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Orenburg State University october 17, 2021   RU/EN
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Лицензия Creative Commons

№ 4 (179), 19 april 2015

Technical sciences

Arkhireysky A.A. TECHNIQUE OF THE CHOICE OF THE SERVICES PERFORMER ON THE MOTOR TRANSPORT Enterprises and organizations in need of goods and passengers carriage in the market conditions have to make a choice — to fulfill their own transportation or have its counterpart — the company or a private person who has in his possession rolling stock and transports on a contractual basis. Under current conditions, companies and organizations increasingly resort to outsourcing, which refers to the involvement of outside organizations to perform one or more functions or operations. The main criterion for selection is the safety of carriers of passengers of the service, so only use cost methods unacceptable. When using multi-criteria methods are worked through the issues of determining the relative importance of criteria and the choice of measurement scales. Thus, the task of choosing a common carrier and the development of approaches to problem solving it remains relevant. As the main criterion for choosing a carrier of passengers is recommended to use the safety performance of the service. On the basis of the requirements of normative-technical documentation allocated particular criteria to select the carrier of passengers by orders. In order to determine the specific criteria of the carrier is proposed to use a truncated scale of school grades. Thus, each carrier is characterized by a vector of eight private assessment criteria. Vector estimates for carrier selection is useful when there is information about the relative importance of the criteria. The relative importance of the criteria defined by experts in the Saaty scale. In the course of the iterative procedure, the values of the vector group to assess the relative importance of criteria and the weight vector competence of experts. References of individual criteria by different methods showed that the ranks of private criteria match. This points to a strict linear ordering criteria. References of experts proposed an approach to the selection of the carrier of passengers on the basis of a Pareto optimal solution of multi-criteria problems.
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Verkhovodov A.A. INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL POLLUTION OF A RADIATOR IN USE ON THE AERODYNAMIC RESISTANCE OF THE RADIATOR FAN BLOCK OF THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE ENGINE OF THE CARIn this article theoretical and pilot researches by definition of influence of external pollution of aluminum radiators of a combined design of cooling systems of engines of cars in use on aerodynamic resistance as radiator, and radiator fan block in general are conducted. Expression for coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of a radiator of the cooling system of the engine of the car taking into account influence of parameters of its design, and also the formed pollution on surfaces in use is theoretically received. Influence of external pollution of a radiator on its aerodynamic resistance ΔР2 is experimentally studied. Results of researches showed that aerodynamic resistance in use owing to pollution of a radiator increases on 70–80 %. In parametrical and criteria forms dependences for the aerodynamic resistance of aluminum radiators of a combined design of tubular and lamellar type taking into account influence of term of operation, namely run of a radiator on the car are received. Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator fan blocks of ZAZ cars ("Tavriya" and "Slavuta") which were operated throughout 220 thousand km are experimentally received. The received dependences and characteristics allow to add mathematical model of power calculation of the cooling system of the engine of the car and to consider influence of external pollution of a radiator on work as radiator, and radiator fan block in general that will allow to receive the most correct values of a consumption of air which has to provide the fan, and power costs of its drive, and also to predict frequency of service of a radiator, without allowing to decrease overall performance of all system, including taking into account work of fan installation.Key words: car, engine cooling system, operation, pollution, radiator, fan, aerodynamic resistance.
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Vorobiev A.L., Lukoyanov V.A., Kolchina I.V. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF THE AVERAGE COMMISSIONERS SERVICEES BY THE STANDERTIZATION METHODS BASED ON ANALYSIS PROCESS MODELThis article is devoted to the problem of formation traffic congestion on the big cities streets as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA) and to the possibility of surgical elimination of such traffic congestion consequences through the science-based using of the average commissioners institute. For this purpose the authors performed the decomposition of the average commissioner service process by means of functional modeling notation IDEF0 and defined the main stages of this process. Pareto analysis of statistical data on time intervals of the average commissioner service allowed to identify the most time-consuming and most severely influencing on the eliminating traffic congestion critical time stages of the service: the arrival on the scene of an accident and scheme accident recording / registration. A special place in the article takes the classification and ranking of the most common places of the traffic accident. These classification and ranking was carried out on the basis of traffic accidents statistical analysis in the Orenburg City. According to statistical data crosswalks, straight road sections and intersections were identified as most common places of traffic accidents. In accordance with the traffic regulations intersections, in turn, are classified into four types. Developed by authors traffic accident scheme sample forms are offered to reduce the time of the document registration. This solution will permit to unify the documentation system in the field of road traffic accident registration and to increase the reliability and reproducibility of the providing average commissioner service process. In conclusion, standardization of average commissioner service prospects are presented.Key words: average commissioners, formalization of road accident, functional modeling, typification, sample forms oh the road accident schemes.
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Denisov A.C., Galiyev P.K., Kulakov A.T., Kovalenko S.Yu. ENSURING MAINTAINABILITY OF THE NITRATED CRANKED SHAFT WITH ELECTROEROSIVE PROCESSING OF NECKSResults of the research aimed at providing maintainability of the nitrated cranked shaft are presented in this work. The analysis of operational reliability of KamAZ engines with the nitrated cranked shaft showed high wear resistance of these shafts. At the same time, the teases arising at operation on necks of a shaft it is almost impossible to eliminate with the standard methods of processing because of the high hardness of a blanket, and the surface on the nitrated layer is impossible that leads to utilization of a shaft. Besides, thickness of the nitrated layer is smallest that allows to process a shaft no more, than on one repair size. Thereof, maintainability of the nitrated cranked shaft is the extremely unsatisfactory and considerably increases costs for operation of vehicles. So, at the average market price of a cranked shaft of 93 thousand rubles. The program of production of 50 thousand engines and level of annual rejection of 0,03 losses of consumers will make 697,5 million rubles. The possibility of a surface of necks of the nitrated shaft in operation requires removal of the nitrated layer with the minimum expenses of resources and time. One of the technologies meeting these requirements is the developed technology of repair with removal of the nitrated layer in the electroerosive way on depth of 0,4 mm in a condition of the main structure that provides possibility of induction training or a surface without emergence on cranked shaft of cracks, peelings, blistering. After that necks of a shaft strengthen TVCh and resurfacing in the conditions of manufacturer or build up with the subsequent polishing and polishing in the conditions of repair productions in the established sizes. The subsequent repolishing of necks on the established size allows to restore to 80 % of cranked shaft with teases of necks. The offered technology showed the working capacity and efficiency at tests, is applicable both in the conditions of repair production, and in the conditions of manufacturer with use of the standard equipment with considerable economy of resources in comparison with the existing repair methods.Key words: cranked shaft, heat treatment, nitriding, electroerosive processing.
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Dryuchin D. A., Majors M. A. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF TRANSPORT SERVICE OF THE POPULATION CITY PASSENGER TRANSPORT ALONG REGULAR ROUTESArticle is devoted to a problem of the fullest and qualitative satisfaction of needs of urban population for movement. The analysis of various ways of ensuring mobility of urban population allowed allocating of city public transport, as the most socially important component of a city transport complex. Proceeding from it, the main objective of research — improvement of quality of transport service of the population is defined by city passenger public transport. The presented material in essence is the review of a complex of the scientific and applied directions which realization in total provides high-quality increase of level of transport service of urban population. In the first part of article the review of various ways of ensuring mobility of urban population is executed, features of these ways and influence on cumulative indicators of satisfaction of demand for transport services are defined. Important social value of city route passenger transport is proved. Further, the review of known scientific works in the field of the organization of city route transportations and an assessment of quality of transport service of the population is submitted. On the basis of the studied material, the list of the indicators determining quality of transport service of the population by city passenger transport is considered and presented in article. Proceeding from the existing classification of indicators of quality of transport service of the population, the directions of improvement of work of city public transport are defined and structured. The short description of the actions realized within each of the presented directions is given. The general concept which is been the basis for the developed actions and the directions is based on ensuring priority development of city public passenger transport, in comparison with other ways of ensuring transport mobility of urban population that is dictated by collective interests of city society. The classification of the directions of improvement of work of public passenger transport presented in article can be used when developing long-term programs of development of transport infrastructure of municipalities. When developing subjects of the scientific and applied researches raising the key questions of functioning and development of city passenger route transport.Key words: transport service of the population, public transport, city routes, information technology, organizational structure.
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Eliseev M.E., Tomchinskaya T.N., Repnikov A.A., Blinov A.S. INTERACTIVE MAP OF THE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF A LARGE CITYThis paper presents the results of research aimed at improving road safety. The design of the information system allows us to select and analyze areas of road infrastructure with high accident rates, and also to realize feedback from subjects of the road process was viewed. In this paper, the author's research, that was started in previous publications, was continued. The main idea is to use GIS technologies and dynamic SQL-queries to analyze a database of traffic accidents. Implementation of feedback with subjects of the road process by using the three-dimensional modeling was considered in detail. Models of accidents are attached to the interactive safety map, to its online subsystem. This method allows the best way to describe the real situation on the road, objects of traffic and their mutual arrangement. For visualization of the urban environment, the method of low-poly modeling was used. Provided examples of models are implemented in the Autodesk Maya environment. The advantage of this approach is the high information possibility of analysis on a one model series of road and transport situations, with the possibility of modifying the virtual road infrastructure to verify different hypotheses. In our view, the use of three-dimensional modeling is one of the main stages of the development of an interactive safety map of roads. We are planning to use this complex program for management decisions, relating to the modification of road infrastructure areas with high accident rates, for training in driving schools and for informing road users. The latter possibility has already been implemented on a web-site which is currently in beta testing.Key words: accident, traffic collision, TRC, traffic accident, road accident, TRA, GIS, Geographic Information System, virtual model, an interactive map.
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Zadorozhnaya E.A., Ovodov P.V. DIAGNOSIS OF FRICTION UNITS OF HEAT ENGINE ACCORDING TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE LUBRICANTIn this paper, the problem of diagnosing the state of the heat engine and troubleshooting its units at an early stage, without decommissioning of friction units is considered. The control and diagnostics of the engine is one of the conditions for reliable and safe its operation, because the lubricant loses its original properties when operating a vehicle under the influence of various factors. The particular attention is paid to possible methods of diagnosis. The authors adhere to the concept that the benefits of a diagnostic analysis of the state of the lubricant are to save material and labor resources, to reduce downtime due to engine faults, to increase engine life, to reduce maintenance costs, to reduce costs of spare parts, as well as to reduce the consumption of fuel and oil. The authors proposed a methodology for conducting of studies using modern diagnostic equipment. The technology of sampling and sample preparation is described in the article. The authors propose to use three basic methods: the particle size distribution method, the infrared spectroscopy, the method of ferrography. The diagnostic of friction units of heat engines was made on the basis of the study of trends in the wear particles in the engine oil, IR spectra and ferrogramm of motor oil Castrol EDGE Professional 0W-30 during its use in engines and B5254T B6324S, which are used on cars Volvo. The results showed that the use of the methodology will allow to adjust the drain intervals of oil, to prevent the failure of the vital parts of the engine, to monitor engine wear and maintenance to ensure trouble-free operation of the engine throughout its entire life.Key words: ferrography, infrared spectroscopy, motor oil, particle size distribution method.
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Zakharov N.S., Rakitin V.A. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY OF CARS WITH DIESEL AND METHANE-DIESEL ENGINESRoad transport companies seek to increase their efficiency, in particular by reducing the cost of running vehicles. Type of fuel used by the vehicle may have a significant impact on the cost of transportation of goods, therefore analyzed the possibility of retrofitting trucks to work at a cheaper form of fuel — compressed and liquefied natural gas. Conversion of diesel vehicles to run on methane-diesel cycle has a number of problems, one of which decline of the reliability of methane-diesel vehicles. Currently, in the calculation of operating costs and the cost of transportation of cargos, is not taken into account the change in the reliability of methane-diesel vehicles and the calculation is made as for the diesel vehicles. In an experiment been compared diesel and methane-diesel vehicles in similar conditions. Actual the difference time between failures differ by more than a factor of 2 with reducing the reliability of the methane-diesel vehicles. Reducing the reliability of vehicles leads to additional operating costs, which increased by more than 35 %. The problem of the use of compressed or liquefied natural gas as an alternative and cheaper motor fuel for trucks requires further research in order to identify the change in the ultimate cost of transportation of cargos. Thus, the number of failures by vehicles with diesel and methane-diesel engines differ by more than a factor of 2, and changing of the reliability by methane-diesel cars affects the cost of transportation of cargos, not only on the cost of fuel, but also taking into consideration the increase in the cost of repair of these vehicles. It is proposed to take into account this effect when calculating the cost of running methane-diesel vehicles and the formation of the cost of transportation of cargos.Key words: cost, alternative fuel, gas equipment, flow failures, natural gas.
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Kalimullin R. F. ENSURING DURABILITY OF ENGINES OF VEHICLES WITH AN OPERATIONAL METHODIn article the new operational method of ensuring durability of engines of vehicles is described. The method consists in their primary operation on such optimum low wearout the load and high-speed modes at which intensity of the destroying processes of bearings of a cranked shaft and details of piston-cylinder group is minimum. Realization of such operational method of ensuring durability of automobile engines became possible on the basis of development of methods of research of the generalized regularities of wear resistance of bearings of a cranked shaft and heat resistance of tsilindro-piston group depending on parameters of operating modes at the movement of the vehicle. The technique and results of determination of optimum speeds of the movement of the vehicle (on the example of the NEFAZ-5299-08 bus) by the developed generalized criterion of durability of bearings of a cranked shaft and piston-cylinder group of the engine is presented. Novelty are techniques and results of researches of regularities of lubricant process in bearings of a cranked shaft and their wear resistance in the "specific integrated wear resistance" parameter. It is defined that the actual speed of the bus in the conditions of the city and country movement corresponds optimum on all transfers only to 17-20% of cases. It is caused by that the actual speed is overestimated on all transfers of rather optimum speeds. Therefore there is a reserve of increase of durability due to primary operation of engines of vehicles in the optimum modes. Calculations showed that at the movement of the bus at optimum speeds the percent of increase in the generalized criterion of durability averages 33,8 %. The practical importance of the provisions described in article is their use in the motor transportation enterprises when training drivers in optimum ways of low wearout operation of engines of buses and cars on auto machines simulators.Key words: bearings of a cranked shaft, piston-cylinder group, engine, movement speed, durability.
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Konovalova T.V, Nadiryan S.L. TECHNIQUE OF EVALUATION OF THE MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ENTERPRISES WORK ON MOVEMENT SAFETYThe article is devoted to complex research questions evaluation of trucking companies to ensure safety. This problem is poorly understood and requires further research. The authors give a generalized characterization of the problem of road safety, as well as reveal the features of assessment work to ensure traffic safety on transport companies. Because of the large variety of valuation techniques, their heterogeneity and often highly complex for qualitative performance evaluation of trucking industry to improve safety requires special training experts. As a method of solving the problem of evaluation of traffic safety has been chosen by the authors method of expert evaluations, which allows to compare and evaluate the evaluation object, even on the criteria that are not measured directly. Methods of assessing the work of trucking companies to ensure traffic safety based on the method of weighting coefficients, the calculation begins with the definition of the factors that have the greatest impact on the success of road haulage companies (including accidents). Then evaluated the degree of the relative importance of each factor by expert assessments with sufficient statistical database research. The paper presents a methodology for assessing implementation of the algorithm of road haulage companies to improve traffic safety (from data collection for the study to assess the effectiveness of the enterprise). The technique allows solving of the problems of quantifying the level of safety of a particular motor company. The evaluation results can be used for operational management and forecasting of road haulage companies, which leads to the possibility of determining the main directions and priorities for improving road safety.Key words: motor transport, road and transport incident, motor transportation enterprises, traffic safety, expert assessment.
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Kotenkova I.N. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF LOGISTIC APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTThis article discusses the basic premises and principles of the logistics of the urban environment. The connection between the formation of the logistics network and the transport network, the direction and the capacity of incoming and outgoing flows. The article touches upon the placement of objects logistics infrastructure in the urban environment. Particular attention is paid to research on the characterization of indicators of the urban transport systems; design, construction and regulatory support, the organization of their operation. The author traces the emergence of urban development of science, methodology of designing cities in our country. Analyzed the initial stages of the creation of the city's transport network, the main periods of the design and development of transport infrastructure of cities, urban planning stages of development of science, the main directions of development of the urban environment, taking into account the level of motorization, logistics approach to the design, construction and maintenance of highways. The article deals with the problem of uncontrolled, unregulated development are highlighted and described the characteristic parameters of the territory, the recommendations on the modernization and development of the road network. Considerable attention is paid to the definition of the capacity of the road network and the level of service roads. The article considers the general guidelines for forecasting traffic between the settlements correspond to the characteristics and methods of calculation. The analysis of regulatory documents on urban planning and design of highways and urban transport systems. The problem of lack of parameters governing the determination of the load on the MAC from individual capital construction projects. In conclusion, the problems that determine the need for methods of integrated assessment and siting of logistics infrastructure in urban areas.Key words: logistics, transport, city, transport network, transport planning, road, design.
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Kotov V.V., Zhestkova S.A. DETERMINATION OF RADIAL ROUTES FOR THE CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY ROAD TRANSPORTThis paper presents a solution to the routing problem of road transport on the basis of an improved algorithm of the method of fictitious nodes and branches, allowing us to obtain more accurate results. The task of routing offers the use of a technique of definition of optimal schemes of movement, which up to this time, exact solution of the problem in the General case is not found. One reason for this is the presence of various constraints when defining the objective function, taking into account the specifics of the type of transport. In particular in the delivery of petroleum products it is necessary to consider the following: the route is carried out on a specially designed circuit to account for the movement of dangerous goods, which does not always coincide with the shortest distance between points; for the transportation of petroleum products used heavy trucks. The result is that in many cases the free volume of the tanks at petrol stations (gas stations) are insufficient for the organization of the pendulum route. This work offers a way to improve the efficiency of delivery of goods, the method of fictitious nodes and branches when solving vehicle routing based on the input external redundant nodes, which allows more accurate to describe the process of cargo transportation. We propose an improved algorithm of the method of fictitious nodes and branches, containing 14 stages, allowing us to obtain exact solution of the problem vehicle routing to determine the radial routes. Provides a specific solution to a traffic problem on the basis of having a transport count on the proposed algorithm to determine the optimal radial routes for transportation of goods by road, based on the exact method of linear programming.Key words: dummy node, graph, matrix, method, algorithm.
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Kulakov A.T., Gaffarov G.G., Akhmetov M.H. THERMOTENSION OF A CYLINDERS SLEEVE OF THE KAMAZ FORCED ENGINES In work results of research of a thermotension of details of interface "the top landing belts of a sleeve of the cylinder — the block of cylinders" at the forced diesels KamAZ are presented. Relevance of research is caused by identification of the reasons of a high pressure the crankcase gases, emission of oil through system of ventilation of a case in the atmosphere at operation of engines. Sleeves of the forced diesels are characterized by high thermal and mechanical tension. On the basis of bench tests of the engine with experimental sleeves the temperature condition of the top landing belt of a sleeve of the cylinder is determined by temperature of melting of the witnesses established on them from POS 61 solder and the settlement analysis of a heat-stressed condition of details of the studied interface is carried out. As a result of calculation it is established that during the operation of the engine on the nominal mode in the considered interface instead of a gap the tightness that causes increase in deformation of a sleeve of the cylinder in addition to its assembly takes place. It can become the reason of breaks of gases from the combustion chamber in an engine case with emission of oil through system of ventilation the crankcase gases in the atmosphere subsequently. The constructive changes offered in work for installation of a sleeve of the cylinder in the block of cylinders allow to organize intensive compulsory cooling of the top zone of a sleeve of the cylinder, to reduce its temperature, thereby to reduce deformations.Key words: sleeves of cylinders, a thermotension, the top landing belt, the forced engines.
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Kustikov A., Kuzmin N. STABILIZATION OF BUSES GEAR BOXES OIL OPERATING ON CITY ROUTES WITH GRADIENTSThe article presents results of research aimed at improving the reliability of manual transmissions in the work of urban PAZ buses on routes with gradients. In order to generate samples proposed encoding failure of transmissions, which was used to calculate experimental analysis of the causes of failures. Received the statistical model of the distribution laws of the failures PAZ of buses. The gearbox PAZ-32054 limiting parts — gears, in gearbox PAZ-4234 buses — gear and rear crankcases. Established that the main cause of reduced reliability buses gearboxes on routes with gradients is unsatisfactory condition of the gear oil at the moment of scheduled replacement. By the chemical analysis of samples transmission oil, set the values of the mass fraction and the size of particles in the operation of buses on routes with gradients. After approximation of the experimental values obtained dependence of the concentration and size of particles from the mileage on the route with gradients. The proposed mathematical model allows to determine the wear of the gears of first transmission of urban buses manual gearbox operating on routes with gradients. Calculated optimal periodicity of replacement of gearbox oil by method of determination the optimal frequency for acceptable levels of reliability. In order to reduce the content of the residue of spent oil in crankcases at oil replacement and running products after repairs are encouraged to run the gearbox followed by rinsing for routes with gradients. Proposed activities in complex allowed to reduce the content of impurities in the transmission oil, as a result, the number of failures decreased by 46 %.Key words: failure, transmission, route gradients, gear oil, impurities, depreciation, maintenance.
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Lipenkov A.V., Kuzmin N.A., Erofeeva L.N. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BUS STOPPING POINT CAPACITY IN CASE OF ABSENCE OF BUSES OVERTAKING MANEUVERSThe article describes the mathematical model for calculating of the throughput rate of urban passenger transport stopping point. It is proved that the throughput rate of stopping point increases disproportionately to the number of service points. In existing methodologies this fact is taken into account by empirical coefficients. Based on the analysis of the functioning process of stopping point it was found that the reducing of the stopping point effectiveness with increasing of the number of service points has two reasons. Firstly it is loss of time due to buses interference and secondly it is the "human factor". Empirical coefficients depend on several factors and can vary widely. The key attention of the paper the author focuses on the establishment of mathematical relationships between the loss of time from the buses interference and factors acting on them. The author concludes that time delay are fundamentally different in magnitude as well as in terms of operating factors, depending on the stopping point operating process. It is proposed to consider two schemes: the movement of buses one after another each without any possibility of maneuvering and the same movement with possible overtaking of a bus that is going ahead. It was found that the loss of time in the case of buses movement without maneuvering affected by the standard deviation of the passengers servicing time as well as the difference in time between the start of the service of two adjacent buses. With the help of the probability theory, Monte Carlo method as well as regression analysis the dependences of the loss of time from the standard deviation of the passengers servicing time were found. The obtained dependences can more accurately calculate the throughput rate of bus stopping points. In conclusion of the paper a number of factors are presented that affect the throughput rate of bus stopping point and require the detailed study in future works.
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Poslavsky A.P. METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF THERMAL RESISTANCE OF ELEMENTS OF POWER UNITS WITH HEAT EXCHANGE SURFACESThere is a class of the working surfaces which aren't connected with perception of mechanical loadings, but changing the state from initial to a state when parameters of thermal process, for example the internal combustion engine (ICE), go beyond, admissible the specifications and technical documentation. Internal and external surfaces of the sleeves of cylinders (SC), a cooling radiator, etc. belong to such surfaces. At high intensity of allocation of warmth in a running cycle of DVS without adequate intensification of the heat sink, the main heat-stressed details won't be able to ensure reliable functioning because of an overheat. Violation of operability of heat-transmitting surfaces in an operational cycle belongs to the class of gradual refusals which boundary conditions it is difficult to establish, owing to complexity of determination of regularity of growth of the thermal resistance created by various deposits. The experimental method of determination of the general thermal resistance of elements of heat-transmitting system in any state throughout an operational cycle is offered. The offered method is realized at the stand which allows to model thermal load of a surface according to parameters of working process real (in most cases). Definition of the thermal stream passing through a heat-transmitting surface under the quoted experimental conditions is carried out in the stationary mode of a heat transfer. Use of electric heating when modeling allows to register with high precision change of thermal loading depending on the size of thermal resistance on the studied heat-transmitting surface in initial and current state. The size of the additional thermal resistance created by various pollution can serve as reliable criterion of degree of impurity of surfaces. Use of the offered method allows to estimate objectively a condition of surfaces, to determine consistent patterns of change and to predict terms of carrying out service. It will promote decrease in non-productive costs of resources when performing preventive actions for cleaning of heat-transmitting surfaces.Key words: thermal resistance, thermal balance, cylinder sleeve, heat exchange.
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Puzakov A.V. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WORKING CAPACITY AUTOMOTIVE ALTERNATORMaintenance operation of modern cars does not assume diagnosing of parameters of the automotive alternator, therefore, the exit it out of operation, as a rule, is sudden, and leads to essential losses of time. Lack of techniques of an assessment of a functioning state complicates timely failure detection of alternators; therefore, the purpose of work is establishment of interrelation between structural parameters of basic elements of the alternator with its diagnostic parameters. Based on the developed mathematical models the author proves direct dependence between structural parameters of stator windings and a rotor, the rectifier block and brush-holder and parameters of their working capacity. It is established that these structural parameters are electric resistance of windings, case and interturn isolation, semiconductor diodes and a site a brush-holder — an armature coil. The conducted researches allowed to prove quantitatively the ranges of electric resistance corresponding to operating state and characteristic failures of elements of the alternator. As the automotive alternator possesses the consecutive scheme of reliability, changes of above-mentioned electric resistance by all means will lead to violation of the size (form) of its output voltage, as critical diagnostic parameter. Therefore, the solution of a problem of forecasting of operability of the automotive alternator possibly at establishment of dependence between quantitative values of electric resistance of its elements and size (form) of an output voltage which can be estimated by means of an oscilloscope.Key words: automotive alternator, mathematical model, working capacity.
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Rassokha V.I., Isaychev V.T. FEATURES OF DETERMINATION OF PARAMETERS OF THE LAG EFFECT OF SYSTEM OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE CONVERGENCE OF THE OPERATED CAR WHEELS AT DYNAMIC OVERCOMING OF RISESAt the movement of the vehicle under the influence of various factors because of gaps and deformations in elements of the steered bridge and a steering constantly there are uncontrollable changes of a camber and convergence of steered wheels leading to increase of resistance to the movement, wear of tires and fuel consumption. Authors developed and patented system of automatic regulation of a convergence of steered wheels of the vehicle in the course of the movement. As criterion of an assessment of correctness of a convergence of steered wheels of the vehicle equality of the lateral reactions of the same name of the road to steered wheels at an in-line motion on the horizontal road is accepted. The analysis of the parameters having impact on process of regulation of a convergence of steered wheels of the vehicle in the movement is carried out. The interrelation between parameters of the system which is carrying out such regulation and a condition of the vehicle is established. The offered system is mechanical system, therefore, possesses inertia. Therefore if there was a violation of a convergence of steered wheels of the vehicle and it is necessary to restore it by force of operation of the executive gear of system, this force needs to be terminated earlier, than steered wheels of the vehicle will reach the correct situation, and further wheels will reach their correct situation due to inertia of system. In the previous articles of a cycle four cases of the movement of the vehicle — uniform are considered, at dispersal, braking and coasting. In this article the case of dynamic overcoming by the vehicle of rises is considered. The received theoretical dependences allow to determine rational parameters of system of automatic regulation of a convergence of steered wheels of the vehicle in the movement which will allow to reduce wear of tires, resistance to the movement and fuel consumption.Key words: the vehicle, a convergence of the operated wheels, system of regulation, a lag effect, dynamic overcoming of rise.
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Saraikin A.I., Aralbaev T.Z., Khasanov R.I. POSITIONING OF MOBILE OBJECTS ON THE ROADWAY IN A DEFICIT OF INFORMATIONInadequate assessment of the impact of the value driver deficit of information when choosing the trajectory and speed of the mobile object considerably increases the risk of road accidents. One of the basic principles of active safety is to use a mobile object navigation methods and tools to inform drivers when positioning the mobile object on the roadway. To implement this task, we developed a pilot version of the onboard positioning system — a prototype of the system, which includes the following functional modules: collection, registration and processing of data on the trajectory of the mobile object, select the high-speed mode and the rotation angle of mobile object in a deficit of information. A prototype airborne system was tested on potentially dangerous areas of the roadway, on the basis of which recommendations on the choice of safe passage movement of the mobile object in a deficit of information. This result demonstrates the adequacy of the data for the selection of the direction of rotation angle of the mobile object positioning system board recommended and the actions of the driver. The method developed in the form of algorithms and tools to reduce the risk of road accidents outside the settlements in terms of visual information deficit.Key words: deficit of visual information, information support driver, active security mobile object.
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Fattakhova A.F., Dryuchin D.A., Yanuchkov M.R. JUSTIFICATION OF A SCOPE OF GAS FUEL ON CARS WITH PETROL ENGINESUse of hydrocarbonic gases instead of traditional liquid fuels traditionally is considered, as one of the obvious actions allocated for increase of efficiency of operation of vehicles both in economic, and in the ecological plan. But along with obvious advantages, gas fuels possess a number of features which significantly reduce efficiency of their application, and in some cases, nullify the gained effect. Proceeding from it, the main objective of work — increase of efficiency of operation of vehicles due to determination of values of the operational parameters limiting area of profitable use of gas fuels is formulated. At the initial stage of research features of use of gas fuels on cars with petrol engines are considered. On the basis of the analysis of standard technological schemes of main types of the works connected with use of gas fuels the list of the equipment, the area of production rooms and the list of works, is determined by rearmament of production base of the enterprises, caused by transition to gaseous fuel. Method of calculation of volume of capital investments, structures of operational expenses and possible economic effect of use of gas fuels are developed. On the basis of the developed techniques the algorithm of calculation of economic indicators of the transfer of park of vehicles on gas fuel is made. Practical realization of the made algorithm allowed to create mathematical model of operation of vehicles on gas fuel. By means of the developed model modeling of technical and economic indicators of operation of vehicles on the liquefied gas is carried out. The area of economically effective use of gas fuels on cars with petrol engines described by a set of operational parameters which values are calculated for the average motor transportation enterprise of Orenburg is defined. The received result represents undoubted interest, as for the economic entities which are carrying out commercial operation of vehicles when developing translation programs of park on gas fuel, and for the scientific organizations when carrying out researches in the field of increase of efficiency of operation of the motor transport. Key words: gas fuel, efficiency of operation of cars, the liquefied gas, operational expenses, fuel profitability.
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Filatov M.I., Trunov B.B., Konoplya B.B. MANAGEMENT OF FUEL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAR DUE TO HEAT EXCHANGE OF UNDER HOOD SPACE WITH ENVIRONMENTIn work heat exchange of under hood space with the engine and environment is considered. The description of the processes promoting change of parameters of heat exchange of the engine with under hood space and under hood space with environment is provided. Operating modes the thermostat depending on temperature of cooling liquid are described. Opportunities additional economy of fuel on cars in use are found. Dependences of change of volume of emissions of the polluting substances with the fulfilled gases are established: nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, etc. It is established that operating heat exchange processes of under hood space decrease in emissions of NOx with the fulfilled gases for 4,9 % is reached. Also operating heat exchange process of under hood space increase of efficiency of operation of the car due to reduction of time of warming up by 5,3 % and increases in time of cooling of the engine by 20,3 % is reached. Thus this contribution is brought by only the top lattice of a radiator, blocking it we reduce heat exchange with environment. Researches were conducted on the engine with the distributed injection of fuel and with use of the modern equipment. Temperature from eight channels (eight sensors) located as inside, and out of under hood space in characteristic zones was at the same time fixed. When carrying out pilot studies the car was under natural conditions operation with observance of conditions on free heat removal and in the absence of the conditions accelerating branch process. All experiments repeated repeatedly and under various temperature conditions of environment. The reached results allow to reduce negative impact of the motor transport on environment due to decrease in volume of emissions of the polluting substances with the fulfilled gases.Key words: the under hood space, temperature condition polluting the substances which fulfilled gases, fuel profitability, ecological safety.
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Khasanov I.Kh. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS OF DIAGNOSING OF CARS BODIESIn work the results of researches directed on increase of efficiency of operation of cars on the basis of improvement of diagnosing of bodies by methods of nondestructive control are presented. The offered adapted control methods of technical condition of bodies of cars allow at the modern hi-tech level to reveal the latent defects without dismantling of elements of a body with the minimum labor expenses. The developed technique of identification of bodies of cars regarding their participation in road accidents will allow to find the hidden, earlier held body repair events, to reveal the most loaded sites of a body and to receive full information on a condition of a body ("body history") for the purpose of timely definition and elimination of the defects influencing safety of vehicles and also to improve quality of the provided services in maintenance, diagnosing and repair at the motor transportation and autoserving enterprises. Economic effect of actions for improvement of control methods of technical condition of bodies of cars will allow to increase profit of the enterprises of a motor transportation complex and to broaden spheres of their financial professional activity. It is expedient to use the proposed solutions taking into account carrying out additional specifications of advanced techniques for definition of technical condition of frames and cabins of vehicles of domestic and foreign production. Realization of results of scientific researches at the service enterprises, points of technical inspection will allow to increase quality of the provided services in diagnosing of cars, in autoexpert bureaus — to make a flashback of bodies, and in insurance companies — most effectively to carry out an assessment and insurance of vehicles.Key words: nondestructive control, diagnosing, technical condition, car body, latent defects.
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Hasanov R.H., Balovnev S.V. JUSTIFICATION OF THE INDICATOR EVALUATION OF VEHICLE SAFETYThe paper presents results of research aimed at ensuring the safety of the transport complex and one of its elements — vehicles. The article is devoted to analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of road transport over other modes of transport. According to the data of the Transport ministry of the Russian Federation, the contribution of road transport in freight transportation is 75–77 %, in passengers transportation (excluding private cars) — 53–55 %. Any vehicle has such important advantages as mobility, ability to deliver passengers and cargo "from door to door" and "just in time". However, road transport and its infrastructure continue to take the leading role in harmful effects on human health, the environment and the natural world as a result of activity. It is therefore necessary to develop new principles of international policy to ensure comprehensive safety of the transport complex. The safety of the transport complex is divided into following types: road safety; ecological safety of transport activity; transportation safety in emergency situations; labour safety on vehicles and transport infrastructure; anti-terrorist security of transport infrastructure and vehicles. The article considers the problem of accidents due to technical malfunctions of vehicles. One of the directions in the solution to this problem is the analysis of the causes and consequences of emergency situations in vehicles. Therefore, the research aim was to evaluate the safety of vehicles. A factor of safety of vehicles will be an integrated measure of damages in case of emergency. This indicator takes into account the cause and time of occurrence of each type of accidents in vehicles.Key words: transport complex, safety, motor vehicles, an indicator of the safety assessment.
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Shevelenko V.D., Lukoyanov V.A. USING OF THE ABEL TRANSFORM TO SUM TRIGONOMETRIC POLYNOMIALSCurrently, the spectral signal analysis commonly used digital filter based on DSP with the input of ADC (analog-to-digital converter), which implements the ordinary or fast discrete Fourier transform. Speed digital filter determines the width of the analyzed spectrum of the measured process and the ability to process data in real time. Most characteristic for the speed of digital filters based on dedicated processors fast Fourier transform, multiplying the matrix comprising a conveyor with parallel data processing. However, parallelization of computing operations leads to a nonlinear increase in the volume of equipment. Therefore, despite the rather significant process in improving the performance of digital element base, the computing speed of the need to perform parallel-serial number of multiplications is relatively increased substantially less, which leads to inefficient use of components. The upper cutoff frequency spectrum of the signal that can be analyzed not exceed a few dozen kilohertz, at a number of points 1024, and accordingly, the number of harmonics equal to 512. In solving the problems of filtration, requiring a large number of multiplications, to increase the speed of signal processing by the discrete Fourier transform is needed transition to digital-to-analog and analog multiplier with a maximum parallelization of the encoding and signal processing, and implementation of these operations as much as possible in the devices. This need is caused by the fact that the expansion of the frequency spectrum of the analyzed dimensions, current consumption and the cost of digital "Fourier-processor" increases dramatically.The article discusses the possibility of using the Abel transformation to summation of trigonometric functions. It shows some of the common sum of the coefficients. It considers conclusions, under which it is possible to exist special cases, when the using of second Abel transformation form to summation of trigonometric functions will be more appropriate.Key words: Abel transform, summability of series, Parseval equality, trigonometric functions, energy and information properties of the series sums.
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Shtain G.V., Panfilov A.A. FUEL EFFICIENCY OF DIESEL ENGINES WITH MULTIPHASE INJECTION OF FUELThis paper analyzes the basic requirements for modern automobile engines for economic and environmental indicators. Simultaneous execution of stringent environmental and improved fuel-economic characteristics of the engine is usually hard to implement. Introducing structural changes to improve the environmental performance of automobile engines may result in deterioration of fuel efficiency. One of the main directions of improving the environmental performance of diesel engines is the use of "Common Rail". On the example of the multi-phase fuel injection waveform obtained by the use of stand-simulator "System Car Train Common Rail" assessed the fuel efficiency of diesel engines largest thermal efficiency In the analysis of the waveform revealed that the use of a multi-phase fuel injection can significantly improve the environmental performance of the diesel engine, reduce noise and "rigidity" of his work. However, using this method creates the prerequisites for reducing uses of warmth fuel injected into the engine cylinder, thereby worsening the cycle efficiency. By analyzing the thermodynamic cycles of heat engines with different ways of heat supply certain that the loss coefficient of efficiency with conversion to fuel efficiency up to 10 %. The use of a multi-phase fuel injection engine solves the problem of the implementation of strict environmental standards for vehicles used in cities and towns. For engines of transport and technological machines and equipment that have a large enough capacity and the corresponding fuel consumption, also used in localities not use multi-phase fuel injection is not always appropriate.Key words: specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, relative efficiency, multiphase fuel injection.
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Yusupova O.V., Bulatov S.V. DETERMINATION OF COSTS DEPENDENCE OF SPARE PARTS OF VAZ CARS ON OPERATION TERMSIn article the most characteristic are considered for cars VAZ failures of mechanisms and knots depending on run, and also conditions, terms and intensity of operation. By results of researches of service conditions of cars VAZ and in the analysis of causes of failures of details and knots it is revealed that one of the indicators characterizing intensity of operation of cars of individual use is average annual run which for cars VAZ depending on model fluctuates within 13,5–16,5 thousand km. The distribution of refusals established as a result of supervision over cars VAZ on units and systems shows that on run of 50 thousand km over 90 % of all refusals are the share of the engine, forward and back suspension brackets, brake system, electric equipment and a body. The expenses connected with elimination of these refusals make about 80 % of the general expenses on the car. On the obtained experimental data distribution of refusals on units and systems on the example of the car VAZ-2112 is given. For identification of influence of age of the vehicle on repair the analysis of the actual costs of spare parts for repair of 25 cars VAZ put into operation in 2007–2014 which allowed to calculate dependence of costs of spare parts on operation terms was carried out. It is established that the expenses connected with repair for cars VAZ on average in a year increase by 13,4 kopeks on run kilometer. The received results allow to make more reasonable administrative decisions concerning operation of these vehicles.Key words: car, operation, expenses, spare parts.
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Yakunin N.N., Nurgaliyev D.H. CRITERIA OF AN AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT OF PASSENGERS TRANSPORTATIONS ALONG REGULAR ROUTESResults of analytical and pilot studies on justification of criteria of an assessment of availability of transportations of the passengers on regular routes based on indicators of transport mobility of the population are given in work: quantity and distances of movement on different types of transport, transport work. The purpose of work consists in increase of availability of services in transportation of passengers along regular routes with use of estimates by complex criterion. On the basis of data on movement, distances of movement and transport work statistical and dynamic criteria of availability of transportations of passengers are formulated and determined by regular routes. The statistical criterion shows a share of movement of the population with use of route vehicles in total of movement. The dynamic criterion of an assessment indicates a share of transport work with use of route vehicles in total of transport work. Value of statistical criterion of availability of transportations of passengers along regular routes made 0,57. It means that route vehicles 57 % of the population, cars — 34,2 %, automobile taxi — 8,8 % move. Value of dynamic criterion variously on seasons of year also made: summer — 0,436; fall — 0,486; winter — 0, 566; spring — 0,488. The received results can be applied to optimization of a route transport network, definition of technological and structural indicators of public passenger transport.Key words: complex criterion, transport mobility, number of movement, distance of movement, transport work.
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Gorbachev C.B., Fot A.P., Shchipachev A.M., Lutfullin R.Ya. INFLUENCE OF POST-WELD TREATMENT ON THE STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF WELDED JOINTS OF STEELS 20 AND 30KHGSATypical form of a limit condition of the vessels working under pressure is destruction or damage as result of development of a crack. The usual location of cracks are welded seams or their vicinities. Automatic welding under a gumboil layer is widely applied to production of the welded bottoms of the vessels working under pressure. Manual arc welding is applied mainly in the unions having short and faltering seams, seams of a difficult configuration. Decrease in mechanical and operational properties of welded connections is a consequence of structural changes. Welding tension also promotes acceleration of corrosion processes. The used methods of heat treatment of welded connections are long and power-intensive, don't provide uniform strength of a seam and the main metal. For achievement of structural uniformity and providing a combination of high durability and plasticity use of hot plastic deformation of welded seams in the temperature and high-speed modes of manifestation of effect of superplasticity of metals is represented perspective. In article the problem of decrease in structural imperfections of welded connections steel 20 and 30HGSA is solved. The method of the X-ray diffraction analysis investigated models of welded connections after different types of processing Is established that for welded connections from steel 20 all types of postwelding processing lead to decrease in microtension, for welded connections from steel 30HGSA after annealing and thermocyclic processing reduction of microtension isn't observed, and rolling by the heated rolls in the mode of superplasticity (joint venture) allows to reduce microtension. Novelty is use of postwelding deformation processing of welded connection by heated rolls (isothermal rolling) in the mode of superplastic deformation (ε = 20 %).Key words: superplastic deformation, residual tension, welded connections, oil and gas equipment.
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Kozik E.S., Svidenko E.V. INFLUENCE OF THERMAL PROCESSING USING VYSOKOENERGETICHESKIKH SOURCES ON THE OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID ALLOY T15K6The aim of this work is to study the effect of heat treatment using high-energy sources of heat (laser) on the operational properties of carbide inserts brand T15K6. As object of research used solid rods of alloy T15K6, size 5 х 5 х 35 mm. Was held microanalysis, in order to detect defects laser treatment processing, such as cracks, delaminations, conducted on e-Mickroscope Jeol ISM-6000 NeoScope with increasing ×1300. Determining the microhardness of the surface and near-surface layer before and after shot peening was performed using a microhardness tester PMT-3, while the load 1,96 N. Determination of the phase composition was performed using microdirect-meter MD-10. Using reginaspektor analysis determined the parameters of the PE array, the block size of the crystal lattice (D), microstresses (Δd/d). Under specified conditions, heat strengthening determined an approximate speed of travel of the beam of laser radiation relative to the part or de-hoist relative to the beam, which is then corrected. Justification Regis-Dom processing produced according to the planning matrix fractional replica from the provisions of the factors of experiment 24-1.Key words: heat treatment, laser processing, hard-alloy plates, microhardness.
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Natural sciences

Belonovsky P.V., Vlatskaya I.V. AUTOMATION OF MONITORING OF GAS-DISTRIBUTING SYSTEMS SERVICE OF THE ORENBURG REGIONThe constant control and monitoring of its state is necessary for uninterrupted and accident-free supply of gas on all way of the gas pipeline. For this purpose it is required to automation of collecting, storage, the analysis and graphic localization of spatial data and attributive information. Special complexity is represented by this task for a network of gas distribution of the Orenburg region, extended and non-uniform on structure. This network includes 9 branches and 45 operational services and sites. The head office is located in Orenburg. For ensuring trouble-free and trouble-free operation the problem of development of GIS was solved. Organizational and technological tasks for a network of JSC Gazprom Gas Distribution Orenburg were considered. The problem of development of GIS for monitoring of technological survey of the gas pipeline was solved. The task included merger of various systems: monitoring of GRP and data of their configuration, telemechanics of SKZ, GLONASS/GPS of monitoring, database of a network of gas pipelines. The technical solutions satisfying to a number of criteria — personal GPS trackers and methods of systematization geo objects were found. The "System of Satellite Supervision over Mobile Objects" software product providing processing and data storage of monitoring and their display in gas distribution GIS in the Orenburg region is developed. The technology of programming of system included the MapGuide platform, the MSSQL database and the ASP.NET JavaScript programming languages. Possibility of drawing up reports on time of carrying out survey of the gas pipeline, viewing of the movement of the inspector, for detection of malfunctions of a tracker became result of introduction of system the program of control and diagnostics was developed, and the instruction on use of the software is also made. The system is introduced in operation since 2013. Daily the system analyzes more than 30000 GPS of points, rapprochement of the inspector with 1300 shutoff valves is defined, finding of crew on a survey route is established. Introduction of system increased discipline of work on technical inspection of gas pipelines, allowed to optimize a route configuration, revealed incorrect geo-information. Key words: geographic information systems, gas-distributing systems, monitoring of rounds, tracker.
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Novikov N.I. TO THE QUESTION OF CREATING A AUTOMATED SYSTEM MODELS OF TRAINING AND CONTROL GROUP PRODUCTION SITESProblems of preparation and management of the group automated production sites are characterized by high complexity, organizational and technological decisions are made in the conditions of uncertainty. The existing systems of preparation and management of group production sites don't provide flexibility, objectivity of information at decision-making that leads to failure of the set terms of production of details. Practice of automation of problems of preparation and management of the group automated production sites has local character, uses rigid algorithms. Complexity of objects and processes of organizational and technological design, at their automation demand new approaches. For increase of system effectiveness of preparation and management of group production sites in work approach at creation of models with application of artificial intelligence is offered and realized. Complexity of representation of knowledge of groups of detale-operations, technological processes, the equipment and processes of preparation and management of group production sites is shown. Various models of representation of knowledge are considered. For the description of objects and decision-making processes productional and frame approach in the object-oriented environment is used. The frame classes, definition of classes are executed classification, the most important communications between classes are allocated, programming of system is executed. For implementation of input of databases and knowledge, display of dynamic conditions of the modelled objects the class "Viewports of System of Planning" is programmed. The example of the rule of the developed knowledge base of system is given. Application of object-oriented approach at creation of models of the automated system of preparation and management of group production sites allowed to solve a complexity problem. Application of the multilanguage environment of representation of knowledge of experts allowed to realize the adequate description of diverse objects and processes in the uniform program environment. The offered approach allowed to realize methodology of creation of the intellectual automated program and mathematical complexes on training, the analysis, research and design of group production sites. Key words: organizational and technological design, the group automated productions, object-oriented design, artificial intelligence, models of representation of knowledge.
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Semenova N.G., Valiullin K.R. INTELLIGENT ENERGY-EFFICIENT STREET LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY Street lighting systems in modern cities are complex high power consuming facilities and development of energy-saving control systems is required for their effective work. Comparative analysis of existing methods of street lighting control, shows that in a modern city, they cannot work effectively. So, the development of intelligent control systems that simultaneously measure, analyze, and reduce power consumption, providing the flexibility in condition of uncertain data is important and relevant nowadays. Because of the many random factors, such as weather conditions, changes in the length of day light and others formalization of the power of the lighting installation relation from the ambient light is difficult. For the approximation of this function is proposed to use the neural networks, which was chose because of their efficiency in the field of approximation of continuous functions. Algorithm of intelligent street lighting control system with training based on the back propagation was developed and implemented in software. Developed control system operates in two modes: mode of training a neural network; control of a lighting system. Features of the program are: changing of the target luminance value of road surface; receiving of training sample directly in the process of lighting system control and preservation of training samples in tabular form for further processing. The program developed by the authors tested on experimentally installation consisting of five LED-lamp models of street lighting. The results of the experiments showed that the efficiency of the intellectual system of street lighting control compared with traditional amounted to 6.3 %.Key words: street lighting, control system, neural network technology, energy efficiency.
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Fot A.P., Mochalin A.V. SETTING DOUBLE PAIR OF MACHINES GUITARS USING A COMPUTERThe subject of the article is the description of the method of set completion of double pair change gear boxes with variable axial distance machines of various types. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to ensure improvement of quality (variability and accuracy) and to reduce set-up time machining double pair change gear boxes with variable axial distance and obtaining ratio, that is increasing the number of change gear boxes by leaving (or reducing) the number of change gears in the box. The principal aim is to develop a method of completing sets of change gear boxes and developing software with a friendly interface that allows fast tuning of double pair change gear boxes taking into account the main kinematic, structural, size and weight restrictions. While solving problems analytical methods and experiments were used. By using the proposed method of gears set-up and developed software, the seven sets mentioned in reference literature and scientific research journals, were improved. The field of application of the proposed solutions is machine tool engineering industry. In conclusion, the article points out that there is a real possibility to ensure improvement of quality (variability and accuracy) and to reduce set-up time machining double pair of boxes with variable axial distance: comparing the performance of six well-known with six new sets of change of gears double pair of boxes equipped with proposed method, confirms a significant increase of integral quality indicators (PQI) of new sets (average for all sets: IQI approximately 2.8 times and IQI approximately 2.9 times). The calculations also confirm the possibility of reducing the number of wheels in sets compared to the known (while retaining the characteristics of known sets) sets with 30 and 50 wheels to 6 and 7 wheels, respectively, the sets of 26, 27 and 36 wheels to 3, 2, and 3 wheels respectively. Compared to the most efficient existing method the proposed method of completion of double-pair box machine by change gears provides the required technical result — increasing the number of gear ratios implemented wish set a of change gears while maintaining the number of replacement gears in the box set (set of 26 wheels — approximately 238 % in the set of 27 wheels — 235 % in a set of wheels 36–50 %).Key words: box of machine, a set of changeable gears, method of completion.
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Zubkova T.M., Kolobov A.N. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRUDER GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR PRODUCING GOODS WITH THE SET QUALITIESThe article provides the analytical description of the extrusion process preparation parameters, characterizing the quality of the products — these are the impulses of shear and normal stresses. The strength of the granules depends on the compressive stress, while mixing and uniformity of the product — on shear stresses, which are essential in the screw, compression and gate array in the die of the extruder. The software system "Calculation of technical and economic parameters of single screw extruders" allows to find the parameters of the extrusion process: efficiency, productivity, the force acting on the working bodies of power, pressing time, the torque pulses of normal and shear stresses. The initial data are used by the geometric and constructive parameters of the extruder screw speed and rheological properties of the material. This article describes how to change the geometric dimensions of the screw changes the momentum of shear stresses. Varying the geometrical dimensions of the screw, the shear stresses for improving the homogeneity of the product increase. Parametric synthesis was performed with the help of the vector optimization software system. The technique of vector optimization auger (change of pace, height and thickness of the blade), and the software tools are described. The results show that by altering geometric parameters, it is possible to obtain extruded products with desired quality characteristics and to optimize the process. The software allows to automate engineer-designer's work in the design and improvement of extrusion technology. This makes it possible at the stage of conceptual design to create the extrusion technique for the production with specified levels of quality, taking into account the constraints on energy consumption of the process.Key words: extrusive process, mathematical modeling, impulses of tangent tension, impulses of normal tension, screw, compression lock, matrix, vector optimization, program system, computing experiment.
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Sidorenko G.A., Popov V.P., Zinukhin G.B., Yavkina D.I., Mezhueva L.V. ELECTROCONTACT BAKING OF GRAIN BREAD WITH THE ADDITIVE OF MILLET FLOURDuring baking the biological values of bakery products considerably decreases, that reduces a positive effect from the additives introduction of biologically active additives, in particular, containing in millet flour. It is possible to reduce the loss of biological value and increases the nutritional and biological value of final products, baking bakery products with the biologically active additives by the electrocontact method. Consequently the researches of the technology of the grain bread making with the additive of millet flour baked by the electrocontact way it was revealed that the dosage increase of millet flour leads to the acidity increase of the grain semi-finished product during fermenting. The dosage increase of millet flour leads to the process acceleration of electrocontact baking. The influence of the millet flour additive on the acidity and the humidity of final grain bread wasn't established. The introduction to 20% of millet flour into the receipt of grain bread leads to the porosity increase of final products, and further increase — to the decrease. The crumb of grain bread gets yellow coloring and millet taste with the introduction of millet flour. White thin coating appears on the surface of grain bread at the introduction of more than 20% of millet flour, bread gets bitterish taste at the dosage increase of millet flour.Key words: electrocontact method of baking, grain bread, millet flour, complex index of quality.
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Physical-mathematical sciences

Bulatasov E.O., Popov V.P., Hanin V.P. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WOOD MILLINGThe complexity of the process of cutting wood creates objective difficulties of obtaining a complete and accurate analytical description of the relations between the baseline and performance indicators cutting. To ensure the adequacy of the laws established by theory and experiment, the analysis of the process of cutting the wood necessary to consider many factors, first and foremost — the viscoelastic characteristics of the material being processed. An analysis of the forces from the blade by a timber for cutting the three main directions found that using compressive and tensile stresses occurring in the material being processed in the interaction with a cutter, it is possible not only to describe the process of cutting the wood to cut the three principal directions, and significant differences explain why the cutting force values for these cases, without using such a thing as chopping wood when cutting. It is expected that after cutting the thinnest shavings sharp cutter, the thickness of which is comparable to the radius of the rounding of the blade for wood cutter action to a greater extent can be reduced to the action of the blade, and the action of the front face, since small quantities, can be neglected. The study the mathematical model developed using the mathematical apparatus of rheology, which in theory wood cutting is a new method of mechanics-mathematical analysis, a formula for determining the amount of force cutting wood.Key words: mathematical model, milling wood, rheological model, rheological equation, cutting force.
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Kucherenko M.G., Kucherenko M.A. ABOUT TWO EVOLUTIONARY MODELS WITH A NONLOCAL QUADRATIC NONLINEARITYThe analysis of the properties of two well-known mathematical models of evolutionary Biophysics and physics of condensed matter, based on the differential equations of parabolic type is made. It is noted that the linearization of bilinear nonlocal member of the first model allows you to use features of the structure of the discrete spectrum of the reduced operator to analyze the dynamic mode of the explosive instability. The nonlocality of the second model included in the nonlinear operator of the Fokker-Planck, which provides spatial structuring of the system even in the absence of centers of autocatalysis. It is shown that both models do not lose their meaning and can be transferred without any significant changes in its structure in the area of methodology education processes by replacing the original biological or physical concepts equivalent concepts in the theory of knowledge. If successful broadcast of the characteristics and parameters of the overall results and conclusions of evolutionary models can be used to develop new learning strategies and original educational methods.Key words: evolutionary models, the processes of generation-destruction, explosive instability, spatial structures.
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Rustanov A.R., Kazakova O.N., Kharitonova S.V. THE AXIOM F-HOLOMORPHIC PLANES FOR NORMAL LCACS-MANIFOLDSAlmost contact metric structures have a rich geometry, as well as numerous applications in various areas of mathematics and theoretical physics. Sufficiently important aspect of almost contact geometry is the study of almost contact manifolds satisfying the axiom Ф-holomorphic planes.Key words: We obtain conditions under which normal locally conformal almost cosymplectic manifold satisfies the axiom of Ф-holomorphic planes.
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Myazina N.G. ABNORMALLY HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF IODINE IN THE BRINE AS CRITERIA OF PETROLEUM POTENTIALIodine — biology friendly, a typical element of the scattering. The concentration of iodine (J) in groundwater is in the range from fractions of units, 1 to 20 mg/l and less 35–70 mg/dm3, and more. Iodine is found in all animal organisms. S Zagorodnaya in the pool and at depths where temperatures exceed 150-200 °С. released as a result of thermolysis DITCH, iodine together with hydrocarbons enters the pore space of rocks, enriching the pore solution gets into the aquifers. In the pre-Caspian basin in Western and southern side of the area revealed two regions with high and abnormally high concentrations of iodine 1) East Ulatowski, Petrivalsky out side zone of the Caspian basin on the Volga monocline, and 2) Karpinsk-Karasulski in the inner side area of the Caspian depression. On the East Ulatowski testing gave a high flow rate of 500 m3/day in the borehole 2-WU on the East Ulatowski square. When drilling for oil and gas from a depth 4624-m from Stary Oskol Devonian terrigenous deposits (D2st) were withdrawn and tested groundwater. They on the chemical composition of sodium chloride desalinated (condensation) brine with a salinity of 80–105 g/dm3 concentration J 145–193 mg/dm3. On Karasalskaya areas in the North of Kalmykia wells No. 5, 6 are derived sodium chloride-calcium brines (type IIIB by E. C. Posokhova, A. Sulina) with mineralization 306–310 g/dm3, the iodine content of 50–80 mg/dm3. Identified distribution of groundwater with high and abnormal concentrations of iodine to the gas and oil fields that indicate a genetic link between iodine water with organic hydrocarbon accumulations (ROS). High and abnormally high concentrations of iodine indicator of the basin. Water-soluble iodine can be used as petroleum criteria for post-salt and pre-salt complexes sediments.Key words: Caspian basin, chemical composition and salinity, chloride brines, the main geochemical and genetic types: oversalt infiltrogennye sedimentogene and brines.
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Kataeva L.V., Perunova N.B., Karpukhina N.F., Stepanova T.F., Bukharin O.V. THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE BACTERIA OF THE SORT AEROMONAS ALLOCATED FROM MOLLUSKS-BITINIID AND A RESERVOIRThe aim: to determine the species structure and biological properties of Aeromonas, isolated from water and mollusks family Bithyniidae. Materials and methods: mollusks and water from their habitats are the materials used in this research. The material was collected at the Iryum River (the Ob-Irtysh basin) in the summer period. 176 strains of Aeromonas bacteria were picked. Identification of bacteria was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization — MALDI-TOF Microflex LT (Brucker Daltonics ®). The presence of hemolysin, lecithinase, plazmokoagulase and lysozyme were investigated by conventional methods. The antilysozyme activity of bacteria was determined by method of Bukharin O.V. et al. (1999), the biofilm formation — by G. O'Tool et al. (2000). The results: taxonomic composition and biological properties of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas isolated from bitiinid and their habitat (water). Mollusks allocated species such as A. veronii, A. hydrophyla, A. ichthiosmia, and out of the water — A. veronii, A. ichthiosmia, rarely — A. cavia. Isolates with hemolytic, lecithinase activity and had no lysozyme and plasma coagulation activity. Intensity of antilysozyme activity and biofilm formation of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas varied depending on the source selection cultures. Conclusion: the bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are widely represented in microsymbiocenosis of mollusks Bithyniidae and water and have a complex of biological properties, which contributes to the adaptation of microorganisms to their environment. The data obtained contribute to deciphering the mechanisms of formation, maintenance and operation of the association microparasitocenosis.Key words: associative symbiosis, microsymbiocenosis, shellfish, bacteria of the genus Aeromonas.
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Kuramshina N.G., Nurtdinov E.E., Nazyrov A.D., Vinogradov G.D., Matveev A.Y., Bogatova O.V. ECO-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL RIVERS FISH OF THE SOUTHERN URALS The results of the study of heavy metals in muscle tissue of fish, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters the blood of fish caught at different sites Dema river, testifies to their normal physiological state, and indicates satisfactory quality of natural waters, suitable for habitation and development. Key words: ichthyofauna, heavy metals, physiology of the blood of fish, small rivers.
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Economic sciences

Belskaya Yu.V. ECONOMIC MAN IN THE LIBERAL AND NEO-LIBERAL ECONOMIC THEORY"Economic man" is an abstract concept expressing the essential features of a subject of economic life of society. It is characterized by the ability to the directed and purposeful activity aimed at the transformation of economic being according to its interests and needs. In the modern economic theory there are several versions of "economic man". Each version of the "economic man" is a model of cultural-historical type of the individual as a subject of a market economy. Currently, liberalism is quite influential trend of the social, political and economic thought. Common element to all the supporters of liberalism is the absolute priority of individual freedom as the highest moral value. In the economic field this moral imperative corresponds to the free market, which is not burdened by the presence of the state. The paper presents the rationale of harmonizing the moral imperative of individual freedom with the requirements of neutral economic theory in the works of M. Friedman and F. Hayek. In conclusion there is expressed the idea that liberal and neo-liberal directions of economic thought have significantly enriched understanding of the economic man. In the theoretical construction of Friedrich Hayek an economic man acts as an "innovating entrepreneur", oriented to the constant search for a new and thus ensuring social progress. The market system serves an extended version of human cooperation and as a result of socio-economic development of society. Such an interpretation of market relations suggests a shift from the discourse of rationality to the social and ethical discourse in discussions on human economic behavior.Key words: economic man, liberalism, evolutionary approach, F. Hayek
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Garmider A. A. THE THЕОRETICAL ASPECTS OF CLUSTER MODEL FORMATION IN THE TOURIST SPHERE OF THE REGION The model of the tourist cluster of the region has been elaborated, as the main structural elements of which allocated core, connections, soft and hard infrastructure. The features of the tourist cluster' making elements are revealed: soft infrastructure (financial, innovation, information, socio-cultural, economic and legal environment), hard infrastructure (material and technical environment), institutional environment (branch ministries and departments). Established, that hard infrastructure is the part of the regional infrastructure and activates the socio-economic development of the region. Soft infrastructure provides the accumulation and distribution of the financial resources, required for its development, contributes the organization of the modern technologies' transfer and commercialization of the scientific research.Key words: tourist cluster, model, core, soft and hard infrastructure.
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Gerasimenko T.I., Zaloznaya G.M., Chmyshenko E.G., Tikhonov N.B. INVESTMENT BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REGION Financing of development of production infrastructure is carried out at the expense of own (profit, depreciation) and the raised funds (the credits of banks, budgetary funds, means from other sources). It is established that, first of all, strengthening of a role of stability of manufacturing enterprises in implementation of investment process in production infrastructure of the region is observed. In the Orenburg region the share of own means in structure of investments into fixed capital decreased from 72 % in 2000 to 66,2 % in 2013, but 39,6 % of investments are formed at the expense of profit. This value is maximum for the last 13 years. Thus, development of production infrastructure of specific orientation everything is more carried out at the expense of manufacturing enterprises and more and more depends on their stability. It is also important to emphasize that by 2013. participation of public authorities of regional level in implementation of projects of production infrastructure was sharply reduced. In the Orenburg region influence of the enterprises of mining on investment development of production infrastructure is adult. At the enterprises of fuel and energy complex process of investment development is the most dynamic in relation to other objects of economy of the region. At the same time development of production infrastructure didn't lead yet to the solution of the problems facing the enterprises that reflects insufficient productivity of the existing infrastructure development of the region. As for sources of means, in the Orenburg region reorientation of economy to use of short-term financial investments is observed that considerably reduces possibilities of medium-term and long-term planning and management in the sphere of development of production infrastructure. In the region there is a growth of foreign investments which main part is aimed at the development of the sphere of an exchange and is to a lesser extent focused on activization of the production sphere. The increase in investment activity in the region at the expense of means of the regional budget will lead to growth of investments from the federal budget.Key words: industrial infrastructure of the region, the investment process, companies' own funds, borrowed funds, foreign investment in the region's economy, budget financing, investment activity
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Dedeeva S.A., Lapayeva O.F. INNOVATIONS AS MAIN FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT REGION AGRICULTUREInnovative crisis of agro-industrial complex is connected with insufficient development of the scientific and technical direction in the sphere of agriculture. Now innovative process in agro-industrial complex has three complementary directions: development of the human capital, investment into continuous development of biological resources, creation of new technologies. As measures for support of the agricultural enterprises it is offered the following: to reconstruct structure of agricultural production for the purpose of adaptation of the enterprises to universal conditions; to develop and introduce quickly paid back and resource-saving equipment, and technologies; to enter incentive measures (tax subsidies and privileges) for agro-industrial cooperations and agricultural integration; to develop leasing and to increase efficiency of use of federal credit resources; to develop a state program on training of agricultural businessmen, which not less 1,6mln., and if they learn to use competently the earth, in the Russian Federation there will be a revival of agricultural branch; to increase efficiency of federal subsidizing of agro-industrial sector through reorientation of subsidies from the level of the producer of agricultural production for the level of her consumer. As an additional method of maintenance of agro-industrial complex it is necessary to begin use of an incentivization of assets and a value added tax to fuel and other agricultural resources. All this is possible when using new administrative techniques and other innovations in the management sphere.Key words: agriculture, agriculture, innovation, technology, innovation, innovation process.
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Dubrovina N.A. INTEGRALIST EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MASHINOSTROENIAThe article discusses the indicators characterizing the efficiency of mechanical engineering. The analysis of their influence on the dynamics of scientific and technological development of domestic engineering. Given the integrated assessment of scientific and technological development of the complex.Key words: scientific and technological development, engineering, development dynamics, key performance indicators, performance factors, the potential level of development.
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Korotkova M.V., Dokukina S.M., Kalinycheva N.L., Nikitina S.O. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION: MODERN RUSSIAN AND GLOBAL TRENDSThe article considers the issues related to financing education sector, funding of higher education, particular budget financing, financing pedagogical universities, the need to improve efficiency in funds usage in the higher education system, optimizing the cost of financing formation, mergers and acquisitions in the higher education system, synergies from the merger of universities.the main directions of minimizing the cost of funding for education, mergers and acquisitions, the mechanism of public-private partnership. The contradictory nature of market relations in the education sphere, the educational infrastructure of the market, increasing competition, providing quality educational services, duplication of specialties (training areas) provides by classic, technical, industrial and pedagogical universities. Integration processes occur in developing interactions between its elements for the growth of holistic properties of systems are not new in the industry, agriculture and other industries in the field of malware is a new stage in the development of education, not only in Russia but also abroad. It is known that by combining interests in horizontal or vertically integrated combination provides a synergistic effect: the creation of a unified scientific-research base, accelerating the development of innovative universities, savings on transaction costs, efficient use of material and technical base, entering the ranking of top 200 world universities , effective use of budget resources and the possibility of raising funds for investment purposes. Federal policies and the script higher vocational education (HVE) financing higher education "based on demand" model, which has a number of competitive advantages that can not be the basis of social development. Russia's lack of mechanisms to facilitate the implementation of areas: the effective implementation of the advantages of this scenario: in particular, the mobility of students and the magistral staff (MS), loans, and the difference between the public and private sector of education. Adequate and operational mechanisms of evaluation and accreditation are important, including independent monitoring and IT-technology.Key words: higher professional education, the financial mechanism, state and municipal property, mergers and acquisitions, optimization, synergistic effect.
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Kosych D.A., Tretyak L.N. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF OPERATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON THE BASIS OF THE METHODOLOGY OF FORMATION OF THE PRODUCTION PROGRAMIn the present study, the authors proved the need to improve operational marketing activities through the development of tools and methods to influence the product, price, promotion and distribution. The purpose of research — to improve the operational marketing activities. The object of study — the marketing activities of the refinery. Subject of research — the means and methods of operating marketing activities that allow to develop a method of formation of the production program. The study developed a method of formation of the production program of the enterprise, which is realized by linear programming using spreadsheet Excel Microsoft Office. The technique includes economic and mathematical optimization model, which has a number of restrictions on raw materials, production possibilities, the minimum volume of production and number of employees. Optimization criterion adopted to maximize profits from sales. In developing the methodology used by the authors receiving equalization time series using the moving average with subsequent approximation that allowed us to obtain predicted values of sales in the next period of time (determined by the quality of the approximation model coefficient of determination). Technique of formation of the production program has been tested on the refinery for the production of oils and lubricants for various industries. Predicted values obtained in production volumes for each product, which significantly improve the quality of operational marketing activities of the enterprise in the preparation of a marketing plan for each product. The main advantage provided by the technique is that it can be implemented in any industrial undertaking, and that it does not require specialized software and implemented using spreadsheet Excel Microsoft Office.Key words: industrial enterprise, the production program, operational marketing, forecasting, extrapolation, economic-mathematical model.
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Kuzmina I.G., Lazarev A.D. ABOUT MODELS DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL DIVIDEND PAYOUTDividend policy the organization is an important part of the overall strategy of any public company. From determining the optimal size of the dividend payout depends on market value of shares, of which, in turn, develops the market value of the company. Biased assessment of the market value of the company, which will be very different from the carrying value of the company, may mislead investors at various levels, from individual investors to public funds, and bring a host of unpleasant consequences. At the moment, universal model, allowing to determine the necessary size of dividend payments, does not exist. However, in the early 60-ies of the last century, a number of researchers from the USA have proposed several models to determine the optimal value of dividends, depending on a number of factors: the company's share price, shareholder value, indicators of firm size, economic situation in the industry of the enterprise, the ratio of demand and supply for securities, the debt to equity ratio of the company, the liquidity index and other, more complex factors. Among these models, we can distinguish the model of James Porterfield, based on what the firm must pay dividends at a fixed amount, after payment of which the share price will remain at the same level, the Gordon model, in which the size of dividends depends on the market value of the company, the model of Lerner and Carleton, in which the value of the shares is determined by the ratio of supply and demand for these securities. These models, despite some assumptions, collectively, will help the company to find the optimal value of dividends and do shares in their company more protected from sharp fluctuations, protecting investors from the high probability of losing the invested in shares of the funds.Key words: dividends, the cost of campaigns, models, investors, income.
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Lapaev S.P., Gerasimenko T.I., Chmyshenko E.G., Tikhonov N.B. MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REGIONThe development of industrial infrastructure in the region requires the formation of an appropriate organizational and economic support of this process. The most important form of enhancing development of industrial infrastructure is a public-private partnership (PPP). The Russian Federation has formed a sufficient legal framework for the development of public-private partnership, operates a single entity to support the implementation of projects based on PPP — State Corporation "Bank for Development and Foreign Economic Affairs (Vnesheconombank). In the Orenburg region now PPP is used mainly for the development of social infrastructure and to a small extent — the production. From 9 infrastructure projects based on PPP in the Orenburg region, only one project is aimed at the development of geographically-oriented industrial infrastructure — reconstruction of highway Ilek — Tashla — Sobolev. At the same time in other regions of the Russian Federation has considerable experience in the use of PPPs for the development of industrial infrastructure. The leaders are the following regions: St. Petersburg, North and Far East federal districts. The most common forms of organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure are business — incubators, innovation centers, research and educational complexes and investment centers. In the Orenburg region created a significant number of organizations focused on the development of industrial infrastructure: State Non-Profit Organization "Orenburg Regional Fund for Small Business", a non-profit organization "guarantee fund for small and medium-sized enterprises of the Orenburg region" nonprofit organization "Foundation for Promotion of investments in entities Small and medium-sized enterprises in the Orenburg region "and others. However, the effectiveness of the use of the organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure in the region is insufficient. To support the development of industrial infrastructure, various financial instruments: the reduced rate of income tax exemptions on property tax, rental property, investment tax credit, and others. But their use is not sufficiently effective. In our country, the coordination of infrastructure development of the region to implement a single body — Autonomous Nonprofit Organization "Agency of strategic initiatives to promote new projects," but in the functions of this structure is not highlighted the need for accelerated development of the productive infrastructure to enhance the region's economy, which has a negative effect on handling the process. To solve the problems of production infrastructure in the regions, a network of corporate development, municipalities are formed investment sites that may become the new direction of the organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure. The problem is that all forms of organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure in the region have been used in the economy of each region and municipality.Key words: organizational and economic support, production infrastructure, public-private partnership, corporation development, investment site.
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Mikhailova O.P., Shepel V.N. MODELS OF THE FORMATION OF BRAND INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION: ANALYTICAL REVIEWAt present higher education institutions to strengthen their competitive position in the regional, national and global education market and a clear positioning in the minds of consumers increasingly using marketing techniques, in particular, the formation of the brand. However, despite the large number of studies in the field of branding, there is still no common terminology, tools, model building brand of the university with the same importance perceived by experts. Formation of the brand of educational institutions is rather complicated, time-consuming and lengthy process. Many researchers, practitioners and experts in the field of marketing and branding created copyrights model of building brands. According to the model E.N. Bogdanov and V.G. Zazykina, managing corporate image of the educational institution takes place by means of the simulation image of its seven components. Model development of branding strategies of educational institutions O.V. Nefedova based on certain attributes, by which is possible to control the minds of consumers. At the heart of the developed N.G. Herman multilevel model for the formation of the brand of the university on the postulate that modern education should not only be a means of learning, because current conditions mean the active formation of the information society; multi-level model of school brand developed based on the modern structure of competencies and reflects the university and the main point of interaction between the brand of the university with its environment. Model B. Shorokhova defines the relationship and feelings of consumers to the brand of the university. Model L. De Chernatoni Dal'Olmo Riley and can be considered the base: on the basis of its domestic marketing practices build advanced models. A more structured model of branding educational institution is the model of the brand attribution R. Ali Choudhury, R. Bennett and C. Suwanee. Analytical comparison of existing models of the formation of brand institution of higher education has shown that the models do not contradict each other and contribute to the improvement of conceptual approaches, enhance their practical relevance.Key words: brand, branding, image, model, higher education, core competencies.
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Panina D.S. FEATURES OF REGULATION OF THE INDUSTRY OF ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS: EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN COUNTRIESFormation of the industry of electronic payments in modern Russian practice happens in difficult economic conditions. Absence of accurately formulated national standards in the field of electronic payments, creates additional difficulties in their development. Therefore further development of system of electronic payments on the foreground raises a question of its settlement. In world practice there were two approaches to regulation of electronic payments now: liberal and standard. Both points of view found reflection in formation of three main models of electronic payments: Asian, European and American. Asian models are characterized by the most tough policy of regulation (from the state monopoly for release of electronic money before introduction of restrictions of access of the foreign companies) that allowed to eliminate both internal, and external threats to security of national payment system that is especially actual in the conditions of a modern geopolitical situation. The position of the countries of the European Union decides as moderately standard on liberal views elements. Their main tasks are ensuring access on the market to new players and creation of the effective competitive environment for all participants. According to heads of U.S. Fed, the role of the state has to be reduced only to creation of conditions for competition development (for example, through tax eases). Approach to regulation of the industry of electronic payments in the American practice is considered the most liberal, so — the softest. These models of electronic payments from a position of state regulation are really extremely contrast and very specific, everyone has the advantages and positive practical results. Development of standard and legal base in the field of regulation of electronic money in Russia, certainly, has to consider the experience which is available in foreign practice. Owing to the catching-up development there is a real possibility of creation of the Russian system of electronic payments taking into account world experience, but not by trial and error.Key words: industry of electronic payments, state regulation, state monopoly for issue, liberal and standard approaches.
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Parusimova N.I. BANKING IN THE CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY GROWTHThe Russian market is in a condition of long recession, the economy and a banking system were unprepared to new calls of time. The Russian banks not effectively carry out the main mission of the financial intermediary. The lessons of last crises weren't learned. New measurement of the market of 2015 demands new approaches to the solution of problems of increase of credit activity, new motivations, new non-standard decisions. The offered package of measures of short and medium-term influence, has to help economy and the banking sector to pass from a condition of a survival into a development stage. Key words: banking market, banking business, banking, banking products, funding of banks, financial mediation.
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Semikolenov A.V. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS IN ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY The article discusses approaches to institutional change in the electricity industry from the perspective of international experience. The characteristic of institutional changes in several European countries and the United States is given. Considering the experience of institutional reforms in the power sector noted that the current period is appropriate to the active application of experience and development trends of energy regulators in other countries. The article says that the state, which first sent its development on the path of liberalization of the electricity was Great Britain, which has the consequences of institutional transformation industry can be described as positive. However, along with the positive experience of the effective liberalization of electric power industry in the UK, the author presents examples of negative experiences in other developed countries. In this aspect, a shining example of inefficient reforms in the power sector in the United States are, as a result of transformations in the industry in California were marked facts blackout followed by a violation of a state of life. This was to some extent an instructive lesson for Europe, which also sought in its policy of an open and competitive electricity market. Also described in the cause-and-effect relationships presented transformations and noted their influence not only in the electricity market, but also on the other side of the socio-economic development of nations. Despite the presence of positive and negative trends of institutional reforms in the power industry in the world is not a single universal approach to the management of the industry, and there are several models of regulation which are systematized and presented in the article. At the end of formulated conclusion on the need to consider approaches analyzed in the Russian practice of regulation of the electricity market.Key words: energy market, power system, electric power industry, institutional transformation.
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Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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© Электронное периодическое издание: ВЕСТНИК ОГУ on-line (VESTNIK OSU on-line), ISSN on-line 1814-6465
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