Zaritskaya L.A. DIAGNOSES OF PROFESSIONAL LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE DESIGNER IN THE UNIVERSITYArticle considers professional and linguistic development of future designer at university. In this article the diagnostic analysis of professional and linguistic development of future designer at university is shown. The program of skilled and experimental work of ascertaining, forming and generalizing stages is presented. In the program of skilled experimental work tasks, the research methods, expected results of each stage are designated, the short characteristic and the summary of skilled and search work is given. Into problems of an ascertaining stage enter: definition of level`s indicators of professional and linguistic development of future designer, studying of knowledge of students about essence of a profession "Designer", identification at students of a formation of qualities, characteristic for professional-linguistic development, study experience of chair of design and drawing up of the program of a forming stage of skilled and experimental work. Research methods are also accurately registered in work. At an ascertaining stage the author used the theoretical analysis of philosophical, pedagogical, psychological methodical literature, and also a supervision method, poll, questioning, conversation, testing, the micro composition, a method of correlation and studying of educational and standard documentation. In article expected results of an ascertaining stage, namely, selection of diagnostic materials, justification of need of professional and linguistic development of future designer by means of a studied foreign language, definition of a condition of activity of university for vocational guidance of future expert and ways of its improvement are specified. The author in detail describes the contents and the analysis of an ascertaining stage of experiment. According to the analysis and results of an ascertaining stage conclusions are presented.Key words: professional and linguistic development, the program of professional and linguistic development of future designer, an ascertaining stage of skilled and search work.
Mukhamedina E.Z. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF TRAINING MILITARY INSTRUCTORS FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITYThe article is devoted to the problems of education quality enhancement in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard, which actualizes the problem of task-based organization of pedagogical training of military instructors on the basis of competence-based and subject-based approaches which predetermine training objectives and results. The existing compulsory pedagogical training of officers at military institutions of higher education is carried out mostly within the framework of the Programme "Young Teacher School". However this training programme represents only the initial stage of forming a military instructor and does not meet the requirements for the professional level of military instructors. The teaching staff of military institutions of higher education is reinforced with the officers who finished the course of graduate work at a military academy and those officers who have a sufficient practical professional experience but do not have profound knowledge in the sphere of psychology, education science, and methods of teaching academic courses. The multi-tier training of military teaching staff has required the application of the differential approach to designing the system on the basis of variability of pedagogically useful didactic provision, which helps take into account the factors influencing the formation of the basic structural elements of pedagogical activity. With this in mind, the author has designed the structural-functional model of preparing the teaching staff of military institutions of higher education for pedagogical activities. The article sheds light upon organizational and pedagogical conditions of preparing the teaching staff for pedagogical activities based on regarding the entity of teacher training as a specially organized pedagogical process which is oriented at acquiring professionally significant competences. Their realization promotes the formation of such professionally significant competences of an instructor as communicative, technological, regulatory, reflexive, and prognostic. The contents of training oriented towards forming professionally significant competences is carried out on the basis of the modular approach, which includes the courses aimed at forming the elements of professional competence. Their combination in a module depends on the initial characteristics of teaching experience. The modular approach also includes the differential approach in accordance with the peculiarities of the available professional teaching experience. Significant parameters of productivity in realizing the organizational and pedagogical conditions are educators' motivation on covering the programme and activization of self-education activities of officers in the sphere of educational practice.Key words: organizational and pedagogical conditions, variability didactic provision, military instructor, professional activity, professionally significant competences.
Vitvitskaya L.A., Kuznetsov V.V. FEATURES INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE HIGHER PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATIONChanges in the quality of higher teacher education is defined in many ways according to scientists in the field of teacher education the presence of theoretical propositions on the theory and methodology of Educational Innovation innovative pedagogical technologies. The severity of the scientific problem is that so far not found the answer to the question: what should be the innovative technologies that would enable Russia to modernize higher pedagogical education. To this end, on the basis of the Orenburg State University at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences has made experimental work devoted to the study of innovative technologies and features used in the teaching of pedagogical disciplines of studentsš— undergraduate training. It was assumed that the introduction of the learning process described in the article of innovative technologies, would greatly improve the quality of teacher training bachelors. The authors suggested: innovative technologies in the form of practice-oriented research to improve the efficiency of the educational process in higher educational schools; methodology and methods of use of innovative technologies; diagnostic tools for assessing the effectiveness of the research of innovative technologies. The authors have been proven: the legitimacy of the use of innovative technologies in the teaching of pedagogical disciplines in the higher pedagogical school; productivity and prospects use of information technology. Carried out experimental work allows, first, to say that the dynamics of improving the quality of teacher education is largely determined by the availability of effective innovative technologies, and secondly, the process of teaching of pedagogical disciplines in many ways enriched through the use of innovative technologies proposed by the authors.Key words: pedagogical innovation, innovative technology, higher pedagogical education.
Kuznetsov V.V. TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN CORPORATE ENTITIESAn analysis of research in the field of vocational education shows that graduates of public and private universities, came to work in different firms, corporations are experiencing complications in solving specific practical problems. Employers are forced to offer such graduates additional training in corporate education. Training centers corporations are forced to create a system of corporate training solutions to the practical problems that arise from the urgent needs of a company or corporation. Existed in Russia in the planned economy system in-house training ceased to justify itself and needs a radical change in the content, forms, methods of corporate learning and corporate education methodology as a whole. Experimental work carried out on the basis of corporate "Gazprom dobycha Orenburg", NPK "Uralvagonzavod" (Nizhny Tagil) made it possible to create a theory of corporate education, to analyze the problems of the Russian corporate education and to identify trends in its development. The author suggests the concept of corporate education in Russia on the basis of such industrial areas as Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk, Orenburg region, involving the analysis of large and small educational institutions of the above corporations. This paper analyzes the major doctoral research in the field of corporate entities: doctoral dissertation MasalimovašA.R., dedicated to corporate training of technical profile (Ufa, 2014); PhD thesis KomlevašS.V., VasilyevašS.V. dedicated to corporate entities in large and small enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region (Ekaterinburg, 2015); PhD thesis PogorelovašT.N., PaulinešN.N. devoted to corporate entities in Orenburg JSC "Gazprom dobycha Orenburg " (Orenburg, 2007). The author is represented by analysis of the production of pedagogy developed scientific school S.Y.šBatyshevaaš— A.M.šNovikov on materials of the Soviet planned economy, given the critical analysis of existing industrial training mentoring within the planned economy.Key words: education, corporate education, Russian corporate education, development trends of Russian corporate entities.
Aptikieva L.R., Bursakova M.S. THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FAMILY IN ADOLESCENTS RESIDING IN SHELTERThe problem of child abandonment is to increase the number of children-orphans in the actual presence of the parents. Distribution of orphans in our country due to: the instability of social institutions in crisis and regional conflicts, the devaluation of a number of moral values; the loss of familiar cultural attitudes and orientations. The mechanism of family deprivation manifests in insufficient satisfaction of basic, basic mental needs of the child (in love, affection, unconditional acceptance) for a long time and a serious degree. This leads to a distortion of the process of assimilation of social roles, norms, family traditions; difficulties in adapting to society; problems in creating and maintaining their own family, the upbringing of their children. The special features of education in the orphanage are: lack of communication with significant adults; the absence of the adoption; collective methods of education with insufficient delegation of personal responsibility, which leads to a violation of the child's interaction with the social environment. Key features of older adolescents are that: personality dominates the other functional systems; age is a period of the most intense and optimal development (emphasis not only on the features of physical and sexual maturation, but also, above all, on the development of rules of life, values, at the turn of the leading forms of activity, social status and level of socialization as a whole); is the formation of ideas about his future family, awareness of relationships, roles, functions, family, responsibility for their future children. The results of an experimental study of the image, perceptions of family and psychological characteristics of adolescents-orphans and teenagers who are brought up in families suggests differences in the perception of the family, family values, awareness of the role, functions, tasks, family, respect for the opposite sex.Key words: social orphan hood; family deprivation; adolescence; social orphans older adolescents; adolescents living in families; a distorted image of his family; an adult.
