 3, 7 and 10 day of the experiment, there was a steady absorption of oil in each of the samples. As the saturation of oil, the segments were immersed to the bottom. The saturation of oil products was uneven and depended on the thickness of the sorbent and the concentration of oil. In parallel with adsorption, there was a gradual separation of the oil to fractions in all three cans, accompanied by the formation of mycogenic protein-mat. It can be concluded that the tissue of a fruit body of polypore present effectively oil absorbtion; the fungi has a pronounced catalytic activity, which leads to the decomposition of the oil to the fractions. The most efficient thickness of the oil — sorbent was 1.5šcm. Key words: oil, pollution, organic sorbent, fungi, true polypore, Fomes fomentarius.
Siromlya T.I. FORMS OF THE COMPOUNDS OF LEAD, CADMIUM AND ZINCIN THE SOILS OF THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIAUsing the method of parallel extractions regional peculiarities in the content and ratio of structural/insoluble and exchangeable forms of lead, cadmium and zinc in the background, anthropogenically transformed and contaminated soils of the south of Western Siberia were revealed. The total content as well as the content of labile (exchangeable) forms of compounds of heavy metals were found to vary widely. The differences in the behavior of different metals. In the uncontaminated and anthropogenically transformed soils Cd and Zn were found predominantly in structural forms, however, the share of loosely associated connections Pb is 52–77š% of the total content. The spatial distribution of heavy metals labile forms in the anthropogenically transformed soils was shown to correlate with their quantitative and qualitative composition in the uncontaminated soils of the region. No statistically significant difference between sandy and loamy soils in the heavy metals content was found. In the exchangeable forms for a fraction of Cd accounted for about half of the amount of all loosely associated connections, the fraction of specifically sorbing compounds which are potentially available for plants of items that is dominant for Pb and Zn. Certain regularity in the group composition of Cd, Pb É Zn compounds was revealed in technogenically contaminated soils, thus confirming high informative value of HM group composition for evaluating soil ecological status. Sandy soils in the south of West Siberia often have increased permissible concentrations of Zn due to specific regional geochemistry, rather than soil contamination. The latter can be more accurately detected by relative content of labile forms of chemical elements in soil. Key words: Western Siberia, soils, heavy metals, form compounds, loosely associated compounds.
Stefanovich G.S., Valdaiyskikh V.V. SOME ASPECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF GENUS STIPA L. SPECIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE URAL Introduction of plants is an important part of botany. One of its many problems are relocation of plant resources into new conditions, their comprehensive study and development in order to replenish or conservation the gene pool of the natural flora of particular region. The insufficiently explored genera in the Middle Urals is the genus StipašL., which is of interest to botanists, phytodesigners and landscapers. Growth and seasonal development in 16šspecies and 28 specimens of genus StipašL. of various geographical origins were studied. The unique biological possibilities of the introduced species were revealed: irrespective of the conditions in native habitats and spreading, most of the specimens were acclimatized in the soil and climatic conditions of the boreal forests. Plants have gone through the main phenological phases, which is the best indicator of the success to introduction. A small development cycle (the number of days from spring regrowth to maturation of seeds) was calculated for each species. This made it possible to assess the rate of growth and physiological processes. In terms of the duration of the small development cycle, the species were divided into groups of fast-, medium- and late-ripening plants. For the first time, the estimation of the real seed productivity has been studied, as one of the important indicators of species adaptation to new native habitats. A high correlation of seed productivity with elements of inflorescence and a weight of seeds from one inflorescence was revealed. A visual assessment of the ornamental qualities of the specimens according to the shape of the bush, the height of the plants, the length and beauty of the inflorescences and feathery flowering spikes, and resistance to fungal diseases has carried out. Introduced species of feather grass under conditions of the Middle Urals showed high adaptive abilities, it have gone through main phenological phases. All specimens are produced seeds. Introduced plants are recommended for used in the landscaping of the cities of the Urals and as ones as specimens for plant breeding.Key words: grasses, introduced species, growth, development, seed productivity, ornamental plants.
Suslov S.V. SEASONAL CHANGES OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATER RESERVOIRS OF CHANNEL NAMED AFTER MOSCOWEcological and geochemical studies of water protection zones were carried out in the Istra-Zvenigorod physico-geographical region of the Moscow region. It is known that atmospheric precipitation affects the formation of the chemical composition of waters and indicates the degree of geochemical impact. The method of complex landscape-geochemical studies is applied in the work, as a result of which sources of pollution, ways of their migration and accumulation are identified. The dynamics of the chemical composition of waters along different sections of the water reservoirs of the channel of the Moscow Canal is shown. The water quality and the current state of the water protection zones of reservoirs have been studied. Dependence of water quality of reservoirs on the degree of disturbance of landscapes of water protection zones and their anthropogenic disturbance is revealed. It is established that water protection zones protect reservoirs from silting, chemical, bacterial and parasitic pollution. The effectiveness of water protection zones depends on the landscapes of the catchment area. The results of complex landscape-geochemical studies carried out should be taken into account when assessing the state of the quality of natural waters. The author has established that anthropogenically disturbed landscapes of water protection zones do not sufficiently clean the surface runoff, therefore it is necessary to develop and implement a number of measures to optimize the functioning of landscapes.Key words: reservoirs, overgrowing, macrophytes, bottom sediments, water quality, macrophyte ecobiomorphs, landscapes, catchment area, water protection zones.
