Vestnik On-line
Orenburg State University july 13, 2024   RU/EN
Headings of Vestnik

ЭБС Лань
Лицензия Creative Commons

№ 2 (242), 23 may 2024

doi: 10.25198/1814-6457


Zair-Bek E.S., Ksenofontova V.V. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT FOR SELF-REALIZATION OF GIFTED CHILDREN AT SCHOOLThe development priorities of the Russian society are focused on increasing the level of human capital of the country, the main resource of which is gifted children. The prospect of building a system of support for gifted children is based on school education, which is subject to requirements to ensure quality work with talented young people. School as a social institution in the conditions of continuous socio-political and economic transformations implements pedagogical support of self-actualisation of gifted children in accordance with the needs of society in a graduate who has stable developed abilities, orientation to self-development, self-identification in a certain field of knowledge. State policy in the area of the development and support of gifted children is in constant development. Thus, the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 17.11.2015 No. 1239 ‘On Approval of the Rules for Identifying Children Who Have Demonstrated Outstanding Abilities and Supporting Their Further Development” (as amended on 27.05.2020) regulates the algorithm for supporting gifted and talented children, the mechanism for identifying their abilities and measures for successful self-realisation in the future of professional activity. The national system of support for gifted children is implemented in a variety of projects: the educational foundation ‘Talent and Success” identifies and supports the further development of gifted children; the project for the creation of regional centres ‘Mini-Sirius” for the dissemination of best practices of methods of work with gifted children ‘Sirius”; a new model of supplementary education for children within the framework of the initiative of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives provides the work of technoparks, creating an infrastructural environment for the accelerated development of children. At the same time, the results of the VTsIOM survey (2019) show that gifted children in modern Russia eventually become ordinary adults and do not realise their abilities (52%). The development of gifted children”s abilities stops when the involvement of parents and teachers in purposeful support of the uniqueness of the child”s talent stops (38%). The study also indicates that pedagogical support for gifted children should be based on the child”s self-realisation, strengthening his/her abilities for further independent work in the chosen direction. However, the systems of work with gifted children available in modern schools do not fully meet the requirements of society and the state.Key words: giftedness, pedagogical support, self-realisation, talented children.
Ivanishcheva N.A. RESOURCES OF THE UNARMY MOVEMENT IN FORMING THE CIVIL POSITION OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO MILITARY SERVICEThe formation of the civic position of adolescents in the aspect of a system-forming ideological factor is based on the categories of honor and decency, traditional family values, healthy lifestyle standards, diligence and discipline of future defenders of the Fatherland. Based on theoretical research, the concept of “military service” is considered as the first stage, which tests the level of a person”s preparation for adult life, which he achieves over the past 18 years. In this study, I adhere to the understanding of military service in terms of the readiness of adolescents in the future to serve in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and fulfill their civic duty to protect the Fatherland. The environmental resources of the All-Russian military-patriotic children's and youth public movement “YUNARMYA” are expressed in a wide range of interaction between the structures of the children's public association (movement) to create a single space of civil-patriotic educational practices. Institutional resources determine the sociocultural atmosphere, values, norms, traditions, and management style of a public association (movement), which introduce adolescents to the Russian heritage of military exploits. Personal resources characterize the typological and age-related characteristics of adolescents, their motivation, aspiration, value orientations, taking into account mastering the initial fundamentals of military affairs, enriching the experience of self-realization in military-oriented activities. Digital tools have become an integral component of training and education and provide ample opportunities for communication between participants in the educational process. The Youth Army movement broadcast a new approach to interacting with teenagers in the form of a mobile application. “YUNARMIA” has developed special content adapted for this application. Information solutions of the “Digital House of UNARMIA” contribute to the effective implementation of the activities of the public organization. According to teenagers, the most interesting elements of the Digital House include the Yunarmeets mobile application, which includes news, tasks, information about educational tourism and much more. When studying the experience of the Youth Army Training Centers in the constituent entities of the Volga Federal District, a close connection was discovered between the formation of the civic position of adolescents and the education of citizenship as a personal responsibility for the defense of the Motherland.Key words: formation of the civic position of adolescents, military service, resources, All-Russian military-patriotic children”s and youth public movement “YUNARMIA”, military orientation activities.
Kober O.I. AXIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGN AND SURVEY PRACTICE OF FUTURE ARCHITECTSModern higher education is aimed at preparing a competency-based specialist, competitive, value-oriented, capable of self-development, designing his professional future and life path. The study reveals the role of the axiological approach to the design and survey practice of architecture students, which contributes to the formation of their universal competencies with value content. Particular attention is paid to the project method used during practical research on the study of architectural monuments of Orenburg, aimed at developing independence, creativity, and creative activity in students. The characteristics of the main stages of project activity are given: preparatory, main (functional), final. The novelty of the work lies in the study of the relationship between the axiological approach and the design method in the context of competency-based training of future architects. A table is presented with universal competencies and their value content, stages of project activity, during which the formation of these competencies in an architecture student occurs. A conclusion is drawn about the importance of the axiological approach, which promotes a value-based attitude towards design activities, the formation of universal competencies, life priorities and the professional development of future architects.Key words: axiological approach, project method, universal competencies, design and survey practice, architecture students.
Sikorskaya G.A. PERSONALITY-ORIENTED TASKS AS A MEANS OF DEVELOPING COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE OF A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT IN A SPECIALIZED SCHOOL (MATHEMATICAL PROFILE)The development of cognitive independence of high school students is most in demand in a specialized school, since at this educational stage, high school students are being trained to study at a university, according to new standards aimed at increasing the proportion of independent work. Over the past 10–15 years, school teaching teams have been increasingly using the basics of personality-oriented education in their practice. Students enter the class with a certain profile orientation from the position of continuing their studies in higher education. Basically, by the 9th–10th grade, the inclinations, abilities of students, their motivation are fully manifested, in accordance with the vector of their further education. Thus, for a high school student of a specialized school, his personal experience is increasingly important, focused on his valuable, vital meanings, obviously, for him, lying in the sphere of motivational priorities. For this reason, an axiological approach is completely justified in the personality-oriented education of high school students of a specialized school, as it expands the boundaries of learning material acquisition determined by the program, actualizes the voluntary choice of the student, the independence of his position on setting goals, highlighting obstacles. This approach involves the manifestation of will, personal experience, and, therefore, requires the manifestation of active independent cognition of a high school student. The process of developing independent cognition of high school students of specialized classes is possible, in particular, as a result of the organization of educational activities of schoolchildren through personality-oriented tasks involving the use of personal, subjective experience created by the student himself as a leading element of the content. One of the possible ways to form the cognitive independence of a high school student in a specialized class of a mathematical direction is based on the application of personality–oriented tasks of mathematical content — tasks with a parameter. When solving a rather complex problem with a parameter, a high school student is faced with the need to independently search and apply knowledge from various mathematical fields, choosing, based on his personal experience, the most rational trajectory to achieve the goal. As a result of research and experimental work on the development of cognitive independence of high school students of specialized mathematical classes through personality-oriented tasks in the form of mathematical problems with a parameter, the steady development of cognitive independence of students was revealed. The positive aspect accompanying the experiment was a significant improvement in the cognitive component of teaching high school students in the specialized mathematical field, which provided a fairly solid knowledge of solving problems with the parameter included in the Unified State Exam.Key words: high school student, specialized education, axiological approach, cognitive independence, personality-oriented tasks, tasks with a parameter.
Alekseeva E.N. QUALIMETRICAL APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES OF STUDENTS, FUTURE TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICSAt the present stage of higher education development, a qualimetric approach to the organization of monitoring the readiness of university students and graduates to perform professional tasks is actively developing within the framework of the internal education quality assessment system. The use of pedagogical qualimetry technologies, and in particular, the method of expert assessments, makes it possible to standardize and algorithmize diagnostic measures aimed at assessing the formation of students” competencies at different stages of their development of basic educational programs of higher education. This approach is also relevant in assessing the quality of subject-methodical training of students, future teachers of mathematics, in the aspect of learning to work in the context of the development of the paradigm of education individualization. Within the framework of the research, a criterion model for assessing the level of special methodological training of students and future teachers has been proposed, and quantitative indicators of the formation of professional competencies have been developed based on the allocation of cognitive, activity and motivational-value components in their structure. At the same time, the weighting coefficients of the significance of each quantitative indicator in the proposed model are determined based on the method of group expert assessments. In the course of the research conducted at the Oryol State University named after I.S. Turgenev the application of qualimetric technologies was tested in the development of criterion models of competencies and the design of assessment tools to assess the level of professional competencies formation of students enrolled in specialized bachelor”s and master”s degree programs. As part of the pedagogical experiment, the diagnostic measures were carried out to assess the level of professional competencies formation of future teachers and their readiness to solve special tasks of pedagogical activity aimed at the development and support of schoolchildren with pronounced mathematical abilities.Key words: qualimetric approach, criterion model of professional competence, assessment of the level of competence formation.
Ledovskaya O.A. ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE REMOTE APPROACH IN ATHLETICS TRAINING SESSIONSNowadays, the digital format of communication has become a part of everyday life and the modern training process in sports is no exception. Undoubtedly, digital technologies in the organization and conduct of training sessions have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the remote approach. The organization of the distance approach of athletics training sessions is based on the independent work of students, which corresponds to the principles of personality-oriented education. Currently, conditions have been created for feedback and interaction between the coach and the athlete through the use of information technology, information and communication methods and remote control of the content of the training process. For more accurate transmission of information, technical controls, video reports, and online broadcasting are used. At the same time, 60% of the participants recorded a slight decrease in their competitive result. Because delayed communication between the coach and the athlete leads to a decrease in information content in determining the degree of effectiveness of training effects. The untimely indication of errors made during the performance of exercises delays the process of eliminating deficiencies in the technique of the performed motor action. Nevertheless, the distance approach makes it possible to increase the motivation and willingness of students to work independently. The use of digital technologies has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the remote approach to athletics training sessions. It increases the student”s ability to self-organize and allows a more objective and meaningful approach to the training process.Key words: remote approach, digital technologies, consciousness, motivation, educational and training sessions, information technology.
Shleyuk S.G. FEATURES OF THE ARTISTIC AND DESIGN METHOD OF TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE “DRAWING AND DESIGN GRAPHICS”Modern pedagogical technologies of higher professional education actively use the project method. The discipline “Drawing and project Graphics”, which considers the principles of mastering drawing as a method of project activity, applies design technologies in practice, includes personality-oriented learning and integrated learning technology in the educational process. The educational process based on the principles of design is the search by students for modern cognitive, applied, practical information and knowledge about their future professional activities. It is determined that the discipline combines, in addition to its main components — design project and drawing, a number of disciplines related to design and artistic activities aimed at the formation of creative artistic and imaginative thinking of students. The pedagogical technology of discipline management, carried out using the graphical design method, is described in detail; the main stages of its content — practical and theoretical — are revealed. Taking into account the pedagogical experience, the methodology of introducing modern sketching techniques into the educational process, illustrated with graphic images, is described in detail. When performing graphic tasks, the emphasis is shifted from various types of practical exercises to active mental activity, thus the main tasks of the discipline include the formation of artistic and aesthetic taste, spatial thinking, structural and figurative expression and the development of the intellect of a future professional. The introduction of the latest design technologies in education improves the quality of education in conditions of rapid development of innovative processes.Key words: drawing, design graphics, graphic design method, sketching, pedagogical technologies.
Egorova G.I., Ionina N.G. VALUE AND MEANING CONCEPTS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION IN CONDITIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE SCHOOL COMMUNITYEveryone is well aware of the new requirements for professional self-determination, which are occurring against the backdrop of a number of destructive changes that characterize the inconsistency of vocational education with the expectations of consumers of its services and the rapidly changing requirements of the labor market. Teachers in the school community are not fully prepared to create in high school students a readiness to study and systematize information about the professional world, the system of new professions, how to build scientific and educational knowledge in dialogue with the world of work and professional culture. The current situation in the educational community predetermines the relevance of value and semantic guidelines for the professional self-determination of students, not only within the framework of choosing a future profession, but also within the framework of significant professional qualities. Philosophical justification is carried out within the framework of many concepts and approaches, while these concepts are widely found in various fields of activity. From the position of A.S. Kravets, there are two conceptual lines of understanding meanings and values within the framework of the activity approach. The first line is semantic — it connects meanings with the content of human thought, its correct design. The second line reveals meanings — as human values. Proponents of the polysemy of values and meanings of professional self-determination (E.F. Zeer, E.Yu. Pryazhnikova, etc.) reveal the concept as a special type of activity of senior schoolchildren with designated motives and goals that form a special space of classroom and extracurricular activities that generalize all ideas about future professional activities. The modern leading model of professional self-determination is built on such descriptors as meta-subjectivity, continuity, quality, which is important for every profession. A meaning-forming system of values and meanings of professional self-determination (personal, professional, life) is important for the development of a culture of professional success, for motivating professional growth; enrichment of professional competence; ensuring well-being; professional behavior and professional career prediction by high school students. The values and meanings of professional self-determination are revealed within the framework of the conceptualization and practice of classroom and extracurricular activities.Key words: professional self-determination, values, meanings, student, high school.
Zaeva-Burdonskaya E.A. PROFESSIONAL DESIGN EDUCATION AT THE STAGE OF FORMATION. BRITISH EXPERIENCEThe issue of searching for the humanistic foundations of professional education in the field of design becomes most acute during the period of mass digitalization of communication processes. Integration of digital technologies into applied art education requires the search for new effective models of direct and feedback between student and teacher, new methods and channels for knowledge transfer. The only way to counteract global knowledge-intensive technogenic processes is to preserve the humanistic foundations of teaching methods. The search for current forms of dialogue between traditional and innovative in vocational education lies in the historical examples of design schools in industrialized countries, especially at the stage of the formation of design as an independent design and artistic industry. The example of the British pedagogical system left a number of methodological principles for the special training of industrial designers that have already become classic. Among them, a scientifically based methodology stands out, which made it possible to develop advanced training programs and release the unlimited potential of experimentation, which shortened the path from a training project to production. Creation of a tradition of professional schools in alliance with the scientific base of museum complexes and their funds, opening up the possibility of training a well-rounded, erudite specialist. Focus on the needs of industrial practice led to the creation of a continuous multi-stage model of the educational process in accordance with various levels of training from primary education to higher education. Additional education programs within the framework of retraining and advanced training of workers and craftsmen in the art industry combined the tasks of training and education. A new strategic line was formed by practicing designers who brought experience of working with real production into pedagogy. The organizational structure of the schools included workshops and technical design studios that provided craft training for future specialists. The listed areas, which formed the model of professional education in the field of design, had flexibility and assumed the ability to develop, which makes them relevant to this day.Key words: design, vocational education, educational design, methodology, craft, training programs.
Trufanova P.S., Edygeeva A.T., Kulish N.V. MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT AT UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE FACILITIES OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRYTo assess and calculate the risk of accidents at an oil and gas enterprise, in particular at underground gas storage facilities, mathematical methods are used. The variety of mathematical methods leads to the problem of choosing the most convenient and practical method for calculating the risk of accidents by a specialist. In our study, the solution to the problem was achieved by analyzing quantitative methods based on mathematics and qualitative methods. The methods were selected in accordance with our chosen factors and evaluation criteria. The key factor when choosing methods for assessment was the versatility of the methods, namely the possibility of their application not only for underground gas storage facilities, but also for other facilities in the oil and gas industry, as well as for other industries. The authors of the study identified the accuracy of the method as another important factor when choosing methods when considering the influence of a system of factors on the object of an oil and gas enterprise. Also, when comparing methods, the factor of the presence of mathematical calculations in one or another qualitative and quantitative method for assessing the risk of accidents at an oil and gas industry facility was selected. To solve the problem, logical methods, compilation of a comparative table, analysis of the resulting comparative table, as well as a review of literature sources on the research topic were used. The most universal and multifunctional of these methods are the qualitative method of the systems approach and the quantitative method of a number of calculated indicators.Key words: mathematical methods, risk assessment, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, oil and gas enterprise, gas storage facilities, production factors, accidents, underground gas storage, risk of accidents.
Korobeynikova A.A., Dmitrieva N.M., Kobzeva N.I. THE PECULIAR FEATURES OF FORMING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE WHILE TEACHING THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND SPEECH CULTURE TO PHYSICS STUDENTSIn the modern world, the democratization of economic relations, the rapid development of technology, and increased information accessibility affect the content and structure of industrial production, support systems, the social atmosphere and, accordingly, requests for education and training. The issue of training technical and natural science specialists is an urgent issue. Success in professional activities, in interpersonal relationships, and other social spheres requires a young specialist to effectively use natural language as a tool for creating high-quality products of speech activity: texts in scientific and business styles, various communicative acts. The promotion of the Russian language in the world, which is of great concern to Russian scholars, largely depends on how confidently the Russian language will take a leading position as an international language of science. It seems that the Russian language as a language of science should be preserved through collective efforts. The purpose of the study was to identify the specifics of developing communicative competence among physics students. It has been revealed that referring to physical terms helps to update the knowledge of yesterday's schoolchildren, promotes the development of long-term memory, and serves as propaedeutics for studying specialized disciplines. The process of forming universal and professional competence of physics students within the framework of studying the Russian language and speech culture is inseparable. The work methods we propose contribute to the development of communicative competence, taking into account the interdisciplinary connection between “Russian Language and Speech Culture” and “Physics”. The tasks we have developed with the inclusion of borrowed scientific and technical terms, eponymous, synonymous and homonymous terms, can be used in classroom and independent work, both for the formation of communicative competence, and for its measurement and assessment.Key words: professional education, universal competence, communicative competence, the Russian language, culture of speech, physics, cross-curriculum links, academic speech.
Semagina Yu.V., Vanchinova M.A. ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF THE BASIC LEVEL OF GEOMETRIC-GRAPHIC TRAINING IN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITIESThe training of competent engineering personnel is dictated, first of all, by the need to ensure the technological sovereignty of Russia. The basis for high-quality training of specialists in technical fields should be a block of geometric and graphic disciplines. The purpose of the study was to determine the criteria for ensuring the formation of a basic level of geometric-graphic training. Methods of simulation modeling and statistical processing of experimental data, involving visual and geometric methods of analysis, were used as the instrumental basis for the research. A study of literary sources has shown that in almost all technical specialties at universities in Russia and neighboring countries, the block of humanities disciplines is increasing at the expense of technical disciplines. These include the disciplines of the graphic cycle. Various methods of intensifying the educational process for a number of reasons do not achieve the desired result. This is clearly illustrated by the results of assessing the influence of the pre-university component of geometric-graphic training on the subsequent performance of technical students. An analysis of the influence of the results of the unified state exam on the results of teaching graphic cycle disciplines was carried out. The influence on learning outcomes of the amount of contact work at a university, its distribution over semesters, and the presence of “cocktail” disciplines in the geometric-graphic block was revealed. An assessment of the state of geometric-graphic training in technical universities was carried out using the example of Orenburg State University. We have proposed a method for forming the content of a block of geometric and graphic training for specialists in technical fields. It is necessary to highlight descriptive geometry, technical drawing and computer graphics in the block of courses, and these names of disciplines should be “legalized”. It is necessary to rely on the conditions for improving the quality of geometric and graphic training in universities, without which modern training of competent engineering personnel is impossible.Key words: technological sovereignty, geometric-graphic disciplines, graphic training, descriptive geometry, technical drawing, computer graphics, passing grade, independent work.
Chernyh N.S. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT SELF-MANAGEMENT COMPETENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATIONAL PROCESSIn the context of modern realities, there is an increasing demand for a young specialist who possesses not only professional competencies, but also has excellent knowledge and experience of universal skills. Particularly relevant are skills aimed at managing your resources to achieve your goals, self-learning and productive planning of personal time. The purpose of the study is to create pedagogical conditions that contribute to the development of self-management competence of university students within the framework of professional training. In the framework of the presented study, self-management competence refers to the effective management of oneself and one”s resources to achieve planned results. A theoretical study of the concept of “pedagogical conditions” was carried out in the context of existing provisions. Pedagogical conditions contribute to the development of self-management competence of a university student. The development of a set of pedagogical conditions and their implementation in the educational space of the university made it possible to build an educational vector aimed at the formation and development of self-management competence in a bachelor — a future engineer. The effective organization of a person-oriented approach to the educational process contributes to the formation of the student”s subjective position, during the implementation of which the development of self-management competence occurs. Within the framework of pedagogical conditions, the effectiveness of introducing active learning methods into the educational process, which contributes to a more effective implementation of the self-management module, is highlighted and determined.Key words: self-management, self-management competence, pedagogical conditions, pedagogical conditions for the development of self-management competence, active teaching methods, person-oriented approach.
Lvov L.V., Chernysheva M.V. IMPROVING THE MOTIVES STRUCTURE IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AS A FUNCTION OF MANAGING THE EDUCATION QUALITY IN HIGHER SCHOOLIn the study, we examine the experience of improving the structure of motives in the educational process. The problem of improving motivation and the structure of motives in the educational process began with clarifying the set of methodological approaches to research and streamlining the conceptual apparatus of research, identifying factors that determine the content and structure of the designed professional educational environment; determining the type of orientation, the structure of students” motives, personality traits that are significant for learning and professional activity, and the level of development of competencies. The following are justified as conditions for the effectiveness of the educational process: the introduction of the discipline “General management training” for all areas of training in an educational organization, ensuring the priority of student-centeredness, taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of modern students, relying on vital experience and the pragmatic needs of the student. We proceeded from the provisions on the means to ensure control of the structure and level of motivation, such as: a situation of success based on the complete assimilation of given learning outcomes; instant feedback in the process of completing educational tasks; using a wide range of social and emotional techniques for managing motivation, including gamification, visualization, etc., interacting with partners online, forming training teams, and reflection. The study was carried out in two stages: before the implementation of the pedagogical conditions of 2014–2016. And in the process of implementing pedagogical conditions 2021–2023. The generalized results of testing and expert assessment showed an average level of values for organizational and managerial activities. The work carried out showed that increasing the level of development of universal competencies can be resolved during the development of a special academic discipline in the first year — “General management training”; the structure and expression of motives causes positive changes in the level of development of competencies, therefore, can be used to manage the quality of education.Key words: motive, motivation, motivational mechanism, socio-psychological characteristics, values, universal competencies, general management training.

Sergey Aleksandrovich

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