Borisova I.M. ABOUT SOME OF THE GRAPHIC NATURE OF THE POEM A.T.šTVARDOVSKY "VASILY TERKIN"The problem graphic design artwork is one of actual in modern literary criticism. The graphics issues poetic speechš— the functioning of the "ladder". She was the subject of study of poetry (including us) on the material of Russian classical poetry. A "ladder" of the twentieth century to today, has not been studied. This article examines the "ladder" of the poem ("the Book about the fighter") of A.T.šTvardovsky "Vasily Terkin" (1941–1945). Observation of a "ladder" "Vasily Terkin" showed that it's not similar to the famous "ladder" of V.šMayakovsky and stair is more like a breakdown of the lines of poets of XIX century: divides the string into two stages, occurs occasionally in some lines. Most of these "ladders" in the poem discovered 15 cases. All this allows to say that Tvardovsky's poem "Vasily Terkin" used "ladder" in the tradition of classical Russian poetry of the XIX century. "Ladder" actively cooperates with other poetry formants (transfer, rhyme, stanzaic structure). The analysis of correlation of facilities of different levels (graphical, stylistic and verse) lets you see what they seek to complement, reinforce each other. "Ladder" in the poem performs compositional, psychological and fine features, which are sometimes combined. Every time her appearance is justified by the course of events, compositional characteristics or by the author's desire to highlight any significant moment. The findings clearly show that the poet even under severe war conditions in which the poem was created, thought through the graphic form of the text. Key words: Tvardovsky's poem "Vasily Terkin", drawings, graphics, poetry graphics, a "ladder".
Dymova I.A. DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN JOURNALISM OF MODERN ORTHODOX RELIGIOUS FIGURES OF RUSSIADespite the boom of religious journalism that began in 1990s and is called, according to V.A.šGur, "orthodox renaissance", "second christening of post-Soviet Russia", there are few serious scientific researches in journalistic science over last 25šyears dealing with this phenomenon: a monograph, a doctoral thesis, and 8 master's theses, as well as 30šworks, the majority of which are review articles of popular-science character. The theses cover very narrow time limits, for example first ages of Christianity or the last century. They usually analyze separate genres or printed publications. Journalistic activity of contemporary orthodox religious figures in Russia is a new topic in science, especially in aspect of problems and themes and in case of Internet materials. The analysis of the scientific works shows that journalistic studies have examined the problems and themes of confessional journalism very poor. These notions are mixed in scientific works. The ideas of the predecessors and some noted gaps in journalistic studies have resulted in creating more specific and capacious classification reflecting both componentsš— problems and themes. 170štexts from 6 sites were analyzed, from them 33 publicistic texts by 10 contemporary orthodox religious authors were selected. These texts were referred to one of 3šallocated unitsš— demography, human rights and degradation of traditional family values in the age of civilization crisis and preserving of personal freedom against development of new information technologies and law modernization. The demography problems in orthodox journalism are of a very high demand, this is confirmed by interactive links and numerous positive responses of guests in sites, questions and comments. On the one hand they are evidence of topicality of such topics; on the other hand they show that modern Russian society experiences profound family crisis and needs support, that's why religious figures' appearances being addressed to the audience of many million have powerful educating potential able to consolidate the society around spiritual, moral and family values.Key words: Orthodox journalists, clergymen, family values, challenges and threats of our time, abortions, homosexuality, orphans, surrogacy, total control, universal electronic card, juvenile justice, consolidation of the society.
Yevgenyeva N.A. TO THE QUESTION OF RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN OF GERMAN WEHRMACHT IN THE MIRROR OF POSTWAR GERMAN LITERATUREThe statement about the role of high artistic information in shaping public consciousness is of axiomatic character. In this regard, the theme reflected in the literature of Germany second half of XXš— beginning XXIšcenturies of the historical memory of the Russian campaign under Wehrmacht imposed from outside Russia information war gets an exceptional value. The focus of the study, conducted in line with the complementary historical-theoretical and thesaurus approaches, was the systematization of the author's position in terms of interpretation of the theme of guilt for the crimes committed by the German army on the occupied Soviet territory. There were four groups of works. The first group includes texts in which the war on the Eastern front does not take up significant space and is a backdrop against which other dramatic life events are unfolding. The second group is represented by works of authorship, in the center of which is not the war itself as a socio-historical phenomenon, but its visible negative manifestations. The third group comprises the works in which the National Socialist war of extermination is presented as a German national tragedy, and ordinary citizensš— as victims of the highest public policy. In the works of the fourth group both warring sides are recognized as the victims of the events on the Soviet-German front. Analysis of the problem reflected in the post-war German literature of historical memory of the war against the Soviet Union revealed a heterogeneous picture of the author's position on the issue plea for the criminal acts of the German army on the Eastern Front. As highlighted prevailing tendency is to avoid responsibility for the implementation of the tactics of "scorched earth" on the occupied territory.Key words: war, crime, responsibility, work of literature, historical-theoretical approach, thesaurus approach, the discourse of the victims.
Matyash S.A. ONE MORE TIME ABOUT IDENTIFICATION OF ENJAMBEMENTSThe problem of identification of enjambements was defined by the author of this article about thirty years ago. At that point the author proposed the methodology of enjambements identification, which was used actively by the author and her disciples, but never became a common one. There are Numerous examples of ambiguous interpretation of texts from the point of view of presence or lack of enjambements in them, which drives the necessity of coming back to the problem. The presented articles brings additional arguments in favor of proposed earlier methodology, broadens illustrative material, includes polemics with newest proceedings about enjambements, some wordings was corrected. The main problem examined in the article is problem of status of in-verse pause and strength of syntactic relations between lines. The author considers absolutization of role of in-verse pause to be a mistake and insists on different methodology of identification of enjambements: they should be defined by comparison of strength of horizontal and vertical syntactic relations between lines. Enjambement appears when vertical relations are stronger than horizontal ones. When defining the strength of syntactic relations author bases on hierarchy of M.L.šGasparovš— T.V.šSkulacheva, but makes some supplements based on similar hierarchy of M.I.šShapir and own observations of enjambements in Russian poetry of XVIII–XXšages.Key words: prosody, verse syntax, rhythm, enjambement, in-verse pause, strength of horizontal and vertical syntactic relations.
Mosienko L.V. REGIONAL CULTURE-SPECIFIC TERMINOLOGIES AS A MODE OF IMAGE BUILDING OF ORENBURG'S DISTRICT Positive image building of district allows to present it in the local and international grounds, to put into force social and economic objects. Social science, social psychology, Economics investigate this question. But we don't have aggregate picture of linguistic aspects of data on district. It is introduces term "image building of district" perceived as settled and recurred to the memory of an individual or a group of people system of emotional and rational conceptions about peculiarity of district. It's proved that regional culture-specific terminologies are a unit of information about the district. Regional culture-specific items are single-valued words and phrases without convertible terms, signifier concepts and items appropriate for residents of one or another district. These concepts are related to historical, geographical, social and political existence's factors of inhabitants. Data are given about analysis of articles from official website of municipal administration of Orenburg allows to find out culture-specific terminologies of social and political practice and of cultural events of district. However, historical and territorial culture-bound terms are also important for creation of relevant state of mind of fund clients, business partners and tourists. We use books about Orenburg Oblast for definition of foregoing terms from viewpoint of French authors. It's reported that native-speakers pay great attention to geographical and ethnographical items pointing out correct geographic location, resource endowment, avenue for trade and cultural exchange. Also the article gives a detailed analysis of French local press wherein ethnographical culture-specific terminologies relating to material and spiritual values are uppermost. In consequence of analysis, classification of social and political, historical, geographical and ethnographical concepts was developed. In the summary to the survey results of Russian and French mines, the following conclusions are drawn that image building of district form on the ground of classification of regional culture-specific items, that have an impact on social and economic regional evolution, increase marketability of district in the matter of international co-operation, of attracting investment and of travel business development. Key words: image building of district, identification, classification of regional culture-bound term, regional culture-specific terminologies as a unit of information about the district, regional culture-specific items.