Akinina A.N., Seredina V.P., Ovsyannikova S.V. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE SOILS ECOSYSTEMS OF KUZNETSKY BASINKemerovo region is an industrial conglomerate which central part is occupied by the territory of Kuznetsky basin with developed coal mining industry creating great anthropogenic influence on environment components, especially on soil covering. In this paper the author considers ecological condition of soils ecosystems (natural and anthropogenic) related to objects of coal industry on the territory of Kuznetsky basin. The author gives comparative characteristics of content of mobile forms of heavy metals (HM) (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr) in soils of natural and anthropogenic landscapes. It is stated that the degree of heavy metals mobility in soils of natural ecosystems is determined by granulometric texture, oxidation-reduction potential, acid-base characteristics and organic matter content. As opposed to natural soils the main factors determining the level of heavy metals mobile forms content in soils of anthropogenic ecosystems are abiotic conditions of soil formation (mineralogical composition, correlation of coarse soil and fine soil in soil body) and the degree of organo-accumulative processes. The author evaluates inactivant capability of soils to pollutants. It is stated that soils of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are characterized by different capabilities to heavy metals. Anthropogenic landscapes soils have lower indexes of inactivant capability. Among anthropogenic soils initial embriozems have minimal buffer capability. The received data is recommended to be used in monitoring studies to observe the level of anthropogenic impact on soils ecosystems of Kuznetsky basin and to prevent negative processes in soils usage.Key words: Kuznetsk Basin, soil ecosystems, mobile forms of heavy metals, buffer capacity of soils.
Bazhina N.L., Ochur K.O., Ondar E.E., Zakharova E.G., Ryabova N.N. HUMUS OF MOUNTAIN MEADOW SOILS OF WEST TUVAData on the humus composition of mountain meadow soils in the western part of Tuva, occupying the lower boundaries of the highland region of the Alashsky upland of the Western Sayan, the Shapshalsky ridge of the Western Sayan and the ridge of the Western Tannu-Ola, are summarized. Methodological features of the work consisted in the selection of soil samples, which was carried out in detail by a continuous column every 5–10 cm and(or) less within the visible boundaries of the horizons, as well as in the use of the microclimatic data: average annual air temperature, average annual precipitation and the sum of temperatures above +10šœC, calculated for each individual section, according to the regression equations derived for Tuva territory that include interrelationship of climatic characteristics with altitude above sea level, and taking into account the influence of the exposure of the slope and the wind rose. As a result of the analysis of generalized materials, the specific features of the humus composition of mountain meadow soils are revealed, depending on the ecological conditions of their formation. They consist of different contents of total organic carbon, the amount of humic acids associated with calcium, and the proportion of mobile fulvic acids in the composition of this component. At the same time, mountain meadow soils, irrespective of local conditions of functioning, within the uniform bioclimatic boundaries, have a humus-fulvate composition of humus with very close values of the ratio Cha:Cfa, which lie in the range of 0.77–0.99, but more than 50š% exceed the value ofš0.9, and also a relatively high proportion of humic acids, bound clay minerals of soils (fr.šHAIII), which is typical for soils that are affected by the processes of freezing. This does not contradict the generally accepted understanding of the humus composition of mountain meadow soils of other regions of Russia.Key words: mountain meadow soils, humus composition, western part of Tuva.
Gorichev Ju.P., Davydychev A.N., Kulagin A.Yu. ABOUT THE PHYTOCENOTIC ROLE OF THE DARKNOUS SPECIES IN THE SOUTHERN URALSIn the Southern Urals, dark coniferous species of trees — Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) grow on medium-altitude mountains (the region of mountain taiga dark coniferous forests) and on low mountains in the western part (broad-leaved and dark coniferous forests) where they dominate in natural dark coniferous biocenoses. Regional ecological and biological characteristics of dark coniferous tree species and their phytocenotic characteristics are relatively poorly studied, stationary studies were conducted only on local sites. Very relevant is the study of the relationship of these species in biocenoses and the identification of their role in ecosystems. The research was carried out on the territory of the South Ural State Nature Reserve, which is located within two botanical and geographical areas — in the region of mountainous taiga dark coniferous forests and in the broadleaf and dark coniferous forests. Both areas were covered by in-patient and route-based research. As a result of stationary studies, indicators of phytocenotic activity of dark coniferous tree species (density of stand, timber stock, density of undergrowth), as well as their ecotopic areals have been determined. The results of the investigations make it possible to evaluate phytocenotic positions and phytocenotic activity of dark coniferous tree species in the Southern Urals. Studies have shown that in dark taiga forests dark coniferous trees actively participate in the process of forest formation, they form natural biocenoses in most ecotopes of the forest belt, as well as in a number of ecotopes above the forest belt. In broadleaf-dark coniferous forests, the participation of dark coniferous tree species in the process of forest formation is limited to only a part of ecotopic space, in a limited number of ecotopes Siberian spruce and Siberian fir dominate in natural forest communities.Key words: Southern Urals, dark coniferous species of trees, Siberian spruce, Siberian fir.
