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Orenburg State University january 24, 2021   RU/EN
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№ 4 (227), 26 august 2020

doi: 10.25198/1814-6457

Architecture

Bakieva D.A. THE DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICS OF OPEN SOCIO-CULTURAL SPACE IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITYThe article attempts to formulate the substantiation of the phenomenon of open sociocultural space, traditionally interpreted as endless, both chaotic and structured, continuous interaction of communication systems. A communication system is understood as any subject of communication, be it a person, an educational institution, an Internet resource, etc. Their connections, interweaving of connections, diversity give rise to an open socio-cultural space. In other words, an open sociocultural space is a set of communications of various levels of complexity and different types. The integrated communication model is aimed at the development of an open sociocultural space. The key task of the integrated communication model is to build in an open socio-cultural space “nodal points of communication” with different subjects of communication on the basis of some socially and personally significant issue or problem. In this case, the open socio-cultural space appears not as an endless field of potential opportunities, but as a “marked” field of an individual's activity, which makes it possible to translate opportunities into a specific activity and a specific result. The organization of educational activities, however, is possible only if a number of pedagogical conditions for the development of an open socio-cultural space are observed. Also, the development of an open socio-cultural space by a person is regulated by basic principles that make it possible to update it in accordance with the educational request. The personality in this case is the “customer” of the educational product, and the educational process most fully provides the task of transforming an individual into a personality. Thus, an open socio-cultural space must be positioned as a diverse educational resource that transforms depending on the educational task.Key words: Open sociocultural space, model of integrated communication, communication, subject-subject relations, personality, pedagogical activity.
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Vernik I.S. CHARACTERISTIC OF SOCIAL SITUATION OF CHILDREN DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF UNCERTAINTYThe value of personal success while reducing the importance of public welfare, a pragmatic outlook on life, the “phenomenon of mistrust” in the information received, and a decline in the authority of elders are characteristic of today’s rising generation. There is a contradiction between the need to ensure the successful socialization of children in modern society and the declining importance of traditional institutions: family, school, peer group in this process. The mass media are considered as one of the leading institutions of socialization of the younger generation. They are defined as a means of creating an educational and developmental environment that modernizes the norms of raising children and adolescents. In the course of theoretical research, I found that today cultural expectations, social prescriptions and restrictions, as well as requirements for the activities and behavior of a child are not fully defined. There is a variability and pluralism of public images that guide the direction of the process of raising modern children. The process of early introduction of children to the “adult” culture, widely demonstrated by the media, is alarming. Two contradictory phenomena are spreading: “social orphanhood” of children and “total control” over them by their parents, which indicates a crisis in parent-child relations. In my opinion, the modern school needs to take into account the desire of children and adolescents for indirect communication and socialization. They should be prepared for the constantly changing living conditions, alternative life and professional paths. It is necessary to teach them to navigate in a wide range of behavior patterns, including in the virtual space.Key words: social situation of development, Information Society, child’s and teenager’s guidance and education, family guidance, difficulties of child development.
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Danilenko O.V., Korneva I.N., Safonova V.Yu. FORMATION OF A SAFE TYPE OF PERSONALITY IN LIFE SAFETY LESSONSThe process of forming a safe type of personality in the lessons of life safety, in particular the basics of countering terrorism and extremism at school, is relevant. The effective assimilation of the knowledge inherent in this section is facilitated by the method of using practical tasks in the course of studying the section. In modern Russian legislation, colossal attention is paid to the prevention of the phenomena of terrorism and extremism. This is necessary in order to convey this information to the largest possible audience, and to try to “invest” tolerance, respect, peace and kindness in the minds and hearts of the younger generation. The section of the basics of life safety — “Fundamentals of countering terrorism and extremism in the Russian Federation” is included in the curriculum in the school course of life safety in order to teach and prepare a teenager from an early age to avoid such emergencies, and if they have already happened, then have time to find the right one solution. The purpose of the study was to theoretically study, substantiate and test in practice the peculiarities of teaching the basics of countering terrorism and extremism at school and mastering this section by students, which contributes to the formation of a safe type of personality.
In accordance with the purpose and objectives of the study, we studied the textbook material on the section Fundamentals of Countering Terrorism and Extremism in the Russian Federation”, analyzed the forms and methods of work in this section. Further, a program was developed for the implementation of the proposed methodology on the example of grade 11. For this section, such forms of non-traditional lessons as Lesson-judgment, Lesson-dispute, Lesson-conference, Lesson-game (What? Where? When?) are optimal. Such forms of unconventional lessons as the Lesson-Quiz, Lesson-Conference are absolutely not suitable. In rare cases, when the teacher sees psychological maturity and readiness, it is possible to prepare a Lesson-Game, with practical training of behavior skills in the event of a terrorist attack. Thus, after our work, the following conclusions were made that the essence of the concepts of terrorism and extremism is much wider than taught at school, the material in the life safety textbook on countering terrorism and extremism is given in sufficient volume, but the ascertaining experiment showed a low level of assimilation of the material, difficulties in understanding and constructing one’s actions in the event of a terrorist attack
Key words: the formation of a safe type of personality in the lessons of life safety, countering terrorism, extremism, the method of using practical tasks during the study of the section.
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Zubova L.V., Gamova N.A., Girina A.N. FORMATION OF MOTIVATION OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITYThe emergence of new production technologies put forward new requirements for a university graduate. In training, the formation of motivation for the professional activity of student training is actualized. The relevance of the phenomenon under consideration is due to the fact that motivation, acting as a conscious motivation, is a necessary factor in the volitional behavior of an individual, the basis for the professional development of an individual. To solve this problem, the authors studied the materials of theoretical and experimental research, reflected in the psychological and pedagogical literature on this topic. The content, forms and methods of motivation formation of professional activity of students of economic directions of the university have been developed. The analysis of curricula of special, economic, humanitarian and social disciplines at the university is carried out. An experimental check of the successful formation of motivation for the professional activity of students of economic directions of the university is carried out. As a result of the research, the value orientations and personal characteristics of students of economic directions, influencing the nature of motivation for professional activity, have been identified and characterized. The students’ emotional-cognitive attitude to the profession has increased, the motivation associated with further professional activity has increased. The motivation for achieving success from the work performed has increased; the attractiveness of the future profession has increased. The practical significance of the study is that the results obtained will allow teachers to take into account the nature of the motives of students of economic directions to professional activity when organizing the educational process.Key words: motivation, motives, needs, formation, professional activity, personal potential, competence.
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Martishina N.V. ETHICAL MANAGEMENT AS A FORMING FACTOR OF THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC MORAL (BASED ON AN EXPERTS’ SURVEY RESULTS)The first decades of the twenty first century are notable for speed, scale and variety of changes in all aspects of life which requires everyone to display the best skills and qualities. A very special role belongs to spiritual, moral and ethical attributes which define every person’s attitude to what is happening, his or her reactions and actions. They are formed as a combination of paradigm and life evaluating guidance during the lifetime of any person, and influenced by a variety of factors, including education. There is a certain set of rules and regulations in the mentioned sphere of life which performs the management of actions and relations between the involved subjects. At present this set of rules is facing a serious challenge. In 2020, a remote survey of faculty and staff members of organizations related to the higher education system was conducted on issues of academic ethics and morality, their impact on the life of the university community. The survey interviewees were 29 people from 16 Russian universities and LLC “4portfolio”. The guide-interview questions were formulated based on the study and analysis of theoretical sources on the problem, data from the included observation, and the results of focus groups. The survey focuses on academic ethics as a system of ethical values and norms that regulate intellectual activity of teaching staff and student groups, the means and methods of its formation and regulation, and the problem areas of the processes under consideration. The results of the research have shown that the formation of a real functioning academic ethics institution is impossible without creating mechanisms for social control over students’ compliance with academic norms and rules. Performing a regulatory function by teachers indicates their high sense of professional responsibility for the education quality. However, experts expressed concern about excessive bureaucratization of the process under consideration. The issue of objectification of the social institution of academic morality in the university environment becomes relevant.Key words: academic moral, academic ethics, forming of academic ethics, students, ethic management.
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Sakharova N.S., Kabanova O.V. PEDAGOGICAL POTENTIAL OF DISTANCE EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES NOWADAYSToday, with the development of modern information means, distance learning technologies are widespread, which are rich in new situational material and can be modified in accordance with real educational needs and taking into account a differentiated approach. A special place among network learning technologies is taken by the Moodle platform as a learning management system. In the course of our study, it was determined that the Moodle system is becoming increasingly popular in many areas by providing a distance learning context that supports a student-centered methodology. Thestudents’ and teachers’ survey revealed the conditions of the Moodle system under which purposeful interaction between the teacher, students and electronic learning means is carried out. We have revealed that the methodology for creating educational podcasts plays a huge role both in the motivation development to learn a foreign language and in the development of students’ cognitive and communicative competence. The organization of active targeted interaction between the teacher, students and electronic teaching means is achieved through the use of an electronic educational environment, taking into account the capabilities of information and communication technologies, while students’ certain knowledge, skills, experience of work and behavior, professional and personal qualities are formed. The Internet and modern information and communication technologies have great pedagogical value and significantly expand foreign-language dialogue spaces. As a result of the study, it was found that the use of the Moodle system in teaching university students and organizing independent work on its basis combines the general principles of constructivist education and gives the teacher the opportunity to create a constructivist environment in order to improve teaching and learning.Key words: network learning technologies, Internet technologies, modern information and communication technologies, university students, electronic teaching means, pedagogical interaction, educational podcasts.
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Sedalischeva S.N., Yumshanova A.P., Semenov Yu.I. SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN ORGANIZING SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITIONS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF INCREASING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONThe strategic goals of education can be achieved only in the process of constant interaction of educational institutions with social partners. Social partnership is one of the most effective forms of organizing school expeditions. It brings together the resources of society to form a unified educational environment. The research teaching of schoolchildren in collaboration with adults and researchers has become the main idea of the direction in the field of education. We have developed a model and mechanisms of social partnership when organizing scientific research expeditions of schoolchildren “Verkhoyansk — the pole of cold”. School research expeditions form a unified educational environment for several educational subjects as a teacher, student, scientist, and parent, where competencies are formed. As a result, the skillfully organized organization of school expeditions leads to the achievement of the set goals. In the course of the expedition's work, a new environment is also created. At the same time, cooperation of several equal social partners is being formed. Constructive unification of like-minded people around one important matter, creating conditions for the education of a student, self-determination in choosing a future profession with a sense of responsibility, the formation of motivation for self-development, objectively assessing their potential.Key words: research training, expedition, research thinking, local history work, social partnership, resource, cooperation.
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Sapozhnikova O.S. TO THE PROBLEM OF NON-LINGUISTIC STUDENTS’AUTONOMY LEVEL ASSESSMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONSAbstract: The issue of developing non-linguistic students’ autonomy at Institutes of Higher Learning (IHL) is still of current interest. The need to research this issue is supported by Federal State Educational Standards requirements. The article is devoted to non-linguistic students’ autonomy level assessment. Analysis of Russian and foreign scientific literature concerning the problem of autonomy development made it possible to define the notion “autonomy”. The autonomy definition allows to identify autonomy structure components (psychological, methodological, social, creative). Based on the autonomy structure components the criteria assessments, indicators and levels of autonomy are presented. The article describes the results of testing the mentioned above statements. Results analysis showed low developed indicators of non-linguistic students’ autonomy. It is evident that bachelor degree students’ autonomy defining process should be thoroughly examined.Key words: autonomy, levels of development, criteria assessment, foreign language study.
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Yakupov G.S., Manakov N.A. RESEARCH TASKS IN PHYSICS AS A MEANS OF FORMING THE RESEARCH COMPETENCE OF A FUTURE ENGINEEROne of the most important tasks of higher education is to create conditions for training highly qualified engineering and technical personnel who are ready not only to master and improve existing technologies, but also to develop new high-tech technologies. The basic basis for training such specialists can be practical and seminar classes in the course of physics, aimed at solving research problems, in conjunction with the corresponding independent work of students. Solving research problems: contributes to a deeper understanding of the physical processes and phenomena underlying modern high-tech technologies; allows you to understand the conditionality of modern technologies by physical laws and laws; develops skills to structure information about technical objects and technological processes in a logical sequence; forms a General idea of the sequence of solving a technological problem (setting goals, formulating hypotheses, planning and conducting experiments, analyzing results and conclusions). Since physics is studied in all engineering specialties, it would be advisable to start implementing this approach as part of the physics course, especially since there is a huge stock of tasks that can be offered to future engineers for solving both in seminars and practical classes, and as homework.Key words: research activities, training of future engineers, research competencies, teaching physics at a University.
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Matvievskaya E.G., Ganaeva E.A., Muratova A.A. ORGANIZATION OF METHODOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERAbstract. The modern education system is characterized by constant significant changes and transformations in pedagogical science and practice, in connection with which the requirements for specialists who carry out pedagogical activities are also steadily changing. The social order of society is aimed at the formation of a comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality of a citizen of Russia, the implementation of which is inextricably linked with the quality of pedagogical work with children in educational institutions at all levels of education. The quality of the organization of the teacher’s methodological activity, which is “an independent type of professional activity in the design, development and construction of teaching aids that allows for the regulation of teaching and learning activities”, plays the most important role in the well-being of the formation and development of a child at all stages of education. The state policy in the field of primary education is largely guided by the provisions of the Federal State Educational Standard, according to which a wide range of typical tasks of a teacher is associated precisely with the organization of methodological activities. Researchers in the field of methodological training of teachers indicate that a modern teacher must have a sufficient level of methodological knowledge and skills (outlook), which will allow him not only to independently and competently apply them in practice, but also determine the ability to approach his pedagogical activity creatively. The conducted research by A.V. Pryadko, according to the study of the degree of effectiveness of various methods of organizing methodological activities in school, suggests that as a result of updating the forms and methods of organizing methodological work, there have been positive changes in motivation, teachers’ understanding of the requirements for the educational process, which includes the new education standard. The research results showed that the level of teacher motivation increased by 16%. An indicator such as “knowledge of the requirements that the standard includes” has quadrupled; the number of teachers who understand the principles of forming an assessment of the cognitive activity of students and are aware of the system for setting the final grade increased by 8 and 58%, respectively. The methodological activity of a modern teacher acts as a system-forming component of his pedagogical activity and is connected, on the one hand, with teaching methods, while, on the other hand, with ideas about specific actions aimed at designing, choosing and using these methods as ways of organizing educational and cognitive activities schoolchildren.Key words: methodical activity, pedagogical activity, school education, modern teacher.
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Ogerchuk A.A. FORMATION OF KEY AND GENERAL PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES OF STUDENTS IN SOLVING PROBLEMS IN PHYSICSThe course of general physics is the basis for the preparation of bachelors of engineering and technical profiles. When studying general scientific and general engineering disciplines in junior courses, many professional competencies begin to form, since most of the knowledge and skills necessary in the study of special subjects are laid down in the study of physics, including in solving practice-oriented problems. As a result of a theoretical study of scientific literature, I found out that most of the competencies of future specialists in engineering areas should be formed in the initial courses, and when studying special disciplines, they should continue to develop at a higher level. The ability to substantiate one is thought and analyze, work independently and draw conclusions, should be formed among the applicants at school. The learning process familiar to them is comfortable and contributes to the emergence of positive motivation and successful adaptation of students in the initial courses. In addition, the Unified State Exam in physics is an optional exam, therefore, school graduates take it only if they apply for areas of training and specialties for which knowledge of physics is really necessary. Some of the competencies necessary for a future engineer can be formed not only in the initial courses of study at a university, but also in the study of physics at school. I came to the conclusion that it is possible to form and develop the general professional competence of students when studying a course in general physics, since only the formation of competencies at each stage of training students in engineering fields of training contributes to successful professional activity. The solution of practice-oriented physical problems is the basis for the formation of key and general professional competencies of students.Key words: physics, competence, competence-based approach, physical task.
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Rassokha E.N., Marchuk L.G., Kurguzov V.A. PROJECT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DIGITAL SCHOOL BASED ON THE “STUDIO OF ROBOTICS AND MODELING” KIBERLITSEY” (IN MOAU “LYCEUM № 1” OF ORENBURG)Report. Since 2018, Russia has been aiming to digitalize the economy. This requires new competitive personnel, whose training begins at school. Modern schools in the educational process should teach students to apply the knowledge of digital technologies in real life. When the technology of education changes, the role of the teacher must also change. A modern teacher should teach children to work in a team, correctly apply reflection, learn to plan their time in conditions of great congestion, navigate well in information flows, and become a Navigator for the student. We conducted a theoretical study. The experience of our Western colleagues successfully meets the challenges and trends of digital education. We understand that it is not enough to have the latest digital technology for computer literacy and effective education in General. The negative result of the widespread use of “gadgets” with Internet resources is the clip thinking of the younger generation. New educational technologies should allow students to develop their thinking from all sides and reduce the dominant role of clip thinking. Taking into account the positive and negative experience of implementing digital technologies in the educational system, we developed a project for a digital school based On the “Studio of robotics and modeling Kiberlicey”. It includes extracurricular activities of the courses “Fundamentals of programming technical devices”, “Programming in Python”, “Equations and properties with parameters”, “Mathematical modeling in solving mathematical problems”. The choice of these courses, as practice shows, forms IT-literacy, analytical and critical thinking, thinking of robot engineering, skills of information Gigi-technology, knowledge mapping.Key words: digitalization of the economy, digital technologies, digital school.
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Firsova A.V., Rakhimbayeva I.E. FEATURES OF INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION OF THE QUARTET CLASS STUDENTS IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING PROCESSIn the professional training of violinists, violists and cellists, the priority belongs to the Quartet classes of music schools and universities. In the process of studying the Quartet creativity of composers, young specialists master various techniques of ensemble performance, the ability to listen to all the voices of the ensemble and their part in a joint sound. This aspect of interpersonal interaction required in the process of the teacher in the Quartet class, because it is an important part of the development of the string player student in the training process, which calls for a comprehensive study of the problem and the search for modern, efficient working methods, which is the goal of the study. We conducted a theoretical study. During the study, it was found that the Quartet ensemble is a single complex organism, all parts of which are consistent with each other. In the conditions of an ensemble, forms of joint activity and psychological compatibility of participants in a small group are manifested. It was also determined that the principles of equality, mutual understanding and consent prevail among the team members. The individuality of each member of the string Quartet is closely interrelated with the collective focus of professional activity. There is an inseparability of psychological aspects with performing ones. String Quartet as a model of interpersonal interaction between members of the ensemble has a number of specific differences, in the process of functioning of which forms of joint activity are manifested. The traditional arrangement of the Quartet members on the stage platform in a semicircle allows you to establish instant contact of partners, so that the interaction in the Quartet is closer and more active. This condition in practice can strengthen the mutual understanding of musicians. Therefore, the individual characteristics of each member of the Quartet are closely related to the ensemble.Key words: interpersonal interaction, Quartet class, self-reflection, psychological compatibility, musical performance.
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Psychology

Epanchintseva G.A., Kozlovskaya T.N. SUCCESS MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY RIGIDITY INTERCONNECTIONWhat is rigidity and how it interferes with the implementation of a set goal, getting stuck or inclination to adhere to the accepted program, how rigidity is associated with the motivational components of the personality. We raised these questions in our empirical research. When studying the scientific literature, scattered ideas about rigidity and achievement motivation as personality traits were obtained. The representative sample included 30 students of the third and fourth years of the Orenburg State University. A questionnaire was compiled, which allowed the respondents to reflect on the determination of the implementation of goal-setting, the awareness of the difficulties in achieving the goal, the perception of failure situations, behavior options when determining failure as a motivator for striving to achieve or avoid. Also, the questionnaire made it possible to determine the real and ideal personality traits that contribute to the achievement of the set goals, as well as to conduct a self-assessment of the respondents' rigidity. According to the TORZ questionnaire by G.V. Zalevsky, most of the respondents have an average level of rigidity. Methodology of Yu.M. Orlov made it possible to diagnose the development of working capacity. The results indicate the average need for success. In most cases, respondents set realistic goals for themselves and prefer not to take risks. T. Ehlers' questionnaire made it possible to determine the degree of motivation for achieving success and the degree of avoiding failure in the sample. Average values were obtained. It was found that 43 % of the respondents had an average level of failure avoidance motivation, 37 % had a moderately high level, 10 % showed a too high level of failure avoidance and 10 % a low level. For 50 % of respondents, a moderately high level of motivation to achieve success is characteristic, 30 % is an average level of motivation, 13 % is a low level of motivation, and 7 % is a too high level of motivation for success. The correlation analysis did not reveal a relationship between the motivation for achieving success or the motivation for avoiding failure and personality rigidity. The data obtained in the study indicate that rigidity and motivation for achieving success or avoiding failure are not interrelated and do not affect each other.Key words: rigidity, achievement motivation, failure avoidance motivation, students.
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Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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