Porol O.A. THE POETIC CONCEPT OF LIFE IN THE BIBLE DISCOURSE OF YU. BALTRUSHAYTISIn the modern literary criticism interest in Yu.šBaltrushaytis's poetry, his personality noticeably grew, on the other hand it is possible to mark a lack of the operations devoted to his art attitude. In article the concept of life in a bible discourse of Yu.šBaltrushaytis is considered. The bible aspect in the analysis of the artistic text allows to open the dominating life signs defining semantic space of the poetic concept of the author. Functioning of the bible text in the art world of Yu.šBaltrushaytis is analyzed through spatio-temporal symbolics. The analysis of poetic works is carried out in semantic aspect using a method of text parallels. The given semantic parallels (motive of germination of a seed, prayful glorification, pleasure of life, vision "great in small", etc.) show a stylistic originality of lyrics of the poet, open the new semantic relations, designating genesis of bible characters, characteristic for Baltrushaytis's poetry,š— a garden and day. As a result of research the dominating valuable installation of attitude of the lyrical heroš— a completeness and pleasure of life is defined. The revealed semantic fullness of life is provided as the main. Reviewing of different options of a lexical background of life allowed to define its structure consisting of a triad: lightš— pleasureš— the word. The space filled with light, this space won from emptiness, appearing as a result of overcoming of planar perception of the world, climbing to the prayful Word. Research of poetic texts of Yu. Baltrushaytis allowed to reveal the following lines of the concept of life: presence of bible symbolics (garden, day); perception of death as beginnings of day of new life; realization of omnipresence of God; existence celestial in the earth; life representation as limit completeness of life, pleasure and light.Key words: space, time, semantics, bible text, light, life.
Pykhtina Yu.G. THE CONCEPT OF MULTIPOLAR WORLD IN THE NOVEL THE TIME OF WOMEN BY E. CHIZHOVAThere is a functional semantic approach in a series of diverse studies on the artistic field, which is based on a systemic description of spatial images and patterns closely connected with the event-trigger level, system of spatial interrelations of personages, spatial point of view of the author and the characters and other important components of the artistic text. The semantic varieties of space and time on the content functional criterion are regarded in this article on the base of the novel "The time of women" written by the modern St.šPetersburg writer E.šChizhova. The principles of the author's artistic world organization, based on coexisting and interpenetrating worlds (past and present, reality and dreams, the world of alive and dead ones, life and fable, reality and convention) are pointed out; their meaning in the structure of the artistic whole is defined. The artistic chronotope is proved to be one of the most important means of the realization of the author's idea. The suggested algorithm of the multipolar world novel analysis may become the base of the further projects in the sphere of the typology of the artistic space.Key words: space, time, chronotope, multipolar world, dreams, memory, creativity, E.šChizhova.
Temkina V.L., Sadomskaya N.D., Lashtabova N.D. IMPERIAL GOTHIC IN "KIM" BY R. KIPLINGThe genres of English colonial literature of XIX–XX centuries are usually studied following the theory of P. Brantlinger and G.V.šZalomkina, in the context of the Gothic tradition history and evolution of the adventure novel. Connections of East and West, stemming from politics, philosophy, mysticism, followed in literature, giving rise to numerous examples of the genre of Imperial Gothic. Certain themes, motifs, mythological modes, characterology, can be attributed to the work of this genre. "Kim" by R.šKipling belongs to English colonial literature. Following the contemporary research works (by P.šBrantlinger and G.V.šZalomkina) the genre of the novel remains unclear, because the novel has not been classified. As a result of the study the following genre characteristics have been identified in R.šKipling's novel "Kim": the theme of connections between the UK and India (the metropolis and the colony); imperial space topos is described as a closed, impenetrable to the conqueror. The motif of a treasure hunt (information is regarded as treasure) and the related reasons for using unusual techniques (prayer beads and a compass). Men "team" in the novel "Kim" is small. The image of the protagonistš— Kimš— was made in full accordance with the canons of Imperial Gothic. In the novel, a scheduled motive relations between an Englishman and an Indian woman (Kim's parents), and that the motive has not been properly developed. All this, as well as the principles of characterization, leads to the conclusion that the claimed novel is set within the genre of Imperial Gothic. Having analyzed the results of the study, we can conclude that the novel "Kim" by R.šKipling belongs to the genre of imperial gothic, depicting all the necessary components of the genre.Key words: Imperial Gothic, imperial space topos, the English adventure literature, genre characteristics, treasure hunt motive, adventures of the men's team.
Toropchina E.A., Khrushcheva O.A. LINGUOPOETIC PECULIARITIES OF JAMES JOYCE'S COLLECTION OF POEMS "CHAMBER MUSIC" James Joyce and his literary works characterized by deep content and extraordinary choice of language means have been exciting strong interest on the part of readers and motivating scientific research. His prose has been studied in details by linguists and literary scholars, but this paper deals with the analysis of his poetic collection entitled "Chamber music". The authors have carried out linguopoetic research of the poems and analyzed a range of means depicting music and colour schemes in particular. The study has proved the interconnection between music and lexemes, as well as between sounds and colours in the collection of poems. It has also stipulated the colour scheme value in Joyce's poetry. It is claimed that a definite shade of the palette mentioned in the poem presupposes the increased frequency of vowel sounds, and conversely. The research has relied on the evidence that intervals provide the basis for music pieces and serve as their basic palette. Given that music language structure is measured in semitones or intervals the colour scheme identified in the poems can be imprinted on the musical staff. The paper stipulates peculiar features of James Joyces' collection of poems are as follows: sound and colour synesthesia, musical sense, a great style of verse rhythms and metres, adaptation to genres of classical love lyrics and appeal to its mythological background. Linguopoetic peculiarities of James Joyce's poetry are supposed to produce an aesthetic effect and reveal the author's message and vision.Key words: linguopoetics, sound symbolism, cantilena, major, minor, synesthesia.
Gorovaya I.G., Gorovaya N.N. THE ROLE OF PRECEDENT PHENOMENA IN THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY LANGUAGE PERSONALITY The aim of learning a foreign language is to master the verbal and semantic code of the language and the formation of a secondary language personality. In this regard, more attention is paid to the case-phenomena. However, the existence of contentious issues in the theory of precedent (lack of terminological unity, a clear idea about the volume, sources and classification of precedent units) and teaching methods (no system of administration in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language) complicates the study of precedent phenomena representatives of other cultures, to which access to the meaning of these statements is difficult. The role of precedent phenomena in the formation of the secondary language personality is caused primarily by the fact that they reflect the mental representation of the Russian people, embodied verbally and conceptually. Without understanding the meaning of precedent phenomena is impossible to achieve adequate understanding and interpretation of foreign students artistic and journalistic texts in Russian, film and cartoons, speaking Russian. The ability to understand precedent phenomena and use them in a speech should be taught systematically. In other words, the formation of the secondary language personality requires the development of the system of administration of foreign students into the everyday life of precedent phenomena. Formation of secondary language person must be complex: identification (recognition) and storing precedent phenomena, identifying their structure, meaning, of the functioning in the context of diagnoses, in the discourse, in speech, linguistic and cultural commentary. To understand the precedent phenomena with hidden meaning is necessary to activate the speaker in the minds of various cognitive and linguistic structures that are based on the background knowledge. The ability to correctly decode the precedent phenomena, the ability to include them in discourse, to subordinate them to their communication needs and to relate to the needs and purpose of the speaker suggest formation of a secondary language personality.Key words: methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language, RCTs, linguistic personality, the secondary language personality, precedent phenomenon.
Dmitrieva N.M., Lintovskaya E.M. THE ETHICAL LOADING OF THE CONCEPT OF "MEEKNESS" IN THE DICTIONARY (DIACHRONIC ASPECT)The concept of "meekness" contains a high ethical burden, is main place to the mental system of moral values, however, remains poorly studied in linguistics. The article discusses the ethical loading of the concept of "meekness" in the material of dictionaries of Church Slavonic and Russian language of the XIš— XIX centuries, together with the analysis of the semantic fullness of a concept in religious and secular discourse. Examines the semantic peculiarities of verbalization of the concept of "meekness": the meek, quiet (silence), humble (humility). Our analysis has determined the proportion of the ethical meaning of the concept of "meekness" is "gentleness, humility, silence, kindness as a property of God himself and the ideal of man." The concept of "meekness" is included in a number of ethical concepts, along with sirenomelia, mercy, righteousness, love, etc. throughout the entire study period verbalizing the main concept and their derivatives possess a high degree of ethical significance, that is, an ethical meaning retain a share in all the values or one values. However, in the semantics of words, verbalized concept, with the passage of time is the development of values with a negative connotation, as well as ethically "opposite" values: humility (humiliation, chagrin, humiliation, enslavement, humiliation, jerk), to humble (humiliate, to offend, to cause to submit), quiet (secretive and prevaricator), tigoda (secretive, canny). It is noted that "humility" is different from "humility" and "meekness" is semantically, as it indicates to a greater extent the way to meekness, and the last two verbalizationš— the property itself. Found that the proportion of the ethical meaning of the concept stored in the internal form of words, verbalized concept, and their derivatives.Key words: concept, ethical loading and ethical meaning of the share mentality, meek, quiet, humble.