Kulizhskiy C.P., Rodikova A.V., Popova S.V. SOIL FORMATION IN CONTACT ZONES OF TERRITORIAL AND AQUATIC COMPLEXES OF SHIRA STEPPEDiverse soil formation conditions in Shira Steppe of Chulym-Yenisei basin in Minusinsk intermountain trough, with their dissected relief and a substantial amount of standing lakes provide for a great topsoil diversity in the area. This fact complicates the possibilities of their use and methods of protection. Subordinate positions receive additional inflow of water and substances, additionally reinforced by erosion processes at anthropogenically modified parts of the watershed area. Another important factor is that contact zones of territorial and aquatic complexes around the lakes are subjected to the most active exodynamic processes, such as abrasion, colmatage, mire formation, salinization; types of soil chemism dynamics are observed along when cyclic changes in the soil regimes. These unique conditions cannot but reflect on the properties of lakeside soils, including — solonchaks, which mirror the environmental conditions. Soils profiles are located in landscape microzone directly adjacent to the waterfront and are represented by primary, primary stratified, as well as typical and schorre solonchaks. Objects are characterized by a predominance in the composition of chlorides and/or sulfates, in places — with the participation of soda. Easily soluble compounds are represented by halite, thenardite and astrakhanite. The presence of gypsum does not allow the solonetz process to develop in soils remote from the water area of the lake. The findings of the studies show a wide variation of basic soil parameters and properties of solonchaks, determined by a number of local soil formation factors, such as steepness and shape of surrounding slopes, exposure, wind direction, diversity of soil-forming materials, properties of the stratified material, lake size, location, etc.Key words: solonchaks, lakeside soils, Shira Steppe, Khakassia.
Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P., Michajlova E.V., Vishnyakova E.K. TRANSFORMATION OF BOG ECOSYSTEM PLANT COVER UNDER HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTING ON TAIGA ZONE TERRITORY IN WESTERN SIBERIARecent commercial development of the territory by oil and gas enterprises has caused critical necessity for the region to be deeper studied, to get reliable information about modern condition of investigated object that enables to predict possible changes of ecological situation under natural and anthropogenic factors. The greatest demonstration of hydrolithogenic processes resulted by human activity is vast zones of underflooding and drying-out due to surface flow direction changing or breaking. These processes become more active while linear features (highways) are being laid over bog complexes. At present time one of the most important problems of nature management is to analyze human activity impact on the environment at the regional and local levels. Negative effects due to linear features constructing are among understudied problems. Plant cover changes of the underfloodings of different age have been investigated. The connection between space and time organization of underflooding bog geosystems is determined with changing of plant cover composition and its projective cover. It indicates environment changes and can be used for monitoring functioning of anthropogenic wetlands resulted from linear features constructing. Recovering of original plant communities broken by highway constructing does not occur as surface flow is disturbed. Recorded time and chorologic characteristics of that associated row of forest-bog systems broken by linear features, their disturbance degree and their reaction to hydrologic regime fluctuations allow predicting the degree of plant cover transformation under intensive anthropologic impact.Key words: Underflooding, Vegetation, Areal of transformation, Hydrological conditions.
Mjachina K.V. THE CHOICE OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SAFETY INDICATORS WITHIN THE STEPPE OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION TERRITORIESThere are many methodological approaches to the analysis of the relationship between economic growth of the territory and its impact on the environment. The proposed concepts, as a rule, are based on the assumption that the industry provides socio-economic benefits for the region and beyond, contributing to the improvement of the ecological situation. Some authors argue that the improvement of the ecological situation only occurs up to a certain point after which environmental damage begins to grow again amid the ongoing economic growth. As a rule, each writing team offers to analyze your own system of indicators called sustainable development indicators that characterize the dynamics of the state of economic, social and environmental spheres of the territory. For each case a system of indicators requires adaptation and adjustment, with the features of the main species of land use. The article proposes a set of indicators reflecting the relationship between economic, environmental and social components of the integrated development of oil and gas producing territories of the steppe zone of Orenburg region. The system of indicators formed on the basis of the analysis of the situation in the three municipalities, where the dominant component of economic is the extraction of oil and gas. The indicators are divided into three groups, reflecting the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainable development. The system of indicators adapted and adjusted to the local characteristics of the study area and aims to objectively reflect the relationship and dynamics aspects of the administrative units development. Also taken into account such a limiting factor as the availability of the necessary statistical data. Key words: oil and gas production, ecological and economic safety of the territory, indicators, relationship, steppe zone.
Nurushev M.Zh., Baytanayev O.A. HOW TO SAVE THE SAIGA IN KAZAKHSTAN?This article submits the analysis of the study of the climate change and its influence on dynamics of the number of saigas in Kazakhstan, which appeared 20 thousand years ago as a mammoth and a rhinoceros. The analysis concentrates on the study of the climate change influencing the mass murrain of antelopes (saigas) from the beginning of a new century. Since the beginning of a new century their quantity has decreased by 3–10 times owing to two factors: epizooty pasteurellosis caused by the climate change and sharp reduction of a genetic variety. The environmental disaster connected with the mass murrain of saigas is caused by full insufficiency of information about the field of the wind (shifts) in the lower layers of the atmosphere. It is necessary to bring the Doppler-radar installation in the obligatory list of meteorological devices by the expeditious definition of distribution of the field of the wind (wind shears) in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Especially it concerns the regions of the way of migration of the population of saigas. Otherwise, environmental disasters due to the dangerous external influence of the environment — fields of the wind (shifts) will continue. In epizooty, the zone during one week had 3-4 norms of a monthly deposit, caused by the change of the western cyclone into the northern one. High humidity, the main factor of the murrain of saigas, causes anaerobic enterotoxemia and pasteurellosis. Key words: Saiga, population, pasteurellosis, methods, save the saiga.
Padalko Yu.A., Sivohip J.T., Pavleichik V.M. REGIONAL ISSUES SUSTAINABLE WATER USE IN THE MALOVODE PERIODS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE URAL RIVER BASIN)The article provides a brief analysis of the ecological-hydrological and water management aspects of low-water periods in the steppe zone using the example of the Ural River basin. The intra-annual variability of the river runoff, characteristic of the basin under study, is noted, due to the interaction of a number of factors. Based on the calculation of modular coefficients and the construction of difference-integral curves, periods of different water content were established; The low-water character of the runoff was noted in 1949–1985 and 2005–2012. At the same time, the runoff of the majority of the rivers in the Ural River basin is synchronous and in-phase. On the basis of the calculation of the coefficients of variation, the differences in the long-term variability of the runoff of individual rivers were noted, due to natural conditions, mainly — the latitudinal-zonal inhomogeneity of the basin and the relief partition. It was revealed that the minimum coefficients of variation in runoff are characteristic for the Sakmar River and its tributaries draining the mountain forest and foothill landscapes of the Southern Urals and the Urals. The natural zonality also determines the duration of zero flow for small and some average rivers of the Ural River basin. It is noted, unlike the spring-flood highs and the summer-autumn mezhdene, winter run-off minima are very asynchronous for different rivers, some coincidences most often occur in extreme (maximum and minimum) winter water years. In order to determine the possible shortage of surface runoff resources, the water stress indicator for water management sites was calculated. The data obtained indicate a lack of water resources in the upper reaches of the Ural River and the Ilek River in low-water years. The conducted researches show that in the conditions of transboundary river flow it is the shallow periods that maximally exacerbate the tension of water-users’ interests in the Ural river basin. In this regard, the actual problem in the basin is the provision of guaranteed water supply for the needs of industry, agriculture and the population.Key words: steppe zone, river basin, low-water period, guaranteed water supply, flow regulation.
Seleznev A.A. HEAVY METALS IN URBAN SURFACE DIRT IN CHELYABINSK CITY (RUSSIA)The content of heavy metals was determined in urban surface dirt in Chelyabinsk city (Russia). The surface dirt is classified as facie of contemporary anthropogenic sediments in an urban environment, that participates in migration and accumulation of pollutants. The composition of urban dirt is represented by particles of soil, sand, turf, dust and small debris. The dirt sediment at the residential block area is accumulated from the urban territory of the various years of construction. The depth of the sediment is about 5šcm. The time of existence of dirt in urban landscape varies from several months to several decades. The contemporary sediment survey allows obtaining information about geochemical conditions of the urban territory. The survey in Chelyabinsk is a part of project aimed to determining mechanisms of forming, accumulation of pollution and identification of geoecological role of contemporary surface urban sediment. The project is conducted in the metropolises of Ural and Western Siberia regions of Russia. Correlation analysis was conducted for heavy metals in urban surface dirt in Chelybinsk. The comparative analysis of heavy metals content was conducted for urban surface dirt, soils and sediments of water bodies in the city. The heavy metals are transferred in alcalescent media of the surface dirt in Chelybinsk. The content of heavy metals urban surface dirt in the city exceeds their maximum permissible concentrations for urban soils. Key words: urban surface dirt, contemporary urban sediments, sediments of local surface depressed areas of microrelief, heavy metals, pollution, urban environment.