Korobeinikova A.A., Huang Yun Sheng, Davydova E.A. FIGURATIVE NOMINATONS OF PERSON IN RUSSIAN AND CHINESE PROVEBSAt a present time proverbs like a genre of oral folk arts remain valuable linguistic material, because they are stereotypes of folk consciousness, they reflect folklife culture by entire signs and by units of their composition. Proverbs keep and reproduce traditions of mentality, being constants of outlook of a whole ethnic group. At a present time saving and study of proverbs like ethnic culture elements let to understand world and to be intercultural exchange of different nations under conditions of globalization. Chinese proverbs aren't enough explored by our scientists. In this context study of Chinese and Russian proverbs is important and promising in comparative aspect. In particular it is needed with a view to improve the quality of language competence of students who learn Chinese in the Center of Chinese language and culture in Orenburg State University and to improve the quality of language competence of foreign students who learn Russian in the Center of Slavic languages and cultures in Orenburg State University. Word-formative manners of nomination are underproductive in designation of human abilities, therefore this designation is main use of metaphors. Observation and description of language material let to determine zoonyms and phytonyms as more frequency figurative nominations of person in Russian and Chinese proverbs, it is due to leader type of farming, to Russian and Chinese flora and fauna. The study of Russian and Chinese proverbs in comparative aspect lets to explore national and cultural specificity of linguistic means of personality appraisal, appearance, condition of person and other antropocharacteristics. Figurative nominations are these linguistic units, which show outlook of ethnic group to a greater extent than direct nominations.Key words: anthropocentrism, figurative nominations, metaphor, proverb, Russian, Chinese.
Chernishova E.B. TRIANGULATION STRATEGY OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC STUDIES OF EVALUATIVE OPTION OF NUCLEAR ITEMS OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESSIn modern science (geodesy, geometry, medicine, social psychology) to obtain the most complete knowledge of the object the method of triangulation is used. In psycholinguistics triangulation as a method of study of linguistic consciousness of a particular carrier of lingvoculture was used implicitly. The aim of our research is the conceptual reflection of this method in the simulation evaluation component Russian language consciousness. The research strategy used by us the analytical process is united around the triangulation. At the level of raw material the object of triangulation is sources of associative material, at the level of descriptionš— the quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis, at the level of interpretationš— the author's conclusions and existing results of such kind researches obtained by other scientists. This strategy has allowed to obtain the most complete view of the phenomenon under studyš— assessment.Key words: triangulation, research strategy, the research level, linguistic consciousness, the core of language consciousness, evaluative component of linguistic consciousness, the psychological structure of the meaning of the word, parameter of estimation of nuclear items of the linguistic consciousness.
Elagina Y.S. THE PROBLEM OF NOMINATION AND INTERPRETATION OF COMPUTER DISCOURSEComputer discourse is indisputably one of the promising communicative objects, as there is no doubt in its importance for the daily lives of individuals, however, this phenomenon is ambiguous. There are some studies dedicated to the analysis of computer discourse, but still there are controversial issues concerning its nomination, definition and description of its categories. In the works of contemporary authors, the terms "computer discourse" and "electronic discourse" are often used as convertible terms, they are interpreted either on the assumption of their information transmission channel or their content of communication. This type of discourse is realized in a restricted community, such isolation determines its social importance. Moreover it has a specific language and a set of rules and norms of behavior and communication. The study has differentiated these concepts. Electronic discourse is defined as a communicative practice, which is realized through computer technologies. Computer discourse is defined as a communication that is realized through the texts with the thematic scope "computer technology", and is implemented in various text genres. Depending on genres the computer discourse is divided into professional computer discourse, descriptive computer discourse and common computer discourse.Key words: pragmatics, computer discourse, electronic discourse.
Lasica L.A. LINGUISTIC AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE ERGONIMS OF ORENBURGAt modern stage of Russian economy new companies, shops and beauty salons, travel agencies and insurance companies appear everywhere. Diverse urban objects receive individual proper namesš— ergonims. In recent years there has been rapid increase in the number of foreign-language names in the streets of Russian cities. Orenburg is not the exception, since a large number of companies are named with foreign words. Foreign-language ergonims are the sphere which forms the culture of thinking of the new generation. Ergonims of foreign origin have complex semantics and structure that make the process of their perception and use for Russian-speaking individuals difficult. These factors contribute to the need of a multifaceted study of this language material in order to identify the reasons for the choice of foreign-language words and to work out practical recommendations on their use for the nomination of infrastructure of the city. This article presents the results of the analysis of Orenburg's foreign language ergonimy. Classification of source-languages, found that english words names written in the Latin alphabet show the highest prevalence. The study of their structural features showed that the most common are one-component (consisting of one word) and two-component (including two words) ergonims. The analysis of word-formation characteristics of foreign-language names allowed to establish five word-formation types: lexical, syntactic, morphological, word-formation and graphic, the most common of which are lexical and syntactic. Based on these data, the author gives practical advice for a successful ergonimy. Choosing a foreign name, use a foreign language lexical means giving preference to English one. Ergonim should be one-component or two-component, multi-component names should be avoided. Ergonims should be naturally uttered, harmonious, beautiful and easy to remember.Key words: ergonimy, foreign language ergonim, the type of derivation, source-language.
Moiseeva I.Yu., Remizova V.F. DIFFICULTIES IN DEFINING THE CONCEPT OF THE FUNCTIONAL STYLEThe development of modern means of mass communication has caused the linguistic interest to close studies of new types of "speech products" from different points of view, including functional stylistics. The very definition of the functional style is presented in different ways in the theoretical sources. The major part of researches are done according to numerous propositions of academic schools and with the help of vast corpus of empirical data. The accurate number of functional styles has not been defined; their exact ontological status has not been stated: they are considered as both speech and language manifestations. For the first time the main propositions of system approach have been used to elicit the components found in the definitions of the functional style. The research material is the definitions of the functional style given in different dictionaries, reference books, text books on stylistics. The application of the component-and-quantity method to the analysis of the functional style gives the possibility to define the component frequency and as a result the importance of the components and then structurally arrange them. The syntactic segmentation of the definitions under study has revealed the structural links of the components according to the scheme Nš— Aš— Lš—šP, where N is the nominal part of the predicate, A is the attribute, L as the locative and P is the modifier of purpose. It has been revieled that the key components of part N are: variety (7), subsystem (4), system (3), type (2), realization (2). The most frequent attributes are social (8), functional and function (7), historical (6), and word combinations with conscience in their structure (4). Part L is represented by the following components: in communication, in the spheres of communication, social practice, speech practice, human activities, national language. Part P contains only two components: to secure the purport of communication, to express the communicative contents in the most efficient way. Thus the most frequent components have turned out to be such components as function (used 14štimes), social (12), communication (8), variety (7), historical (5), system (5), subsystem (4). The elicited component frequency gives the opportunity to state that the functional style is the language fact rather than the speech fact. Key words: functional style, functional stylistics, component-and-quantity method, component, syntax, language, discourse, category, definition, concept.