Khasanova R.F., Semenova I.N., Suyundukov Ya.T., Rafikova Yu.S., Biktimerova G.Y., Ilbulova G.R., Kuzhina G.Sh., Ilyina I.V. ECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS OF SOILS OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES OF SIBAY CITYThe state of soils affects the environment and natural resources, the level of economic and social development and public health. In this paper, the content of heavy metals in the soils of the center of the mining industry of the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Sibai, has been studied. Sibai soils contamination with heavy metals is associated with anthropogenic activity and differs in various degrees of concentration. In the soils, high concentrations of gross and mobile forms of Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cd were detected. A number of accumulations of metals have been formed over the gross content: Znš< Cuš< Coš< Cdš< Pbš< Mnš< Niš<šFe, from mobile forms: Cuš< Znš< Mnš< Cdš< Niš< Coš< Pbš<šFe. According to the total pollution index, the ecological status of the studied urban soils is estimated as “moderately dangerous” and “permissible”.Key words: urbosoils, heavy metals, Zauralskaya zone, mining enterprises.
Charyev R.R., Ismailova A.I., Mirzaev G.R. POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATER OF THE TASHKENT REGION OF THE UZBEKISTAN REPUBLICThe article considers the possibility of conservation of surface water resources, their rational using and prevention of depletion. The cause of all available problems is identified: irrational using of common water resources, including groundwater by branches of the national economy and in irrigated agriculture. The ways and methods of solution with a view to conserving surface water resources are proposed. At present, in connection with the growth of population, the number of cities, the expansion of irrigated lands, the problem of surface water pollution is associated with demographic and economic processes. Researches of last years have shown that the hydrochemical regime of surface waters varies both under the influence of physico-geographical factors (firstly it is climatic factors) and anthropogenic factors (agriculture, irrigation facilities and industry). It allows us to conclude that there is a need for fundamental research on the identification of regularities in the hydrochemical regime of surface waters in the Tashkent region of the Uzbekistan Republic, considering the modern conditions and the database accumulated in the hydrochemistry laboratory. If several decades ago the rivers flowed predominantly in the natural waters, now in the flat territory collector-drainage water takes a significant part of their source, the size of which within Uzbekistan is significant — their total volume is 23 km3 for the year. This is water, flowing from drains and collectors from irrigated territory and falling back into rivers or into various natural deepening: lakes, cavities, ravines. Since the vast majority of water resources in the Republic of Uzbekistan — 92š%, is used for irrigation needs, and for all non-irrigation — 8š%, then the main anthropogenic impact on surface and groundwater is provided by irrigation. The mineralization of these waters varies from 2 to 10šg/m in different regions of Uzbekistan.Key words: reserve of unleavened groundwater, water intake equipments, monitoring observations, pollution of surface water.
Chibrik T.S., Lukina N.V. MIKORIZA ON THE DIFFERENT-AGED DUMPS OF ACCERMANOVSKY IRON-SOLID DEPOSIT (STEPPE ZONE)Mycorrhiza is the most important symbiosis in which plants and fungi are involved. When environmental conditions change, the equilibrium in natural complexes shifts, including mycorrhizal disturbances. Such violations lead to serious consequences, such as degradation of plant communities, reduced availability of elements necessary for plants. One example of such territories is industrial dumps. The restoration of vegetation on heaps is extremely slow. In this connection, a great interest is the study of mycorrhizas in plant communities that are formed on disturbed lands. The features of mycorrhiza formation of herbaceous species in plant communities formed in the process of self-growth at different-aged (3–36-year-old) sections of the Ackerman iron ore deposit dumps located in the Orenburg region (steppe zone) are studied. The rocks of the dumps are characterized by a very low content of elements of mineral nutrition available for plants: nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus. Studies have shown that in the roots of most herbaceous plants there is arbuscular mycorrhiza. In plant communities of 3–20-year-old dumps mycorrhizal species constitute 35.3–44.0š%, by the age of 27 their proportion increases to 90.9š%. All the studied mycotrophic species belong to weakly-microtrophic species. The low proportion of mycorrhizal plants and the poor development of mycorrhizas in plants growing on dumps in the steppe zone is due to the inadequate content of elements of mineral nutrition in rocks forming dumps, high rockiness of rocks, and insufficient moisture. It has been established that mycorrhizal parameters depend on edaphic conditions and on the degree of formation of plant communities.Key words: dumps, dynamics of phytocenoses, arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Vasilchenko A.S., Valyshev A.V. OPTIMIZATION OF A CULTURE MEDIUM COMPOSITION AS APROACH TO ISOLATION OF BACTERIOCINSAntimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin can be considered as effective food preservatives, as well as therapeutic agents. The first difficulties in the study of these substances begin at the stage of bacteriocin`s isolation from the culture medium of the producer microorganism. A simple and affordable approach for optimizing isolation of bacteriocins from metabolites of microorganisms is presented. In this study a strain of E.šfaecium ICISš7 was used as bacteriocin producer. Bacteria were cultured on four different media comprising two commercial medium and two semisynthetic. Isolation of bacteriocins was carried out by reversed-phase liquid high-performance chromatography. At the first stage, the bacterial growth parameters on various media were estimated and bacteriocin`s production was evaluated semi-quantitatively. At the second stage chromatographic profiles were obtained and compared. Finally it was shown that using a simple media consisting of the yeast extract only, makes it possible to produce bacteriocins and subsequently simplify their chromatographic purification. Thus, it can be concluded that the yeast extract is an ingredient available to most laboratories, while the components for the preparation of the chemical-defined medium are still quite expensive chemical reagents (amino acids, nucleic acids etc.). The use of a yeast extract for the cultivation and production of bacteriocins significantly reduces the cost of isolating the target polypeptide.Key words: bacteriocin, simple medium, chemically defined medium.
Parkhomenko A.N., Stognieva á.á. EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF SOILS USING MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT Within the rising technogenic impact on the environment, the mixed pollution, for example, with the different oil products, sulphur pollution can be frequently observed. Such an impact on the microorganisms is very inconsiderable. At the same time, it is known that the bioagent on basis of indigenous microorganisms can reduce the pollution. The isolation and study of the properties of such cultures is promising. The article presents data on the study of the microorganisms, isolated from soils in different conditions anthropogenic impact. Object of research is the soil samples, taken at experimental sites of the Astrakhan gas processing plant, oil and sulphur polluted. The effect of oil products and sulphur pollution on the number of saprotrophic, oligotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms in soil were studied in field conditions. It is shown that high number of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms reflects degree of impact of pollution at all stages of the experiment. The soils under oil products and sulphur pollution had four hundred and forty amounts of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms in the first month after pollution. It is shown that the isolated microorganisms possess high hydrocarbon oxidizing and emulsifying activity against oil, kerosene and engine oil. The highest index of emulsification is shown against oil and engine oil (92 and 95š%). This could indicate a high adaptation and destructive activity of microorganisms. Obtained results testify also possibility to develop on basis of isolated cultures a bioagent for rehabilitation of soil, polluted by oil, oil products and sulphur. Key words: soil, oil pollution, hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, emulsifying activity, bioagent.
Egorov A.N., Krivolapova E.V., Butrimova N.V., Egorov A.A. TO THE ISSUE OF EFFICIENCY AND ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF HEAT POWER SYSTEMSCentralized heat supply systems in different regions operate under conditions of potential risk. The coolant is mainly water, which leads to various emergency and emergency situations with negative environmental and economic consequences. The condition of objects of various generating systems and installations is directly connected with reliable power supply and ecological safety of the object, region, country. Modern energy-saving systems consider the use of a coolant with a lower temperature (+40...+ 50šœC). This method shows the negative side: the lower the temperature of the coolant, the greater the size of the equipment. Insulation does not withstand temperatures above 130šœC, as a result of thermal degradation it darkens, shrinks and absorbs water. In the presence of water, polyurethane foam releases an acid, under which the pipelines are intensely corroded. The water used is subjected to special treatment. In the Orenburg region, SES is being actively built, which should improve the reliability of the electricity supply system, gradually reduce the price of electricity and the level of the environmental crisis. Commissioning of solar generation in the territory of the Orenburg region will save 9šmillion m3 of gas per year. To increase the efficiency and environmental friendliness of heat-and-power systems, research and development is needed that will enable the transition to new environmentally friendly and affordable energy sources. Their application will contribute to the conservation of natural resources, which should become the main principle of the formation of ecological knowledge and ecological culture for modern society.Key words: generation, water, energy intensity, nuclear waste, microgeneration, ecological safety.