Prosvirkina I.I., Yahno M.D. THE LEXICAL EXPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT "PATRIOTISM" IN THE LINGUISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS OF CONTEMPORARY YOUTHIn modern science, linguistic consciousness is actively being studied and this is a really changing category. The change in language consciousness of Russian speakers can be traced by analyzing changes in the semantic content of concepts, lexical units, etc. The article's authors explore the qualitative changes in the linguistic consciousness of young people as an example of diachronic analysis of the concept "patriotism." The association experiment had been chosen as a main research method, which was conducted by the authors and described in this article. In the description of the experiment the authors systematized reaction-eksplikatory and compared with results from "Russian associative dictionary", which was edited by J.N.šKaraulov and published in 2002. Analysis of thematic groups of reactions-eksplikatorov was allowed the authors to conclude that in the linguistic consciousness of speakers for fifteen years have been significant changes in relation to understanding the concept "patriotism." In the early 2000s, understanding of patriotism as forming part of the social and public life was virtually destroyed in the linguistic consciousness. This is evidenced by the absence of words-eksplikatorov, which is related to thematic groups "small Motherland", "geographic realities." Also at the beginning of the century a large number of negative, critical assessments are traced in association relations, what is indicating of losing positive value of the concept patriotism, love country, respect for her and the desire to do everything for her benefit. In 2015, there is an increasing of wordsš— responses, which explicate, first of all, a positive attitude towards the motherland. There is a tendency to increase the understanding of patriotism as personality characteristics. Exactly patriotism has become a "good quality" criterion for education rights in the family and in forming his sense of connection with the outside world. Thus, this research has allowed changing the understanding of the concept "patriotism" in the linguistic consciousness of today's youth.Key words: concept "patriotism", lexical explicators, linguistic consciousness.
Putilina L.V. AUTHOR"S MEANS OF EXPRESSION OF INTONATION IN THE FRENCH EMOTIVE PROSEAuthor's means of speech intonation promote linguistic diagnostics of the language personality, that is identification of a psycho-emotional state and social characteristics of the character in the emotive prose. On the basis of these means of marking of intonation adequate interpretation of the emotive prose and a reconstruction of an individual (author's) picture of the world is carried out. Thus, author's means of expression of intonation represent an additional source of data on the super segment potential of language units. In paper the meaning of the term of intonation which is treated as a unity is defined; the functions which are carried out by intonation in the speech and in the text are established; terms of the language personality, the emotive prose are analyzed; the emotional role within the emotive prose is specified. On material of stories of the French writer FranÚoise Sagan author's means and ways of transfer of the intonation realizing the emotionally-modal and identifying functions are considered. Author's notes, reactions of the interlocutor, lexical-grammatical and graphic means in the direct speech belong to such means in the emotive prose. The author gives the examples having, as a rule, a dialogue form to illustrate all transferred funds. It is offered to include the phatic and identifying functions in a functional field of intonation together with traditional functions (communicative, emotional, expressional, differentiating, integrating, graphic, etc.). The analysis of the author's means and various components of intonation used F. Sagan allowed to reveal a certain interrelation between lexical-semantic units (phrases with lexemes of tone, a voice, author's comparisons, verbs of the speech, instruction on gestures, mimics and physiological reactions) and intonational parameters (speed, pauses, a timbre, an accent, loudness and a melody).Key words: intonation, functions of intonation, emotions, art text, author's means of expression of intonation.
Shcherbakova M.V. BASIC PARTS OF SPEECH PERCEPTION IN THE POSITIONING TEXT STRUCTURE Modern linguistics is characterized by interdisciplinary relations. Linguosynergy is young and rapidly developing science. It differs by applying experimental methods of research and positioning approach to the text. This paper is written from the point of view of linguosynergy and it deals with experimental research of basic parts of speech perception in the positioning structure of belles-lettres style text. In this article basic parts of speech are defined as parts of speech which coincide in grammatical classes of words in different languages and they are nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. In the course of experimental data (presented by belles-lettres style texts and deformed by omitting some nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) processing it was revealed that 85š% of matches are registered in the text interval post-HC (postharmonic centre), 82š% of matches are fixed in the text zone pre-HC (preharmonic centre), 60š% of matches are registered in the text interval "beginning", 58š% of matches are found in the text zone pre-HC (preharmonic centre), 59š% of matches are in the intervals post-HCb (postharmonic centre of beginning), 60š% of matches are found in the text zone "end". In the result of experimental data analysis it was found out that the majority of matches is in the text interval post-HC (postharmonic centre), less matches are fixed in the text zone pre-HC (preharmonic centre), intervals "beginning" and "end" are on the same level of matches, then it goes post-HCb (postharmonic centre of beginning), the least quantity of matches is registered in the text zone pre-HCb (preharmonic centre of beginning).Key words: experiment, positioning text structure, basic parts of speech.
Baimuratova U.S. POSTCARDS OF THE PROJECT "POSTCROSSING" IN VERBAL COMMUNICATION OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING DISCOURSEThe article encompasses the problem of improving the classification of speech genres on the basis of the provisions and principles of the new direction of linguisticsš— the theory of natural written speech. It is invited to consider the postcards of the project "Postcrossing" as a new form of verbal communication of English-language discourse, which emerged and became widespread globally in the past decade. Using M. M. Bakhtin's theory of speech genres the corpus of postcards of the project are analyzed on the basic principles of the genre, where the principal one is the general speech purpose. So, the leading function of speech is contact one, namely phatic function of language, for a number of reasons: the sender writes to a completely unfamiliar person in order to establish a single contact, which in the future may not be supported for the mere fact of the transfer of a material carrierš— a postcard. The secondary functions are recognized as informative, consisting in substantial part of the composite structure, and appellative, when the sender influences on the view or behaviour of the recipient. The research of the composition of these texts has demonstrated the stability of their construction and allowed us to bring the general scheme of elements included in the composition. The principle of dialogicality is demonstrated, where the communication characteristic of address has the particular significance. The natural pattern of use of postcards is proved by absolutely heterogeneous material in thematic plan. Thus, by conducting a pragmatic analysis of the postcard texts, where the main approach to the text material collected by the author for four years, was elected aspect of speech genre studies, the essential features of the postcards of the project "Postcrossing" were identified, which allowed to define them as a genre of natural written English speech.Key words: speech genre, natural written speech, written factual communication.
Belova N.A. METALANGUAGE DESCRIPTION OF PERCEPTUAL VERBS BASED ON THE CATEGORIES OF FRAMESThis article is devoted to the research of frame method description of the semantics of perceptual verbs. A formal metalanguage was developed, based on the categories of the theory of frames and scripts. The article deals with the composition and the structure of metalanguage and different ways of its usage. Situation-semantic method describes the semantics of perceptual verbs from the point of cognitive science. Metalanguage PEARL as the mean of describing the semantics of the English perceptual verbs shows the capability of frames to form hierarchy: the lower level frames are on the terminals of the frame of a higher level. Thus, it was modeled the semantics of a lexical field of perceptual states with the help of one framing network, and the semantics of a lexical field of perceptual actions was modeled with another framing network. These two networks are united in one hyperframe at the highest level of abstraction, and it becomes clear the similarities and differences between them.Key words: metalanguage, frame, hyperframe, concept, perceptual verbs, lexico-semantic variant, semantics, sphere of concepts, semantic field.
Verzhinskaya I.V. LINGUOCULTURAL SPECIFICS OF COMPARISONS IN THE BRITISH AND AMERICAN HUMORISTIC ART DISCOURSEThe figure of speech "simile" is the object of research of many specialists in literature and linguists. The structural and functional peculiarities of the stylistic device "simile" are not classified in one and the same way. This article is devoted to the research of individually-authored imaginative comparisons in the British and American art discourse. The principle of the analysis of comparisons is in the detection of the agent, referent and the index of similarity, being the indicator of comic conceptual sign actualization. In the result of our analysis of comparative constructions in the texts of both authors we found out that the linguistic units, used for the creation of the image, are different. The linguocultural specifics of similes is determined with actualization of concepts "man", "sound", "face" by such comical conceptual signs "manš— paper doll", "manš— giant banana", "soundš— a turkey was being throttled", "faceš— a friendly pile of elderly laundry" in the British artistic text "Carpe Jugulum" by T. Pratchett and such comical conceptual signs as "manš— a starved dog", "manš— a ghost", "manš— plump as a pigeon", "soundš— a goose being killed", " faceš— the carved face of a saint sanctified through many stringencies" in the American artistic text "Beauty" by Sh. Tepper. Peculiarities of comic conceptual signs of concepts, being verbalized with comparative linguistic units, characterize the British and American humor. There are such traits as innuendo, reserve, restraint in the basis of the British comic linguocultural code of the text, made up with the linguistic units of comparison. The British delicate humour is based on self-irony, absurdity, understatement. The comic linguocultural code of the linguistic units of comparison in the text of the American author points out such peculiar traits of Americans as openness, frankness, standardization. The American sarcastic humour is reveiling, blunt and straightforward. Key words: subject-logic and imaginative comparison, the agent of comparison, the referent of comparison, the index of comparison, linguocultural peculiarities of comparisons.
Eykalis Yu.A. PARALINGUISTIC MEANS OF COMMUNICATION IN THE TEXTS OF MODERN GERMAN-LANGUAGE COMICSIncreased linguists' interest to the problems of creolized text is caused by the active development of various media forms, increase in number of visual information in the communication in the early 21st century. An important role in building a semiotically complicated text of the comic play non-verbal meansš— means that accompany the verbal speech and express connotations. This article deals with the peculiarity of non-verbal means' organization and functioning in the texts of the modern German-language comics, their participation in the creation of an artistic image. The article analyzes the correlation of verbal and iconic components in the comics and some features of heterogeneous texts perception by the recipient. The investigation indicates that in the modern German-language comic books the different types of non-verbal meansš— singraphemic (variation of punctuation marks), supragraphemic (type lettering variation), topographemic (planographic variation of the text) means as well as their various combinations. In addition, creolized text of other genres are integrated in the comics' texts to achieve a comic effect or mimetic narration. Using paragraphemic means allows the author to improve information saturation and expression of the text of the comic book, to give comics the sounds, to make narrative mimetic, create a character portraits. The information saturation and specific pragmatic potential are conditioned by the means presented in the modern German-language comics. Because of paralinguistic means of communikation are partially implemented aesthetic and expressive functions of the comics, these means are involved in the creation of portraits of characters and artistic images.Key words: paralinguistic means, paralinguistics, paragraphics, polycode text, synesthesia, artistic image, creolized text.
Inozemtseva N.V. THE FUNCTIONAL PECULIARITIES OF THE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE TITLES IN THE ENGLISH NEWSPAPER DISCOURSENewspaper discourse more often becomes the object of modern philological papers, as research of originality of the regarded discursive space organization in the philological practice causes an enhanceable interest of linguists, because an address to newspaper work allows the extension and completion of the cognitive paradigm of modern newspaper discourse. The corps of the English texts of the newspaper discourse served as the material of this research, namely the titles of the English articles presented in the British and the American newspapers "The Guardian", "The Times", "New York Times, "The Wall Street Journal", "USA Today", that differ in original semantic potential, in non-standard formation and in a large variety of nominative constituents. The important problem at title studying is to define its functions. This question becomes more actual because to give the exact definition of the concept "title" is possible only on the basis of a full classification of its functions. But thus linguists do not give a precise definition of title functions in majority of works, sometimes they mix functions with the means of their expression or they unite some different functions in one. The results of the research define the basic functions that are typical for newspaper titles. They are informative and influencing functions. However, minor functions are also marked: graphically-defined, advertising and estimated. So, the newspaper title is a communicative unit, it briefly informs the reader on a content of a newspaper material, it informs of its value, character and a degree of importance of the events which have reflected on the pages of the newspaper. Such characteristics of a newspaper discourse as informativeness and the force of influence are clearly expressed in the titles of the newspaper article.Key words: title, newspaper discourse, functional peculiarities, article, discourse.
Nesterova T.G. STYLISTIC MEANS OF EXPRESSION OF THE CONCEPT "WEALTH" IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN FAIRY TALESIn linguistic science the interest to a concept "Wealth" is caused by the interest to success and financial independence. The attitude towards wealth is the mental property of the person as this concept is included in many aspects of human life such as differentiation of social hierarchy of society; development of system of values of the individual. Stylistic implementers of a concept "Wealth" are a little investigated on material of the English and Russian author's fairy tales. For the comparative analysis we have taken extremely polar on the outlook authors O.šWilde and P.šBazhov. Eventful life of these writers was reflected in stylistics of their fairy tales and specifics of expression of a concept "Wealth". Means of expression were selected by method of continuous selection, they were systematized, their rate was defined. The task of a language expression of a concept "Wealth" in O.šWilde's fairy tales is carried out mainly by epithets. Along with simple, we noted the developed, compound, multistage epithets. Describing sufferings and a difficult life of poor people, O.šWilde changes style of a narration. Colorful epithets, comparisons and metaphors disappear from his language. He builds associations with Beauty, his descriptions have emotions of admiration. Specificity of a language expression of a phenomenon of wealth at P.šBazhov is caused by stylistic features of a metaphor which is the most frequent stylistic mean in his narrations. P.šBazhov uses different kinds of metaphors: complex in composition; metaphors with elements of a sneer, irony, word formation. The concept "wealth" in P.šBazhov's narrations is represented as the moderate prosperity got by honest work, serving for family life. Specific stylistic feature of narrations is playful and ironic style of the speech of the narratorš— the old mine foreman, who uses a large number of dialecticisms, the archaisms transferring the attitude towards wealth of the working person. According to P.šBazhov the true wealth is creative human activity. Key words: concept, wealth, author's fairy tale, narration, stylistic means.
Pasechnaya L.A., Shcherbina V.E. YOUTH SLANG IN COMMENTS ON A VIDEOHOSTING (IN THE GERMAN AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES)Youth slang represents the most interesting linguistic phenomenon, the existence of which is limited not only by the certain age frameworks as it is clear from its most nomination, but also by social, temporary and spatial frameworks. The integral part of youth life is both actual, and virtual communication with friends. Theresearch material of the peculiarities of the youth slang ist he commentaries to videoclips on videohosting YouTube in German and Russian. Commentators, as a rule, state the point of view about the videorecording which they have already seen either in a strictly positive or in a strictly negative way. Therefore German and Russian jargons are classified into three groups in the article: those that do not express the attitude of the author and those that express his positive or negative altitude. The research results show that the frequent users of the German-speaking videoportal YouTube use in written speech the jargons expressing their positive attitude to a videoclip. The jargons expressing a negative altitude of the user, are less in quantity, and significantly seldom the German speakers use the jargons which do not express any attitude. Users of Russian-speaking videoportal YouTube most often use the jargons which do not express any attitude to a videoclip in written speech. The jargons expressing any attitude of the user, in commentaries on a Russian-speaking hosting are met significantly seldom. The jargons expressing the positive attitude,are less in number. Thus it is possible to come to the conclusion, that the German youth, unlike the Russian one, is more inclined to express emotions in written speech and often states a verbal assessment to what they have seen. As far as the Russian youth is concerned, they express their opinion about videorecording that they have seen in the negative form. The young slang possesses the following features: an abundance of neologisms, special lexicon or jargons, anglo-americanisms, metaphors and abbreviations.Key words: youth slang, the comment, language of Internet users, neologisms, jargons, anglo-americanisms, the abbreviations, the lowered lexicon.
Perekhodko I.V. LEXICAL AND STYLISTIC MEANS SERVING TO REALIZATION OF THE PERSUASIVE FUNCTION IN FRENCH POLYTICAL DISCOURSEThe lexical stylistic means serving to realization of the persuasive function in French political discourse are under-explored province of linguistics. This inquiry helps to single out the most efficient ways to influence listeners; it also reveals national peculiarities of the ways of natural language argumentation modeling and persuasion. Examination of persuasive lexical stylistic means of French political discourse through heuristic-systematic model of Shelly Chaiken makes possible to differentiate between linguistic means of argumentationš— i.še. the means appealing to intellect and logic, and means for persuasion via emotional appeal. The study also found that means of argumentation include sociopolitical vocabulary and terms, while means of emotional persuasion comprise lexical means (idioms, euphemisms, words with emotional charge, set phrases), stylistic devices (metaphor, epithet, comparison, hyperbole, litotes, personification) and figures of speech (rhetorical question, gradation, anaphora, epiphora,reiteration). Consequently, the ways of natural language argumentation modeling and persuasion are revealed in terms of the lexical stylistic persuasive means of French political discourse; it enables to select adequate translation transformation intended to ensure not only close translation but also reproduction of the speaker's emotional charge.Key words: political discourse, persuasive function, political communication, lexical means, stylistic means.
Sakharova N.S. SEMANTIC REALIZATION OF THE VERB TO BE WITH THE INFINITIVE IN THE ENGLISH FICTION TEXTS (DIACHRONIC APPROACH)The verb to be with the infinitive is the part of isofunctional microsystem expressing prospectiveness. Possessing one common meaning of hypothetical modality these microsystem members obtain various semantic and stylistic features. The meaning of prospectiveness in some cases is actualized in its pure manifestation, whereas in the majority of cases it is accompanied by the additional modal sense. The semantics and functioning of the verb to be with the infinitive is determined by some structural and semantic factors: the type of the compound and complex sentence, lexics of modus and dictum of the utterance, microcontext. The structural peculiarity of the verb to be with the infinitive is considered to be its functioning in simple sentences. Usually the semantics of this construction is formed of the meaning of prospectiveness and the modal meaning of necessity depending on recommendation or plan. The comparative analysis made in diachronic aspect (XVI, XVIII, XX) makes it possible to monitor the dynamics of this construction development as well as to come to the conclusion about semantic stability of this prospectiveness means.Key words: modality, prospective value, izofunctionality, diachrony.
Solodilova I.A., Schepelja I.V. EVALUATIVENESS AND EMOTIVENESS IN THE WORD SEMANTICThe article focuses on the disputable problem of correlation between objective and subjective language factors and, in particular, evaluative and emotive categories represented on the level of lexical semantics. Opinions differ due to variable understanding of evaluation and its interplay with emotional attitude expressed by a speaker. The author of the article does not follow the traditional approach on this issue that tends to unite evaluativity, emotionality/emotivity and expressivity into a single connotative block of lexical unit semantics. The given categories have to be defined on the basis of the phenomenon character and the type of information provided by these components. According to this approach evaluativity and emotivity are differentiated as originating respectively to evaluative and emotional human activity that in their turn represent independent systems. In addition pure evaluation with no emotional attitude is based on cognitive functions of human conscience thus having a rational character. Emotions refer to the mental sphere though they are closely connected with pre-, post- and metacognitive evaluative activity. The author concludes that evaluation in language as a result of interpretative conscience activity provides information concerning essential features of the object while emotionally coloured speech informs us about the speaker's emotional attitude. Following this line of reasoning, evaluativity and emotivity as semantic components of a lexical unit differ in information blocks they refer to, i.e. denotative (outlining essential features of the object) and connotative (providing extra information), respectively. Furthermore these two categories with their own semantic status are opposed to expressivity as a category referring not to the content plane but to the expression plane. The article contains a comprehensive review of various points on the issue under study and their critical analysis.Key words: objective, subjective, connotation, evaluative, emotional, emotive, evaluation.
Andreeva E.D. REPRODUCTION OF FIGURATIVE AND SYMBOLIC MEANINGS IN TRANSLATION (THE CASE OF JOHN KEATS' WORKS)A word is considered to be the unit of the literary text which concentrates the image with the depth of symbolic meaning behind it. This multiple meaning is a considerable difficulty for a translator, as inadequate attention to a word often leads to deformation of the figurative idea of the text. The aim of the research is set in connection with the problem: to analyze the way the poet suggests the reader that the word in the text has the symbolic meaning and the way an image and a symbol interact or contradict each other. The research is also aimed at analyzing translator's decisions that can result in rendering or loss of symbolic meaning. In the analyzed ballad by John Keats there are displayed the words-images that describe and organize relations between the hero and the Belle Dame, as well as the symbolic meaning that is behind them and depicts the tragic picture of hero's death because of the "forbidden" love: "knight-at-arms", "faery", "steed", "honey", "grot". An image and a symbolic meaning are revealed in these words with the help of explanatory and special dictionaries; the meanings are compared with the meanings of words substituting them in variants of translation into Russian. The article points out that a translator while working with such words-images-symbols should do a profound analysis of components in word's meaning and pay great attention to the choice of translation variants, as an inaccurate word can ruin the image or the symbol or both. Key words: translation of the imagery, translation of the symbol, the word-image, variant of translation, rendering, figurative and symbolic meaning.
Denina O.O. USING A TRANSLATION TRANSFORMATION TO ACHIEVE ADEQUATE TRANSLATIONAdequate, or as it is called, an equivalent translation is made at the necessary and sufficient level for transmission of constant plan of content subject to the relevant plan of the expression, namely the rules of the translation language. The translation process is often impossible to use relevant words and phrases, which given us by dictionary. This happens because of the differences in systems of source language and target language. In such cases, interpreter uses transformational translating. Such a translation is to convert the internal form of a word or phrase, or its complete replacement for adequate translation of the statements content. The task of the translator to achieve adequate is ably produce various translation transformation to the translation as accurately as possible transmit all information contained in the original text, subject to the relevant rules of the translation language. Experts in the field of translation theory has not yet come to a consensus with respect to the very essence of the concept of "transformation". This explains the large number of classifications proposed by a number of scientists and different from each other. Therefore, the problem is not fully investigated, and requires further study. In this article, we reviewed the kinds of translation transformations, analyzed their classification in terms of L.S.šBarkhudarova. The above examples are analyzed using the transfer of certain types of translation transformation proved that a literal translation, similar in semantics to the original text, prevents the perception of the translated text. To achieve adequacy of translation is needed translation transformation.Key words: translation, original text, text translation, equivalence, adequacy, transformation, translation transformation, translation conversion, direct equivalents.
Ilina L.E. PECULIARIYIES OF POLYLODUE'S TRANSLATION IN A PIECE FICTION (BASED ON BALZAC'S NOVEL "FATHER GORIOT")The multifaceted nature of language and culture of each nation is most clearly revealed in fiction. Active cooperation and mutual interpenetration of languages and cultures at the present stage require the implementation of high-quality translation. A fictitious polylogue is a vivid realization of the language because of its spontaneous and direct dependence on extra-linguistic factors and discourse in general. However, polylogue as a form of speech activity and as a mean of creating an image in a piece of fiction, as well as its lingo-stylistics means of its translation are not well understood, moreover, sometimes polylogue is opposed to dialogue, which is incorrect. For the formation of an interpreter's ability to create a translated text for providing an adequate impact on the reader, the author suggests an analyses of the polylogue's translation in a part of Balzac's novel "Father Goriot" and its two Russian-language translations performed by E.šCorsh and A.šKulisher; the authors reveal some differences in the means of transmission of the characters' the speech by the named translators and the author's remarks, guiding the reader's perception. The analysis has revealed some cases of replacement, omissions, additions, permutations, which are regarded as interlingual sense interchanging. The differences between the translations and original concern not only the form but also the content, and identified examples, emphasizing the time interval in the worldview of translators (analyzed translations are made with a difference of nearly a century). The general trend towards the use of translation transformations as a replacement and rearrangement is also a characteristic of the both E.šKorsch's and A.šKulisher's works. Both translators more often use substitution than omission, this fact is explained by the need to explain the realities of foreign language culture.Key words: polylogue, translation, polylogue's translation in fiction, a translated text, the original text.
Fedorinov A.V. SYNTACTIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE FRENCH TRANSLATION OF THE A.S.šPUSHKIN'S NOVEL "UNDERTAKER"Cross-cultural communication and syntactic transformations in fiction's translation, in particular, present a special difficulty for a translator, because of difference between French and Russian linguistic frame: Russian tends to synthetic grammar meaning, whereas the French has analytical tendencies. This fact explains frequent usage of syntactic transformations in fiction's translation; it leads to disturbance of its semantic unity. To improve the quality of syntactic transformations in fiction's translation some means a suggested: an algorithm of future translator's training, its quantitative analyses is hold on, some mistakes in translation, breaks in semantics and unity of the whole novel are found, and some variants of optimal translation are proposed. The results of the research are shown in tables. Having studied syntactic transformations based on the novel by Alexander Pushkin "Undertaker" we can conclude that the main causes influencing the quantity of translation are: difficulty in translation of paremias, difference of linguistic frame, lack of knowledge, absence of cultural and toponimic notions, absence of historical and geographical knowledge. Certain amount of mistakes in target language is explained by difficulty in syntactic structure's translation and translator's trend to language means economy which is a characteristic of the French. We think that the suggested variants of translation would give more adequate and equivalence means, let to preserve national coloring of the translation. Key words: cross-cultural communication, fiction text translation, linguistic frame of the world, authentic text, originating language, target language, syntactic transformations.
Kolomiets G.G. FROM NATIONAL TO TRANSNATIONAL ART IN A GLOBALIZING WORLDBefore defining the relationship between the national and transnational in art and its role in a globalizing world, we will approach the question through the interpretation of the concept of "nation". There are two interpretations of the concept of nationality: an ethno-cultural nation and a civic nation. The first is that the individual does not exist outside of the nation, national identity is perceived as involvement in a particular historical and cultural community. The concept of civic nation identifies the nationality of the man with his citizenship and is an act of conscious choice. As for the person expressing cosmopolitan views, for whom the nation is some restriction of his perception of the world, he is also not entirely free from national bases. National identity is recognized by the answer to the question "Who are you?". It is a deeply rooted personality structure, caused, in our opinion, by all bio-sociological factors and modified by secondary supra-ethnic, socio-political conditions of the life of the world.In the field of art the person possessing the talent, the genius, has an innate anthropogenic ability to artistic activity, realized under certain conditions of social and cultural space, which he operates and from which he draws the material for his work. The genius at the same time has the gift of the deepest penetration into the global problems of existence, human life, beholding emerging processes in culture.We'll proceed from the notion that: 1) any work of art is national, it was created by a national artist; 2) work of art aspires to the status of trans-national, to enter into the sphere of "infinite" communication. Great works of art involved in the development of forms of life of the world, called to be supranational in its existential essence, universal semantic interpretation (for example, "Black Square" by Malevich, or Mozart's music).Thus, there appears another mode of art existenceš— transnational, ontologically grounded. Exit of art beyond national, that was born as a national and exists in the format of a supra-national, transcultural perception, we call transnational art.Transnational art attracts by its unchanging essence in a changing world. It finds transcultural point required for world understanding in a globalizing world. Civilizational space has changed the view of the world that has become one of the conditions of aesthetic taste. Art expresses the desire to expand the boundaries of sound and visual expression that meets the spirit of the time. The characteristic tendency of contemporary art to penetrate into the depths of the material space and at the same time to penetrate into the depths of the human soul is implemented. A look at the transnational being art in the modern globalized world, points to a new aesthetic problem: the dialectic of meaning and absurdity of the ideological function of art, for example, manifested in the avant-garde art and the art, proven a long time.Key words: aesthetic, national and transnational art, philosophy of music.
Mishuchkov á.á. RETURN TO RELIGIOUS SOURCES IN CIVILIZATIONAL DISCOURSE SPACEAccording to the existentialist Karl Jaspers, spiritual civilization and rational unity of mankind took shape phenomenally in the era of "axial age" in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. Returning to the historical and sacred origins of civilized discourse, beginning with the "Axial Age", will allow humanity to reach a new level of universal communication, to satisfy his spiritual interests. Tendencies and features of modern communication society the postmodern (mythologized singularity, transparency, manipulativeness, tolerance, religious and moral pluralism) influence and even threaten the spiritual foundation of civilized discourse. Specificity of civilizational discourse is considered through the prism of the basic Karl Jaspers` ideas of the "axial age" philosophy: philosophical faith, universal communication, communicative barriers, traditionalism, a man`s freedom and historical identity, cultural identity. The founder of civilized approach in the humanities á.šToynbee reveals the role of spiritual values in overcoming barriers (Åurocentrism, neo-colonialism) in communication civilizations reveals the religious meaning of the concept of "challenge-response" in the future, the spiritual renaissance of humanity, related to the culture of "universal communication". For example, M.šWeber and P.šSorokin sociologists` works the influence of the religious factor on the civilizational identity is showed and also the role of the sacred meaning in the modern civilizational discourse. According to P.šSorokin, the secularization has led all mankind to spiritual crisis that is going through a transition from "sensual" to "ideational" phase of his civilizational development. In this situation, increasing the historical role of the Russian civilization, which carries a mission of spiritual service in a multipolar world, uniting all nations on the basis of humanistic civilization ethos of traditional values, is included in its core spiritual wealth of the world's religions. Support in the dialogue of civilizations in the humanistic discourse on the basis of the spiritual human values becomes a factor in the global international and cultural security. Key words: ë. Jaspers, A. Toynbee, existentialism, the dialogue of civilizations and spiritual values, globalization, civilizational discourse, communication barriers, traditions, universal communication, civilizational identity, spiritual crisis, the expansion of civilization, "axial time", "challenge-response".
Parusimova Y.V. TO THE QUESTION OF "SCIENCE ART" IN MODERN AESTHETIC KNOWLEDGE.The trend of convergence of art and science in the framework of the "SciencÅ art" causes a lot of controversy and ambiguous estimates. The specificity of the SciencÅ art as contemporary art with an interdisciplinary character and is aimed at creative interpretation of research excellence. The analysis revealed the point of convergence of science and art: the unity of means, the significance of the creative impulse, strengthening the cognitive functions of art. Tends of development of scientific and artistic practices from simple copying and reproduction of the active purposeful transformation of nature and living of the person. The specificity of art research involves reflection on the image of man as the Creator of a new reality. It was revealed that SciencÅ art, are at the stage of its formation, combines scientific methods as means of knowledge with the traditional expression of the aesthetic experience in artistic images.Key words: contemporary art, bio-art, techno art, digital art, transgenic art genomic art, biotech art.
Hadzharov M.H. LOGIC OF JUSTIFICATION OF PRIORITY OF RATIONAL METHOD OF COGNITION IN PHYLOSOPHY IN METHODOLOGY OF DESCARTESThe process of formation of classical science was accompanied by the emergence of two trends in the development of scientific knowledgeš— empirical and rational, each of which had insisted on its priorities in the area of production of scientific knowledge. Empiricism and rationalism retained its relevance to the present day and still perform alternative levels of knowledge. In the West European scientific community are ardent followers of one or the other direction. This suggests that the dilemma of "empiricism-rationalism" has not lost its relevance in our time. In this regard, it makes sense to investigate the problem of formation of methodological base of rationalism in the philosophy of R.šDescartes. Descartes said that the truth is always accidentally wandering in the labyrinth of knowledge. For science, this is unacceptable, because the scientific knowledge of the search for truth requires an accurate method. The method is that tool that takes a random act of finding the truth in a strictly regulated and controlled process of learning, based on the clear "rules of the mind" that allow to separate the true from the false. As such a method may be adopted deductive system, superior to all other methods, which gives arguments for making it as an ideal of scientific knowledge. Science needs such knowledge, which has the properties of universality, and the need for sustainability. Knowledge of having such properties does not able to give us a sensual experience, but able to be obtained only by means of mind. The mind is based on the idea (belonging to a deductive system), which seem clear and distinct, and can be recognized universally valid criterion of knowledge. Clarity and precision constitute the basic methodological foundations. On this basis, we can assume that all mathematical knowledge is true because mathematics is associated with clarity and precision. As a result, there is the belief that science using mathematical knowledge can discover the laws governing material bodies to the extent that these laws are a reflection of mathematical relationships.Key words: knowledge, doubt, clarity, evidence, truth, mathematics, method, substance, congenital ideas, intellectual intuition, deductive system, mekhanitsistsky model of the world.
Shagdarova B.B. THE FORMATION OF CABLE TELEVISION IN THE SYSTEM OF REGIONAL MEDIA IN THE EARLY TWENTY-FIRST CENTURYIn the beginning of XXI century in Russia and its regions, non-state TV channels have become popular and in demand. In terms of virtualization and digitalization of the media environment and the growing competition from premium cable channels terrestrial and satellite TV channels are forced to review their own content, the concept of broadcasting and interacting with the audience. The development of the new features of the modern Russian television is associated with the development and expansion of forms, means and methods of reflection of reality through a wide range of interactive communication channels, including cable television. Cable TV refers to paid channels, as close to the consumer, attractive for its outreach and educational projects. In the field of cable television mastered the latest achievements of computer simulation and there are already computer programs such as TVšDesigner v.š5.7, allowing to provide cable TV and Internet large audience in the shortest possible time and with high quality. To such popular cable television channels is ATVš— so-called first alternative TV in the Republic of Buryatia, which is broadcasting full from 2013 in the format of cable television, in digital format, as well as on social platform VK. TV audience impressed by the young journalists, "agenda" news, information and analytical programmes, a thematic focus in which the life and problems of the residents of the capital of the Republic. The basis for programming laid by the priority information and entertainment blocks. TV channel ATV seeks to implement a model of truly national TV channel, which is closest to your viewer, knows their needs and interests.Key words: ëey words: cable TV, TV viewing, television news, interactivity, information security, specifics of telecasting.