Kunavina E.A., Dyusenov A.I., Zhdanova A.V., Kozminykh V.O. HETEROCYCLIZATION OF THE ALKYL(ARYL)METHYLKETONES, DIETHYLOXALATE AND META-REPLACED AROMATIC AMINES IN THE SYNTHESIS OF QUINOLINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACIDRather large number of various medicinal preparations at which molecules there are heterocyclic systems of quinolone is known. Derivatives of a quinoline-2-carboxylic acid are potential biologically active materials, which have various biological activity. So, Atophanum (phenoquin) is received from acetophenone and an isatin by the Frindler method is applied as against arthritis means. Primachinum and plasmochin are the anti-malarial drug operating on gametes of a plasmodium of a malaria. Also some derivatives are applied as anesthetics or as drug against oncological diseases and as antibacterial medicament. Equimolar condensation of a ketone and dimethyl ester of oxalic acid received the intermediate diketoester. At addition to it the bases 7-hydroxy- and 7-amino-4-methylquinolines-2-carboxylic acids, 4-(4’-bromphenil)-7-hydroxy- and 7-amino-4-(4’-bromphenil)quinolines-2-carboxylic acids were received. In this article features of reaction depending on the nature of mother substances (alkyl- or arylmethylketones) and nucleophilic reagents (the meta-replaced arylamines), physical and chemical properties of the received connections are discussed. The structure of connections confirmed with data IR-spectroscopies, spectroscopies of nuclear magnetic resonance 1H and mass spectrometries. Proceeding from similarity of structures of the known biologically active materials of a quinolinic row and again synthesized representatives it is assumed that new substances will have potential biological activity and will find application in medical practice as medical drugs.Key words: heterocyclization, methylketones, dimethyl ester of oxalic acid, meta-aminophenol, meta-phenylene diamine, the 4,7-direplaced quinolines-2-carboxylic acids.
Sviridova ô.G., Salnikova å.V., Romanenko N.A., Kanygina O.N. CONCENTRATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES ON THE SURFACE OF C18-HYBRID SILICA GEL FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION IN WATER QUALITY CONTROL METHODSThe solid-phase microconcentration of organochlorine pesticides (alpha-hexachlorocyclohexan (α-Hóî), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexan (γ-Hóî) and a 4.4-dichlordifeniltrikhloretan (4.4-DDT) on the surface of the sorbent C18-hybrid silica gel, is an alternative to the classical method of preparing water samples for gas chromatographic analysis on the separation of two liquid phases. The need for a transition to solid-phase extraction of samples is dictated by the fact that this modern method significantly saves the sample preparation time, reduces the number of races of walking materials several times, and also avoids secondary contamination of samples. The degree of extraction of pesticides from water samples was analyzed in static and dynamic conditions. The conditions of sorption extraction were optimized by varying the type of desorbent solution and the contact time of the phases. As a result, it was shown that the nature of the desorbent had no significant effect on the time to achieve sorption equilibrium, but an increase in the extraction rates of organic pesticides with an increase in the volume fraction of acetone in n-hexane was observed. In addition, it was found that the degree of recovery of 4.4-DDT in all variants of the experiment was lower in comparison with α-Hóî and γ-Hóî in similar conditions. The use of dynamic mode with the use of the semi-automatic microsyringe SGE-Chromatec eVoLXR made it possible to slightly increase the recovery of all organochlorine pesticides used in comparison with the corresponding experiments in the static regime. In general, the results confirm the possibility of switching to this method of preparation of water samples for analytical control over the content of the examined organochlorine pesticides in the samples, and the calculated characteristics of the extraction rates make it possible to carry out the studies without losing the quality of the analysis.Key words: Ïrganochlorine pesticides, hexachlorocyclohexan, dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethylmethane, C18-hybrid silica gel, concentration, sorption, desorption, microextraction by packed sorbent.
Volkova I.I., Lazutova N.M. SCREEN MEDIA AND HUMAN ECOLOGY: FROM CHARMING TO JOININGThe authors of the article made an attempt to comprehend the process of the influence of the on-screen mass media on public opinion in the context of human ecology. As a result of the study of manipulative media technologies (the most powerful of them are on-screen technologies), in the homo-ecology the critical analyzing perception of media texts in the subject-subject (democratic) model of communication is considered optimal, but not ritualized uncritical, inherent in the subject-object (transmitting) model. The audiovisual screen speeds up communication postulating visibility and simulates a new reality, not the same in the case of different communication processes or different media. But any screen is a means of access to another space. The authors analyze two variants of screen space: cinematography and television. Cinema screen reality is a means of “enchantment” which abstracts from the viewer’s reality and draws him into its special space. The TV screen has a natural feature of joining the existing process. During the telecast, the physical parameters of the waves are deciphered by instruments but for the viewer these are phenomena of the unconscious. Cinema reality is sovereign but TV reality is actively projected onto the reality of the viewer, turning into its expansion.As a result, the authors come to the following conclusion: the information field is not equal to the physical field containing the ontological equivalent of the significance (shot) and the means of its transmission (signal). Gnoseologically linearity of physical influence of television is overcome at the level of moral space where feedback is formed. The feedback can be an indicator of the dynamics of information impact. In the model of subject-subject information relations the problem of the difference in the culture of thinking is not so much important as the discrepancy between the moral development of the journalist and the audience which is the main barrier for establishing a connection.Gnoseologically linearity of physical influence of television is overcome at the level of moral space where feedback is formed. The feedback can be an indicator of the dynamics of information impact. In the model of subject-subject information relations the problem of the difference in the culture of thinking is not so much important as the discrepancy between the moral development of the journalist and the audience which is the main barrier for establishing a connection. The authors raise the question: is it possible to talk about information ecology if in the process of using screen technologies with their enchanting potential the human will is suppressed, the orienting and exploratory reflexes of the spectators are suppressed, and their behavior is programmed by the joining process. The article has an interdisciplinary character.Key words: human ecology, screen media, audiovisual language, physical nature of television, post-truth theory, information ecology, moral space, cognitive activity, media ethics.
Galperina A.R. EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF FILAMENTOUS CYANOBACTERIAThe researched problem is relevant, since at present, heavy metals are the most widespread pollutants of soil and water environment. Cyanobacteria are promising objects for use in cleaning environmental objects from ions of heavy metals, since the ability to accumulate many elements and transform them into non-toxic form. It is made assessment of influence of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and silver) on some morphological and physiological parameters of filamentous cyanobacteria. While higher concentrations of heavy metals affect the size, morphology, and ultrastructure of cells and physiological and biochemical characteristics of cyanobacteria. In experimental research revealed that the studied cyanobacteria are sensitive to the toxic effects of heavy metals. It is noted that the severity of the toxic effect decreases from cadmium to lead. It is shown that in the presence of heavy metals, cyanobacteria grow mainly on the surface of agar and undergo morphological changes: the emergence of atypical large cells (up to 4šμm — 2šμm), and cells with uneven edges; the formation of clusters of trichomes and disintegration of trichomes into fragments and individual cells. Noted adaptation of cyanobacteria to ions of lead. Revealed that low concentrations of lead ions stimulate the growth of biomass of cyanobacteria up to two times compared to control. It is found that all the tested concentrations of lead have a strong effect on the photosynthetic system of filamentous cyanobacteria, resulting in the decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll a and carotenoids with increasing content of lead in the environment.Key words: heavy metals, cyanobacteria, photosynthetic pigments.
Popova M.V., Kotova E.N. ECOLOGY OF LIVING QUARTERS IN THE ASPECT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITISAllergic rhinitis is a widespread disease, which according to the decision of the World Health Organization, is an indicator of the health of the population. Researches were conducted in the period from 2013–2015, evaluated the disease of children aged 0–13 years. The development of allergic rhinitis depends on the basic parameters of the room in which the child spends most of the day. With an average air temperature of 23šœC and a humidity of 60š%, the number of children with developed allergic rhinitis is 9š%, while with air humidity below 40š% and its temperature above 27šœC, the number of sick children grows in many times. Allergy remains one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine. According to who,' the prevalence of allergic diseases, occupying 3rd place after cardiovascular and oncological diseases during the last decade has increased and has no tendency to decrease. An important reason for this is that most of the factors' causing allergic reactions, and also non-allergenic factors contributing to development of allergies are related to our way of life, nutrition, micro-ecology of residential premises, the conditions of professional activity. The data obtained showed a direct dependence on otolaryngological diseases on such room parameters as temperature and humidity. Observance of recommended parameters for all other types of allergic rhinitis.Key words: rhinitis, allergy, ecology of living quarters, air humidity.
Fomina M.V., Mikhailova E.A., Kuznetsova N.P., MorozovÁ A.I., Kirgizova S.B., Aznabaeva L.M., Zherebyatyeva O.ï., Safarova D.R. MEDICAL-ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RESISTANCE MICROFLORA IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTInflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract bacterial nature of the disease, which most often otolaryngologists in modern conditions are becoming increasingly epidemiological, economic and social significance. The trend in recent years has been the changing epidemiology of causative agents of this disease, the properties of the pathogens, resistance to drugs. Along with this, there are regional differences of indicators of resistance of microorganisms, which complicates the selection of antimicrobial agents in starting empirical therapy of acute rhinosinusitis in children. A monitoring study of the species composition of microflora of nasal cavity showed that, along with the leading (80.3š%) etiologically significant representatives of pathogenic flora — gram-positive cocci (mainly Staphylococcus Áureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus), the microflora was represented by gram-negative rods bacteria of the genus Klebsiella (Klebsiella pneumonicae) — 1.6š%. Among non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria in 0.8š% of cases were allocated to members of the genus Pseudomonas. According to the study, the selected isolates of Staphylococcus haemolyticus were not sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam in 75š% of cases, ceftazidime — 73.3š%, the highest activity possessed antimicrobial agents ceftriaxone (87.5š%) and azithromycin (89.1š% of cases). In turn, Staphylococcus Áureus in 54.5š% of cases were sensitive to ceftazidime, 45.4š% to oxacillin. Observed high sensitivity of the pathogen to erythromycin (100š%), gentamycin (100š%), ofloxacin and ceftriaxone — 90.9š% of cases. The results obtained, taking into account regional differences in the indicators of resistance of microorganisms and their sensitivity to antibiotics, can be used in starting the empirical therapy of acute rhinosinusitis in children.Key words: children, microorganisms, antibiotic resistance, inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract.