Akimov A.I., Akimov S.A., Melnikov V.S. COMPONENTS OF PROCESS OF FORMATION OF REFLEXIVE READINESS OF THE TRAINED EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITYIt is necessary to recognize that in modern Russia the economic and socio-political situation represents dynamically changing difficult contradictory phenomenon and process. Unfortunately, it is necessary to recognize that in recent years for the Russian society signs of social and economic and psychological crisis are characteristic. These changes and signs are repeatedly described and investigated that gives us the chance to make the conclusion about the maintenance of the main task of professional education as problems of training of the active identity of the competitive expert. Ability to conscious personal and professional growth and responsibility for results of the professional activity has to become the main competence of this expert. This task fully concerns to graduates of modern higher education institutions of any profile and the direction. Thus the basis of professional education of future expert is made by systematic training on the corresponding disciplines in higher educational institutions. By search of the directions of effective formation at students of readiness for use of educational potential of physical culture in professional activity we consider one of aspects of readiness, namely reflexive readiness. The solution of an objective becomes possible at effective inclusion in process of vocational training of internal activity of future experts in the field of their professional activity. There is necessary a creation within programs of training of students of organizational and pedagogical conditions of formation and development of activity, self-knowledge, self-development, self-improvement and self-realization of the identity of the student. The new reflexive and activity model of process of vocational training of students is for this purpose necessary. The problem of formation of reflexive readiness of the personality is insufficiently worked in pedagogics in the theoretical and methodical plan. Not in a due measure still has the reflexive readiness of students for professional activity investigated specifics, model and conditions of its formation in higher education institutions.Key words: reflection, self-checking, self-control, introspection, self-assessment.
Kargapoltseva N.A., Maslikova E.F. SOCIALISATION OFPERSONALITY AND THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONQualitative preparation of young people for full social and productive life in dynamic realities of the post-industrial society, which is realized in the semantic content-aspect of global competence "learning to live" (Jacques Delors), serves basic socializing dominant, especially in school education. Appealing to the school task-targeted vectors forming the pupils extremely socializing "learning to live" are represented in pedagogical ideas of outstanding thinkers of the past and the present, and in the deep base of operations activity directly associated with the qualitative side of the educational development of the person, expressed in the ability to self-active productive force. Some theoretical and practical approaches to understanding the socializing force vector in the status of the most important motivational factor and value personal development of the growing human competence paradigm of educational quality are marked on the article. Socio-cultural abilities to continuously "force to live" with the educational development of subjectivity, vector-tendering to the qualitative aspects of human activity and reflects due to the constancy of exertion intensity, subject's activity of self-standing in society, which implies overcoming acception of barrier-preventing lifestyle factors as the provided opportunities to improve the importance of increasing level of social rights are defined. However, as being important in socializing aspect initiative undertaken by pupil effort in his aim reachment is not always successful in the time categorization "here and now" (which is significantly optimizes sign of "Pedagogy of Success"), in supplementing the perspective of interdependence should be allocated with self-valuable potential life "success" of the spontaneous efforts of productivity as it is, and is directly correlated with generalized personal ability to "I can" and thus to substantiate the priority realized in the "pedagogy of effort" significant (socializing) component of the quality of education.Key words: socialization, quality of education, productive effort, personal development.
Starodubtseva T.A., Voronyanskaya E.L. THE ROLE OF CONTINUITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE MODULES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF AVIATION SCHOOL CADETSForeign language competence is obligatory for aviation specialists as evidenced by the analysis of the regulations in the field of higher education. Currently the problem of foreign language competence development of aviation school cadets is especially acute as in recent years accidents and incidents caused by insufficient English language proficiency have become more frequent. The condition of the aviation specialists' professional activity requires not only foreign language knowledge but also practical use of this knowledge in specific operating conditions. Therefore, the solution of the problem of inadequate foreign language competence requires the high aviation school teachers to scan educational technologies based on training modules to ensure the intensification of the process of foreign language competence development of the aviation school cadets. In this connection, there is a need to consider the role of continuity of training modules in foreign language in the development of foreign language competence of aviation school cadets. What is more two-way observance of continuity in language learning considering the teacher's and the student's positions in the educational process of the institute is emphasized. Guided by the principle of continuity, the utmost importance is given to development as an important category of continuity and the development of foreign language competence is considered as a multi-stage and an uninterrupted process with qualitative and quantitative characteristics. In the course of sequential analysis of both essential and professionally-oriented training modules the possible advantages and disadvantages of the technologies used on a particular training module are revealed. Compliance with the continuity of foreign language training modules in the foreign language competence development of aviation school cadets significantly have enhanced the language training quality of the students and their level of foreign language competence in particular.Key words: drilling, foreign language competence, interactive language teaching, continuity, training module.
Mishuchkov á.á. CIVILIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE EURASIAN INTEGRATIONThe concept of "dialogue of civilizations" and "civilization identity" substantiates the need for the formation of the system of the multipolar world civilizations on the basis of the spirit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and civilizational partnership (BRICS). The two global development strategy of the international community are comparedš— peacekeeping and conflictological. The BRICS and SCO summit in Ufa inš2015 became an important confirmation of the desire of big non-Western civilizations to the just multipolar world. Perspectives of the integration within the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) have the civilizational dimension and are subject to the external (NATO, Islamic radicalism, international terrorism) and internal (separatism and nationalism) challenges and threats. The maintaining and the expanding of the common civilizational identity of the peoples within the countries of Eurasia with the support on the spiritual and moral guidelines will be one of the means to overcome future threats and to achieve the objects of the national and spiritual security of this countries. The formation of the common Eurasian ideology of the EAEU countries on the basis of the spiritual unity of the peoples of Eurasia is becoming a civilizational perspective of the Eurasian integration. Russia carries the cultural mission of the modernization of the Eurasian space historically and can't to overcome the external challenges of its geopolitical development without the mission of the leader of the Eurasian civilization. The Eurasian countries can become an economic and cultural semiperiphery in the world community outside the civilizational partnership. For the realization of this object it's necessary to take the ideology of the "civilizational identity", the civilizational ideology as the general civil project of the development of the Eurasian integration on the state level in RF and Eurasian countries. This supposes in the future the fixation of the regulations about the principles of the state ideology of the Eurasian civilization, the acknowledgement of the importance of the conservation of civilizational identity of citizens of the peoples of Eurasia in the constitutions of the EAEU countries.Key words: Eurasian integration, globalization, civilizational unity of peoples of Eurasia, civilizational identity, clash of civilizations, national security system, BRICS, SCO, EAEU, hierarchy of civilizations, development strategy of international community.
Naumova T.V. YA.A.šMILNERA-IRININ'S VIEWS IN DOMESTIC ETHICS OF THE MIDDLE OF THE XXšCENTURYIt is important to address problems which were discussed in the domestic philosophy in the soviet period of XXšcentury to restore the history of Russian philosophy. Marxism-Leninism was the official doctrine in the USSR during 70šyears. No theory in any area of science especially in philosophy could be made public without referring to Marxism-Leninism. However deep critical studies in areas of ontology, gnoseology, aesthetics and ethics originated in Soviet philosophy. Including unorthodox conceptions of morality which appeared in The Soviet Union in spite of Marxist-Leninist ethics predominance. The theory of J.A. Milner-Irinin which he was working on during his whole life is examined in this article. The book "Ethics, or the Principles of True Humanness" is the result of his work. This book wasn't available for readers' eyes for several decades. Ideas expressed by the scientist on the subject, problems and categories of the ethics, on moral substance of the human being didn't fit in limits of the official Marxist-Leninist ethics. In the atmosphere of the fight with cosmopolitanism J.A. Milner-Irinin's work was subjected to severe and unfounded criticism in the forms of revelatory publications in newspapers and magazines, philosophical discussions and party meetings. These facts are confirmed by archival materials used in this article. Statements on moral principles phrased by J.A. Milner-Irinin in the middle of the last century can become an appeal to the broad modern audience which is getting introduced to the moral-philosophical reflections, to the audience aspiring to the higher level of the philosophical and human culture.Key words: Jakov Abramovich Milner-Irinin (1911—1989)š— philosopher, Soviet philosophy, Marxism, dialectics, ethics, duty, moral ideal, conscience, good, evil, human being, humanism.
Gerasimenko S.A., Rustanov A.R., Shchipkova N.N. ANALOGS IDENTITIES GRAY FOR TENSOR CONHARMONIC CURVATURE AC-MANIFOLDS OF CLASS C11The main objective is to study the geometry of the curvature tensor conharmonic AC-class varieties C11. For this purpose, the following two problems are solved: 1) get contact analogues identities Gray conharmonic curvature tensor introduced in consideration of Ishi; 2) on the basis of these identities to isolate and study the subclasses of AC-class varieties C11. The paper identified three classes of almost contact metric manifolds class C11, named as GK1-, GK2- and GK3-manifolds. In Theoremš1 we obtain conditions on the curvature tensor components conharmonic on the space of the associated G-structure in which almost contact metric structure belongs to a class C11 selected classes. Theoremš2 is proved that the variety of AC-class C11 is GK3-manifold and the GK2-manifold. In Theoremš3 proved that AC-manifold of class C11, which is GK1-manifold is a manifold with Einstein's cosmological constant. In particular, in the case of completeness and continuity is compact and has a finite fundamental group. Finally, in Theoremš4 is proved that the variety of AC-class C11 dimension greater than 5 is GK1-manifold if and only if it is Ricci flat manifold.Key words: identities Gray, the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor, the tensor conharmonic curvature.
Zakharov P.V., Eremin A.M., Manakov N.A., Starostenkov M.D., Markidonov A.V. BEHAVIOR OF THE QUASI-BREATHER MODE IN PT3AL CRYSTAL WITH THE POINT DEFECTSNowadays the localized oscillations of the atoms or separate atomic groups are being studied in the perfect chips what makes the usage of the acquired results more difficult when studying the real crystals with the deffects. In this researÓh by the method of molecular dynamics we study influence of the point defects on the quasi-breather mode behavior in stoichiometry crystal A3B using Pt3Al as an example. As point defects there are divacancies, trivacancies Pt in the crystal of Pt3Al as well as interstitial atoms ofšAl that are placed into the tetrahedral vacuums. The considered model is a bulk stoichiometry crystal A3B, where the atoms interact through Morse pair potential. It was found that point defects within Pt3Al alloy substantially influence on the quasi-breather mode in the case of their close arrangement. The exposure is in the high-amplitude localized oscillations destruction with the further energy dispersion through the crystal. But it's worth to remark that while high-amplitude oscillations degradation dispersion predominantly takes place intošAl sublattice where the energy stays localized because of the forbidden band availability in the phonon spectrum ofšPt3Al crystal during the long period of time. Besides it's established that there is a quasi-breather mode extended stability region nearšPt divacancy and trivacancy. In the event of the observing at the point defect in the form of the interstitial Alšatom, that is implantated into the tetrahedral vacuum such region does not exist. The acquired results should be counted while investigating the features and qualities of the real stoichiometry crystalsšá3÷.Key words: molecular dynamics, quasi-breather mode, point defects, discrete breathers, nonlinear dynamics.
Kucherenko M.G., Chmereva T.M. NONRADIATIVE ENERGY TRANSFORMATION OF ELECTRONIC EXCITATIONS IN MULTILAYER PLANAR NANOSTRUCTURES "METALš— INSULATOR"Characteristics of quasi-static field (near field) of a dipole source in a three-layer planar system are calculated by method of constructing dipoles images in conductive and dielectric media. In the dielectric medium a generation of collective electronic excitationsš— Frenkel excitons with the formation of the respective resonant frequency bands with frequency dependence of dielectric constant of the molecular crystal is considered. It is shown that the penetration of the field in each of the environments greatly depends on the balance between the use of the oscillation frequency of the primary (donor) dipole and frequencies of exciton and plasmon reso-nances of molecular crystalline and conductive environments. On the basis of the found characteristics of the fields frequency dependence of the nonradiative transfer rate of electronic excitation energy donor molecules, localized in a thin inner layer, which is in the same layer acceptor metal nanoparticles of spherical shape is calculated. The influence on the rate of energy transfer configuration characteristics of the composite system, as well as the characteristic frequency parameters of conductive materials is investigated. Key words: composite structure, the quasi-static field, excitons, plasmon resonance, nonradiative energy transfer.
Rustanov A.R., Gerasimenko S.A., Shchipkova N.N. THE GEOMETRY OF TENSOR CONHARMONIC CURVATURE AC-MANIFOLDS OF CLASSšC11The main objective is to study the geometry of the curvature tensor conharmonic almost contact metric manifolds classšC11. To this end, following tasks: 1) calculate the basic essential components of curvature tensor conharmonic space of the associated G-structure; 2) explore conharmonic flat manifolds of classšC11; 3) get the identities satisfied by the curvature tensor conharmonic AC-class varietiesšC11; 4) select and explore some subclasses of AC-class varietiesšC11 of differential-geometric invariants of the second order. The paper addressed these problems. We prove the following theorem. Theoremš1: conharmonic flat AC-manifold of classšC11 is Ricci-flat manifold. Theoremš2: conharmonic flat AC-manifold of classšC11 is a manifold of Einstein. Theoremš3: conharmonic flat AC-manifold of classšC11 is a flat manifold. Theoremš4: AC-manifold of classšC11 is a manifold of classšK1 if and only if the AC-manifold of classšC11 is Ricci-flat manifold. Theoremš5: AC-manifold of classšC11 is a manifold of classšK2 if and only if the AC-manifold of classšC11 is Ricci-flat manifold. Theoremš6: AC-manifold of classšC11 is a manifold of classšK3 if and only if the AC-manifold of classšC11 is a flat manifold. Theoremš7: AC-manifold of classšC11, a manifold of classšK4 is a manifold of class Einstein's cosmological constant. In particular, in the case of completeness and continuity is compact and has a finite fundamental group. Theoremš8. AC-manifold of classšC11 dimension greater thanš5 is K4-manifold if and only if it is Ricci flat manifold.Key words: tensor Riemannian curvature, the Ricci tensor, the tensor conharmonical curvature, the conharmonically flat manifold, flat manifold.
Kobzev G.I., Schepin A.S., Peshkov S.A. STRUCTURAL AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF THE COMPLEX VALINE IN NEUTRAL AND IONIC FORM WITH CATIONS ZN2+, CD2+ (QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDY)Heavy metals are involved in the diverse chemical, physico-chemical and biological processes. They can act as toxicants, i.še. substances, which are large concentrations can lead to disorders or disorders of various vital processes of the body. Studying the mechanisms of accumulation and excretion of heavy metals in living cells must be based on a study of the problems with the metal binding amino acids as a component of proteins. Given that the ability of metal ions to interact with the amino acids depends on the presence in their structure of certain atoms and functional groups, this reaction is characterized by the formation of metal complexes of varying strength. Density functional method (DFT), in the framework of self-consistent field (SCF) approximation B3LYP/DZP and taking into account the amendments to the energy perturbation theory MP2 (Moller-Plesset) calculated the geometric parameters of the equilibrium states of complex valine in the neutral and ionic forms cations zincš(II) and cadmiumš(II) in the gas phase. The influence conformation valine complexes with metals, zincš(II) and cadmiumš(II), as well as the ionic and neutral forms on their stability. The energies of bond dissociation Val-Me, Me = Zn2+, Cd2+. A number of valine stability of complexes with cations of zinc and cadmium. For cationic complexes with the anionic form of valine [Val–-Me2+]1+ calculated IR spectra revealed that changes the fundamental stretching and deformation vibration frequencies. The regularities of the fringe shift in the IR spectra of the complexes [Val–-Zn2+]1+, [Val–-Cd2+]1+ in complex combination oscillations.Key words: structure and stability of the complexes, complexes valine with metal cations, IR spectra, quantum-chemical modeling.
Aptikeeva R.F., Sharapova N.V., Kovalyova F.F. THE ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND INDICATORS OF VEGETATIVE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLISM DEPENDING ON APPLICATION OF A COURSE OF ADAPTATION TO A PERIODIC NORMOBARICHESKY HYPOXIAAccording to static data the number of alcoholics in Russia will amount to 5š000š000 people, 3.4š% of all population. Alcohol caused death by 33š% of menhood and by 15š% women, that is to say 500š000 people per year. In spite of the sufficiently progress in dipsomania treatment that is difficult to value the efficiency of taking medical measures and to prognosis the remission periode. In consideration of impotant role of oxidant stress in development of the addiction to the ethanol, it is essential question relating to research of new actions directed to increase the power of the antioxidant systems and to restriction of oxidant stress in the complex treatment of the people with the alcohol addiction syndrom. The object of this research is to determine the expedience of the use the adoptation to the circulating hypoxia of alcohol addicted patients treatment. Under the influence of adoptation to circulating normabaristic hypoxia the process lipoids perioxide by alcohol addicted patients returned to normal after holding the adoptation's course. The adoptation to the circulating normobaristic hypoxia favoured to increase of the power of the antioxidant systems. Thus, the results of the research denote, that the adoptation to circulating normobaristic hypoxia has an essentially influence on the character of the remission and the somastic condition. The valuable contribution of the adaptative therapy consists in the complete rejection from the ethonol both in the ordinary life's situations and in cases reminding the alcohol use. It allows to improve significantly a modern complex of actions directed to the dipsomania treatment and recommemd the course of the adoptation to circulating normobaristic hypoxia for its.Key words: alcoholism, oxidizing stress, adaptation, periodic normobarichesky hypoxia.
Kanyukov V.N., Voronina A.E., Borshchuk E.L. MEDICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN ORENBURG REGIONThe increase of glaucoma incidence is noticed in most of theRussian regions. So, its analysis during the period 1994—2002 had been conducted in 27šregions of Russia and showed the increaseof glaucoma incidence, on the average fromš3.1 toš4.7 per 1š000 population.We conductedaretrospective reviewof 3š851šmedical chartsof patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.The sample included patients with primary open angle glaucoma in both eyes, with follow-up for at least 3šyears, without cataractsand other comorbiditiesin a medical history.According to the results of the examinationwe selected 185špatients corresponding to the selection criteria, and made data copies of outpatient cards. Over the follow up period, most patients applied during the period fromš2005 toš2009. The longest follow up period was 19šyears. According to the Stages of glaucoma all patients were divided as follows: Išstageš— 56š%; IIšstageš— 13š%; IIIšstageš— 25š%; IVšstageš— 6š%.There was an increase trend by 2.5š% among glaucoma patients with III and IV glaucoma stages.The principal difference according to the stages in the structure of glaucoma between the right and left eyes hasn't been detected. All patients had glaucoma in both eyes, but it was at 23.5š% at the first visit in an advanced stage (IIIšand IVšdegrees).The main part of glaucoma patients was at the age of 60—69šyears, but 25š% of all glaucoma patients were of working age at the diagnosis.Key words: glaucoma, medical examination, disease incidence.
Kanyukova Yu.V., Kanyukov V.N., Borshchuk E.L., Bayanova N.A. DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AS A MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEM IN THE COMPARATIVE ASPECT OF URBAN AND RURAL SETTLEMENTS OF ORENBURG REGIONThe incidence of diabetes and its complications, both in Russia and throughout the world confirms the absence of downward indicators trend. The carried out analysis shows that the level and dynamics of the incidence of diabetic retinopathy in rural settlements indicates the problems concerning the access to specialized health care. Thehighestrangeofincidenceof eye diseases and adnexa, diabetes and diabetic retinopathy was observed inš2010 (207.79, 113.63, 27,13š, correspondingly). This variability of levels of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy are stable within 15š‰ (14.94 and 8.2š).We distinguishedthe significant differences in thedisease incidence of urban and rural areas (31.47, 20.60š), among the working-age population (85.1š) and population over the working-age (66.2š).It was noted: the diabetic retinopathy incidence among women in rural settlements dominated by 1.81š as compared with similar indicator among town women, and also non-specific low rate among the male population of urban settlements inš2011 (for the rest levelsš— 2013šyear). According to the conclusion of the WHO Study Group, the major obstacles to effective prevention of blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy are hasty work of polyclinic ophthalmologists, late referral of patients for laser treatment, lack of necessary equipment and experienced ophthalmologists specializing in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, difficulty of travelling to the regional center and the high cost of travel to the special careinstitutions.The obtained data indicate varying degrees of access to specialized medical care among the cities of the region, with its primary administration in the regional center.Key words: diabetic retinopathy, diabetes, public health service, disease incidence, invalidity.
Karmanova D.S. THE IMPACT OF LOW DOSES OF THE HERBICIDE 2,4-DšACID DICLORFENOXIACETIC ON THE SEVERITY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ANIMALSThe relevance of this topic is not in doubt, because of the ability of low-dose pesticides when you receive to cause oxidative stress, which can be considered as one of the Óentral mechanisms underlying the many toxicological effects. These effects will be exacerbated by diet with high caloric value, which is currently quite widespread. Soil herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic dimethylammonium acid salt (2,4-DA), transformed to the toxic metabolite, is able to activate lipid peroxidation (LPO), accompanied by violation of transport and receptor proteins of cell membranes, decreased activity of antioxidant systems. The observed increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the group with the joint use of 2,4-DA and fats. In the experimental groups decreased SOD in the serum approximately 40š%, of catalase at 15—45š% relative to the control group, with a more pronounced depression of catalase was observed in animals of the 3rd group (2,4-DA). Thus, the results suggest that prolonged intake of low doses of 2,4-DA is accompanied by oxidative stress, manifested by increased peroxidation products in the liver and serum, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conjunction with a high-energy diet these symptoms become more pronounced.Key words: pesticides, rats, lipoperoksidation, blood serum, heart, liver.
Lebedeva E.N., Krasikov S.I., Sharapova N.V., Setko N.P., Zakharov A.A. LIPID AND ADIPOKINE PROFILE IN WORKERS OIL REFINERY The most important indicator of the health of society is the health of its employees. The chemical and oil refining industry production factors lead to the disruption of many metabolic processes. Thus, in those long-term employees in enterprises of petrochemical previously noted the presence of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseaseš— an increase of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TAG and IA due to lower HDL cholesterol. It was found that the number of individuals with overweight and obesity increases in proportion to length of service in hazardous work. Based on the fact that long-term exposure to toxic substances causes oxidative stress and has obesogenic effect (increases the total weight of the fatty tissue), the aim of study was to evaluate the lipid and adipokine profile of the workers of a petrochemical enterprises in the Orenburg region. A determining the level of leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α performed by ELISA, C-reactive protein (CRP)š — turbidimetric method. The study shows that the values of CRP and TNF-α were elevated, indicating that the process of inflammation. Leptin, reflecting the total amount of adipose tissue in the body was significantly higher than normal (in females 2.5štimes). Values adiponectin, in contrast, were extremely low, particularly in men: almost 10-fold decrease relative to normal. Thus, the individual long-term employees in enterprises of petrochemical noted the presence of both the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseaseš— high cholesterol blood serum (the development of hypercholesterolemia) and a violation of the distribution of cholesterol between atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoprotein fractions (dyslipoproteinemia) and pro-inflammatory nature of the changes adipokine profile. The data obtained allow us to recommend the use as informative biomarkers of the toxic effects of environment factors determining pro- and antiadipokinesš — leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α and C-reactive protein. Studies have shown that changes in lipid metabolism in the background of overweight are closely linked to the change in indicators adipokine regulation that dictates the need for the correction of these changes.Key words: lipid metabolism, adipokine profile, adiposopathy, oil refinery.
Vasilyev S.A. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT EROSION ON SLOPING AGROLANDSCAPEErosion processes on sloping landscapes lead to reduction of soil fertility, a substantial decrease in yields of crops, not the observance of technological process of machine-tractor unit, destruction of roads for agricultural purposes, etc. Surface detention of runoff received considerable attention, because solving them, perhaps, to actively manage the processes of shtokoobraznye and soil erosion on sloping landscapes. Various approaches used today for evaluation of erosion processes in most cases do not correspond to the real process. Observed discrepancy of the calculated data and experiments should be attributed to lack of accounting standards and parameters of the soil. These settings on sloping agricultural landscapes are changing significantly and hydraulics of sheet flow has its principal features, in comparison with fluvial processes. Proposed to be used to estimate erosion processes that occur on sloping landscapes, mathematical model for prediction of soil loss from agricultural fields. Given the fundamental features of the hydraulics of sheet flow when designing anti-erosion technologies, the mathematical model included the hydraulic losses of the watercourse to overcome the resistance of the underlying surface, erosion and transportation of sediment. Approbation of the developed model was carried out according to field research performed on-site SHPK "Work" batyrevskogo district of the Chuvash Republic. The results of the determination of the studied hydrophysical parameters and predict the number of washed-out soils for a particular site is presented in the form of maps with isolines. To change hydrophysical and erosive properties of the soil it is desirable to apply the promising methods of sowing of agricultural crops, for example, be combined seedbed preparation sowing, thus to reduce the number of driveways mA-tire-tractor unit for agricultural field and minimizes the interaction of working bodies of agricultural machines with the soil. Key words: prediction of soil loss, water flow, slope agro-landscapes, slope, hydraulic losses, mathematical model.
Zhakova S.N., Novoselova L.V. EMBRYOLOGICAL FEATURES OF STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES OF SOME CULTIVARS OF SYRINGA VULGARIS L.We show the results of the study of embryological features of the structure and development of reproductive structures of 4šcultivars of S.švulgarisšL. and S.švulgarisšL. (off-grade formš — control) from the collection of educational botanical garden of Perm State National Research University. "Marie Legraye" and "India" have simple flowers, "Mme Lemoine" and "Mme Jules Finger" have double ones. Studied S.švulgaris cultivars are characterized with a similar development of reproductive structures. Development of androecium advances gynoecium development. Androecium consists of two stamens with anthers of cylindrical shape. Primary archesporial tissue appears in the subepidermal layer of the anther in the second decade of March. The wall of anther consists of epidermis, endotecium, a middle layer and a secretory tapetum. The degradation of the middle layer and tapetum occurs in meiotic period. Tetrads of microspores are formed by simultaneous type. Location microspores in tetrads is tetrahedral. Mature pollen grains consist of two cells, they are 3-furrows-porous, medium-sized, spheroidal or oblate-spheroidal shape. Gynoecium is syncarpous. Ovary is superior, bilocular, formed by the fusion of two carpels. Two ovule are derived in one of the ovaries. Ovules are anatropous, tenuinucellatic. Ovule nucellus epidermal layer is represented by one of the early collapsing cells. Ovule is unitegmal, integument is massive. Archesporial cell is alone, derived in early May. Tetrads of megaspores are linear, functional megaspore is halazal. The mature embryo sac has an elongated shape, consists of two eggs and synergids in mikropile part, the central cell with two polar nuclei, three antipodes in halazal part. Abnormalities in the development of reproductive structures are underdeveloped embryo sacs into a fully formed ovules, lack of anthers for the cultivar "Mme Jules Finger" and 100š% sterile pollen grains of the cultivar "Marie Legraye".Key words: Syringa vulgarisšL., cultivar, embryology, androecium, gynoecium.
Kuksanov V.F., Debelov P.V., Ishanova O.S., Kozlova Y.A., Romanov A.S. EKOLOGICHESKAYA CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER QUALITY IN MAJOR LAKES OF THE FAR EAST DISTRICT OF THE ORENBURG REGIONAccumulation of chemical elements and their receipt in objects of environment are result of industrial and agricultural activity of the person. At the same time, the significant role in pollution of environments is rendered by natural factors, especially in places of concentration of deposits of mineral resources, in particular copper ËÏÌÞÅÄÁÎÏ×ÙÈ, nickel ores. Studying of the quantitative content of harmful chemical impurity in water objects, in particular in the territory of the Svetlinsky region of the Orenburg region having deficiency in fresh water wasn't carried out in connection with a lack of ecological information on an assessment of a surface water of the main lakes of the area, otsutstvy long-term plans of their use in the production, economic and household and recreational purposes earlier. For the solution of this problem authors conducted hydrochemical research of waters of the main lakes of the Svetlinsky region of the Orenburg region inš2010 andš2015, the analysis of the received results is made and the ecological assessment of these water resources is for the first time given. In article the arisen reasons (natural and anthropogenous factors) having negative impact on qualitative composition of lake water are also considered. Water resources of the Svetlinsky region of the Orenburg region include, first of all a network of drainless lakes of the large, average and small size. Are most significant lakes: Shalkar-Ega-Kara, Zhetykol, Obalykol, Kayrankol. These and other lakes are of special value for the nesting and flying natatorialš — swans, geese, ducks and other representatives of aviafauna. Hydrochemical indicators of quality of lake waters according to the content of sulfates, chlorides, ammoniyny nitrogen, oil products and other substances exceed the maximum-permissible concentration (MPC). The majority of lakes in adverse weather conditions (2013—2014) completely or partially dried up that testifies to need of carrying out on them environmental monitoring. Key words: lakes of the Svetlinsky area, quality of waters, laboratory researches of tests of water, sources of negative impact on natural waters, indicators of chemical pollution, standards, the analysis of the received results.
íuldashev á.á., íÁslova N.V., Elizaryeva ï.á., Galeeva á.Kh. EXPERIMENT OF REINTRODUCTION OF RARE ENDEMIC SPECIES OXYTROPIS BASCHKIRENSIS KNJASEV IN SOUTH URALS (BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLIC) The results of the experiment in reintroduction of rare endemic species Oxytropis baschkirensis Knjasev in the South Urals (2003—2014) are presented in the article. This species needs protection all over the areal. It is included in the Red Data Book of Bashkortostan Republic (2011) and the Red Data Book of Chelyabinsk region (2005). Studies have shown that under sowing of seeds on hill Tuytyube in Uchalinski district of Bashkortostan Republic in natural habitats this species gives seedling and forms "micropopulations" including plants of all age conditions. Plants become in the generative period from 2—4 years of development. Generative plants can return to the virginal status (temporarily not blooming plants), apparently, under the influence of moisture lack in the soil. At all stages of ontogeny, especially at pregenerative period, mass death of the plants was observed from adverse conditions. The prospect of artificial sowing of seeds in critical populations with the aim of restoring and maintaining their numbers is shown. Under conditions sowing of seeds with seed hardness after the winter storage the soil seed bank has formed, which provides annual seed regeneration for all over the period of observation (10šyears). Sowing seeds collected in natural populations at maturity and characterized by various degrees of seed hardness gives relatively abundant seedlings in the following year, but in subsequent years renewal is relatively weak because of the depletion of the seed bank. The native population on the same hill is characterized by a very low density, which, apparently, is due to a lack of seeds largely. Under conditions the shortage of seeds at the critical populations artificial reseeding of seeds collected from the same population is advisable. Key words: ëey words: Oxytropis baschkirensis, Red Data Book, rare species, endemic, reintroduction, population, age structure, protection, South Urals.
Popov S.V. BIOTOPIC PREFERENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION STRIGIFORMES ON THE BORDER OF THE TAIGA AND FOREST-STEPPE BEYOND THE URALSOne of actual problems of modern ecology is studying of bonds between species composition of communities both different ecological and space factors. The purpose of this article is studying of topical preferences and space structure of the population Strigiformes on border of taiga and the northern forest-steppe of Zauralie. For achievement of the goal, in the least changed biogeocenoses, the network of constant routes and platforms has been put. Besides, for search of rare species additional single routes outside areas of stationary researches were put. Selectivity of types concerning mosaic of vegetable cover was studied on the basis of mapping of nests and the analysis of satellite images by means of GIS. Round each nest zones with a radius of 100, 500 and 1000 meters were allocated. For each such zone amount of forests, share of the area occupied with osier-beds, fields and meadows was calculated. On the basis of comparison of structure of vegetation around nests and in accidentally chosen points within platforms, the conclusion about preference or avoiding of amount of forests, fields, osier-beds, etc. is drawn. Definition like space structure of the population was carried out due to comparison of the real and theoretically expected distribution type. Modeling of space structure of the population Strigiformes was carried out by means of method of kernel (Kernel Density Estimation) and the specialized computer OpenJump program. For Strigiformes the labile space structure of the population is characteristic. Annual reproduction of space structure of the population is not observed. The increase in number of look can lead to reduction of distances to the closest nest of the look and to emergence of nested aggregations. The choice of specific place for nest is defined by structure of mosaic of vegetable cover and is partly connected with presence of closely related look.Key words: space structure of population, population of birds, Strigiformes, forest-steppe, Zauralie.
Berestova A.V., Zinyukhin G.B., Maneeva E.Sh. FEATURES OF CRYOPROCESSING OF VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALSFast freezing is the best way of conservation and preservation of perishable vegetable raw materials. For optimization of parameters of this process and development of new ways of processing of raw materials it is necessary to reveal features of cryoprocessing of vegetable raw materials. The review of references showed that the existing technologies of cryoprocessing of vegetable raw materials assume use of freezing in an intensive stream of air and directly cryogenic method by means of coolants, biopreservatives and cryoprotectors. Receiving the high-quality cryoprocessed food is based on optimization of parameters of process of deep freezing, development of new ways of processing of raw materials for the purpose of receiving a semi-finished product or a ready-made product in the conditions of negative temperatures, without allowing phase transition of moisture to a liquid state, and also decrease in prime cost. An indispensable condition of preservation of commodity quality, a nutrition value and safety of production is observance of temperature conditions of a continuous refrigerating chain. Specific lines of cryoprocessing of vegetable raw materials are the following features: compliance to a certain look and grade, standard indicators on organoleptic, physical and chemical, structural and mechanical properties and indicators of safety; strict observance of technological parameters of production; technological processing of raw materials before freezing.Key words: vegetable raw materials, technological parameters, deep freezing, cryoprocessing, cryoconservation.
Brusyanin D., Ponomareva M. ODEL OF THE MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL COOPERATION OF THE PASSENGER REGIONAL CARRIERSCurrently the strategic development of the suburban passenger traffic is directed to the formation of the intermodal transport involving rail transport. In the context of legal fragmentation of the transport complex integration of transportation companies through coordination of their activities is impossible without building mutually beneficial relations of participants of the transportation process. The investigation of the existing scientific works on improvement of the suburban complex allowed us to determine that not enough attention given to the formation conditions of mutual cooperation of participants of the transportation process: the model of coordination of the interests of the passenger carriers was not created, both among themselves and with the Executive authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation. Therefore the purpose of this article is to develop a model of mutually beneficial cooperation of passenger carriers. Interaction in this paper is formalized as a graph model, defined in the plane of the formation of the conflict the carriers, proposed to use logistic approach to resolve the conflict between carriers and build optimal route network. As a result of the work carriers on the proposed cooperation schemes is achieved by the additional system effect. This effect is ensures the integrity of the system. It is expressed by the difference between the obtained effect of concerted action of carriers and the amount of economic effects of individual elements of the system. Additional system effect is possible only in terms of removing contradictions in the system. The amount of Agency fee can be set from the condition of maximizing the profitability of carriers. Proposed in the present work, the model makes it possible to form regional route network from the point of view of realization of interests of subjects of the transportation process.Key words: logistic approach, integration of carriers, coordination of interests, the integrity of the system, conflict of interest, suburban complex.
Kalimullin R.F. THE CONCEPT OF INCREASE OF DURABILITY OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINES AT OPERATION Discrepancy between parameters of real and design functioning of bearings of cranked shaft at operation of automobile engines leads to an intensification of wear of bearings and, as a result, decrease in durability of automobile engines. The solution of this problem on the basis of providing at stages of a running in and operation of engines of liquid greasing in bearings, can be one of reserves of increase of their durability. For realization of such reserve in article scientific and methodical justification of improvement of methods and control devices and management of lubricant processes is given in bearings of a cranked shaft during the operation of the engine. As the parameter for control and management of lubricant process it is offered to use integrated extent of existence of a lubricant layer. The formula for calculation of a resource of bearings on the basis of which criterion function of ensuring maloiznosny operation of automobile engines is defined is received. Theoretical research of influence on a resource of bearings of a cranked shaft of change of quality of lubricant process at a running in and operation is conductedš— on the modes of start-up, idling and loading. Possibility of increase of a resource due to management of lubricant processes is proved. The main results of management of lubricant processes at a bench running in are given, when diagnosing, in the modes of start-up and loading.Key words: bearings of a cranked shaft, lubricant process, wear, operation, automobile engine.
Pishchukhin A.M., Kolotvin A.V. ABOUT RAISING AND DECISION OF REGIONAL TASK OF WELL-BORING DIFFERENTLY RUNNING AROUND BORING CROWNSTense state of drillable breed at affecting her two running around in opposite parties circular and ring boring crowns is of interest. On such method of the boring drilling a positive decision is got about delivery of patent to Russian Federation. It a method decides the problem of removal of twisting moment from a boring column. The estimation of the tense state determines affecting on layer at the boring drilling. As boring crowns have a circular form in the axial plane of mining hole, an area of resilient deformation is not onecoherent. For the decision of this problem it offers to examine equalizations of theory of resiliency in the torus system of coordinates. This raising corresponds to the axisymmetrical task of twisting, set forth A.I.šLur'e. Problem is set the and decides in moving with pointing of the subsequent passing to tensions. A distinctive feature as compared to equalization of Laplace is a presence of additional element. Border terms it is here been equality to the zero of moving to the axis and on the walls of mining hole. The additional decision of task is then conducted in the cylindrical system of coordinates, displaced on the bottom of coalface. Two decisions are compared. The got results allow to draw conclusion about admission of raising and consideration of further tasks of dynamics of the described cooperation in the cylindrical system of coordinates.Key words: the tense state, theory of resiliency, boring drilling, torus coordinates, regional task, border terms.
Mavrin E.A. PARAMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF THE ANNULAR THIN-LAYER APPARATUS FOR PASTEURIZATION OF MILKIn modern economic conditions the huge amount of the alloyed and non-ferrous metals is spent for production of the heatexchange equipment. The excess weight and dimensions bring a lot of trouble and expenses. The multiton design requires the big area under installation, the reliable basis, purchase of the additional load-lifting equipment and the price of the heat exchanger always remains unfairly high. Therefore at design of the heatexchange equipment the designer has to proceed from requirements of minimization of the mass-dimensional sizes. In dairy production dimensional pasteurizers are applied to pasteurization of liquid dairy products. One of widely applied ÐÁÓÔÅÒÉÚÁÔÏÒ× are tubular, to perspective among which carry the ring thin layer. Such pasteurizers has advantage before kozhukhotrbny and lamellar, in particular, instantly heat the heat carrier due to the milk movement by a thin layer. However in scientific literature practically there are no researches of ring thin layer pasteurizers. In this regard actual is a problem of search of new constructive decisions and development of the methods of calculation allowing to reduce the weight and dimensions of the heatexchange equipment. In this article the equations of preservation of weight, an impulse and energy which are applied at the description of figurative properties of the twirled streams in channels of difficult geometry are first considered. Creation of mathematical model on the basis of procedure of averaging led to their simplification. Secondly, the complex of parameters of effect of process of transfer of thermal energy on which is determined parametrical optimization of working parameters of the ring device was performed. The prototype of the ring thin layer device, based on use of the twisting devices for a heat exchange intensification is thirdly offered. Fourthly optimum design data of the ring thin layer device are determined. Result of the ring thin layer device developed by the author, protected by the patent Russian Federation No.š98555 the milk allowing to pasteurize the equipment of smaller dimensions and metal consumption in comparison with analog.Key words: heat transfer; metal; modernization; mathematical model; parametric synthesis.
Morozov N.A., Vlasov Y.L., Gavrilov A.A. OPTIMIZATION OF PARAMETERS OF COMPOSITE COVERINGS DRY COMPARTMENTS OF AIRCRAFT BY MEANS OF NASTRANThe researches devoted to minimization of mass of aircraft will never stop being the actual. Decrease in weight allows to lower costs of production of the aircraft, to reduce the dynamic loadings arising when transporting and in the course of its flight and also to reduce amount of fuel, necessary for flight. The purpose of receiving the covering providing the greatest coefficient of a stock of the general stability and the maximum durability of a compartment on condition of minimization of its weight was set. Researches were conducted by modeling of the intense deformed condition of coverings by means of a method of final elements in Nastran. For research the layered model consisting of variously reinforced layers of composite material of the set thickness was used. As a result of calculation on durability and stability of various coverings it was established that optimum schemes of laying of four-layer coverings are the schemes having the inside layers (the closest to a longitudinal axis of a compartment) reinforced under angles and the external layer reinforced at an angle. Lack of distinction in stability and durability of coverings in case of mutual change of places of the layers reinforced under angles provides possibility of replacement of these two layers with one orthotropic layer. When modeling dry compartments of aircraft the preference needs to be given to the four-layer coverings having the scheme of an arrangement of layers (45, –45, 0, 90). Influence of change of quantity of four-layer packages of layers of a covering on its durability and stability was investigated, thus thickness of a covering was accepted by the invariable. It was established that distributions of tension and the maximum tension arising in coverings are identical, and the coefficient of a stock of the general stability increases with increase in number of packages of layers. And, the essential increase in coefficient of a stock of stability occurs only when using two packages of layers therefore when modeling coverings from bigger quantity of packages of layers it is recommended to use technical and economic calculations.Key words: composite material, covering, durability, stability, layer, optimization.
Pishchukhin A.M., Ahmedyanova G.F. AUTOMATION AND TECHNOLOGIZATION ARE TWO ASPECTS OF TECHNICAL EQUIPMENTThe article is devoted to the development of the theory of automation at the present stage, the main vehicle in the implementation of which is the computer. Automation is considered as a two-step process: technology and automation direct, which solved the problem of the development of technology, mathematical and system analysis management's process, the expediency and hardware selection. This formulation of the fundamentals of automation, requires in system design to consider the properties of the plurality of control, disturbances and controlled variables. Technologization, which proposed instead of the outdated concepts of mechanization, considered as a direct operator fš[Y, F, U]. Then the solution of problem management, giving the basis for the design of automation systems, is reduced to finding the inverse operator. The properties of the sets participating in the automation system, as well as display propertiesš— or rather, the operator, through which it is fulfilled, constitute an orthogonal coordinate system, secreting the plane different classes of automation systems. The plane reflects the complication of the system respectively and automation means in the direction from the upper left corner to the lower right. If top left are systems that can be fully automatic, then right at the bottomš— intelligent systems, essentially implying the presence of human and technical means of intellectual support. Further discussed the expediency of automation, a choice of means for its implementation not only hardware but also software, enabling automation at the highest levels of the hierarchy. In conclusion raised the question about the relationship of people and technology in the automation of production. It is shown that there is a limit to automation, which is going it will turn into its opposite and becomes instead attendant threat to humanity.Key words: automation, mechanization, system approach, relationship sets, the design of automation systems, extensive use of technology.
Savkova T.N., ëravchanko A.I., Kuharenko S.N., Lukashov V.M., Svintitskij A.V. THE DETERMINATION OF ENERGY AND OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MODEL OF LIGHTING DEVICE UNDER PULSE EXCITATION IN A MATHCAD SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT LED devices with a pulse mode are increasingly used in lighting technologyš— strobe lights, projectors, lights, security systems, sensors, pulse devices, etc. Pulsed power supply lets you reduce heat in the p-n junction of the LED, it improves efficiency and service life of the lighting device. There is a method to determine energy and optical characteristics of the LED model. Using lighting device under pulse excitation with proposed Mathcad software environmentallows to determine the current power consumption value of the model, the radiation power and energy efficiency. Measurements of energy and the optical parameters of the lighting device model manufactured by cold-white powerful LED ARPL-3W were made. It was shown that the maximum values of efficiency under pulsed excitation and continuous power for the model is amounted to about 40š%. The efficiency difference in power consumption (nominal mode) with continuous and pulsed excitation power with 50% duty cycle is about 5š%. In a range of wattages to 0,02šW efficiency lighting device model is practically independent of the crystal's active region temperature. The form of pulse supply affects energy efficiency of the LED depending model of lighting device. Exciting trapezoidal shapes of cold white LED triangular pulses makes efficiency lower than exciting those with rectangular shaped pulse. Studied power characteristics have shown a significant effect for the duration of the pump pulse currents exceed 2A efficiency of emitting recombination. Increasing the frequency of the supply current reduces the efficiency of the crystal under the same duration and power of the exciting pulse.Key words: LED, pulse excitation, the average radiation power, energy efficiency.
Sidorenko G.A., Popov V.P., Zinyukhin G.B., KhaninaT.V., Maneyeva E.Sh. ELECTROCONTACT BAKING OF THE BISCUITAlmost all kinds of pastries are baked by the radiation and convective way. Delaying and stopping of the pastry volume of the test preparation during baking result in the crust formation on the surface of the flour product. During traditional baking the activity of enzymes and various biologically active compounds decreases. Besides, over the high temperature the crust of the flour product accumulates the products of the fats polymerization, polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates, various oxide substances that reduces the nutrition and the biological value of the finished products. In this regard, baking ways, at which crust isn't formed, are of special interest. The influences of various parameters on the finished product quality and the process of electrocontact baking are also of interest, in particular the influence of various dosages of flour on the indicators of the biscuit quality, and also the temperature and the volume of the biscuit during baking. The change of the substances amount entering the compounding will allow to give an assessment to the prospects of this or that application for the biscuit. The traditional radiation and convective baking is characterized by the high-temperature impact on the baked preparation that leads to the decrease in nutrition and biological value of the products. Baking products by the electrocontact way it is possible to reduce the loss of the useful compounds that increases the nutrition and the biological value of the finished products. According to the researches of the technology of the biscuit making baked by the electrocontact way it was revealed that the increase in flour dosages intensifies the process of electrocontact baking for the biscuit. The increase in flour dosages leads to the increase in elasticity and the improvement of organoleptic and physical and chemical properties of the biscuit (the complex indicators increase of organoleptic and physical and chemical properties).Key words: electrocontact method of baking, biscuit, rheological properties, complex index of quality.
Suhova V., Kolinichenko O., Starkov I., Starkova M., Vdovenko E., Gumirov I., Musin A. SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND SCIENTIFIC-ENGINEERING PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL SAFETY It is shown that to ensure the safety and viability of the planet's growing population requires not only a constant increase in resources, but also to avoid the risks associated with the use of scientific and technological progress. Start of civilized management of hazardous industrial processes and facilities in the country was initiated adoption of the Federal Law №š116-FL of 21.07.1997 (12.21.2014), where the main requirements for industrial safety. For example of the Orenburg gas complex, the possible risks at hazardous production facilities at the impact of natural character illustrated. Industrial safety as an area of scientific activity is regarded. The basic stages of its development and improvement, including mathematical methods and computer technology risk prediction, identification of the causes of disasters, the development of new diagnostic tools and technical methods to assess the mechanics of deformation and fracture. Key words: industrial safety, risk, dangerous industrial processes, diagnostics and expertise, natural and technogenic safety, earthquakes, scientific problems.
Ushakov U.A., Polezhaev P.N., Shukhman A.E. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTISERVICE MULTIPOINT VPN NETWORK WITH DYNAMIC AUTOCONFIGURATION Nowadays the usage of enterprise VPN services is integrated in every large company. SOHO and SMB also use VPN for connection with Internet providers, VoIP, banking transactions. Our approach suggests to automatize building and using multipoint VPN topologies. We also proposed the cloud to build full-mesh dynamic multipoint VPNs based on routers using scripts. During research the prototype of autoconfigured VPN network was developed. Its experimental research showed good results in performance and memory consumption, reflecting great horizontal scalability of cloud VPN server. Proposed concept of autoconfigured network based on customer profile showed viability. We plan to extend it to the direction of network traffic management. We also propose to implement the full-mesh network for customers without the server for traffic transmission, which will further reduce the cost for customers. Key words: VPN, autoconfiguration, corporate networks, cloud computing, software-defined networks, network as a service.
Filippov A.A., Dudchenko O.V. DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATORY BASE REGULATING ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF VEHICLESNow development of system of technical rationing of ecological indicators of vehicles (automatic telephone exchange) goes on the way of globalization and toughening, that is creation of supranational standards which purpose is providing the demanded ecological indicators, including durability of systems of cleaning and neutralization of the fulfilled gases, on design stages and productions. This tendency promote that the low level of ecological danger of automatic telephone exchange established at certified tests of type will be confirmed and remain during all life cycle in actual practice of operation. In the developing conditions changes in basic normative documents which are already entered are important or will be entered in foreseeable prospect. After all they, eventually, will define in the future procedure of control and restriction of the admission in operation of the automatic telephone exchange having the malfunctions influencing ecological safety, and also a role of periodic technical inspections. The purpose of this article is the analysis of system of technical rationing of ecological indicators of automatic telephone exchange. The analyzed normative documents are grouped in the realization level (the first main level is realized at design stages and productions of automatic telephone exchange, the secondš — at an operational phase of automatic telephone exchange), and also by the form requirements to ecological characteristics of automatic telephone exchange (the gaseous and visible polluting substances [PS], "climatic" gases [CO2] and fuel consumption, the made noise). Toughening of norms on a lot of emissions and to quantity of controlled ZV, and also complication of test cycles for the purpose of their bigger binding to real service conditions is noted. Besides, in amendments are considered widely adopted recently hybrid and gas cylinder automatic telephone exchanges. Comparison of features of rationing of ecological indicators of automatic telephone exchange is given in EU countries and Russia. In the conclusion tendencies of development of the regulatory base regulating ecological safety of automatic telephone exchange, and, first of all, the changes concerning periodic technical inspections reveal.Key words: the vehicles polluting substances, ecological safety of automatic telephone exchange, ecological indicators of automatic telephone exchange, ecological characteristics of automatic telephone exchange, system of rationing of ecological indicators of automatic telephone exchange.
Filyak M., Kanygina O. GROWTH KINETICS OF THE FILM OF ANODIC ALUMINA IN SODIUM HYDROXIDE ELECTROLYTERecently, porous anodic alumina is widely used as a template for nano-structured material production. Films from alkaline electrolytes are not being studied widely. Meanwhile, alkaline electrolytes are certainly of scientific and practical interest. Anodization of aluminum was performed in a double-electrode electrochemical cell in electrolytes on the basis of sodium hydroxide in the potentiostatic mode and at the simultaneous chronoamperometric control. Experimentally the thickness of anodic aluminum oxide was determined by the gravimetric method. The theoretical computation of thickness of oxide was carried out on the basis of the Faraday's law by the method of chronoamperogram numerical integration. The value of the anodization constant has been calculated to the known thickness of anodic alumina. By using the calculated anodization constant has been stated the theoretical dependency of anodic oxide thickness vs time. In the result of studies has been established the following: for electrolyte concentration 0.1šM and voltage 30šV the anodization constant is (3,67š±š0,2)š•š10–7šsm2/mAHmin and does not depend on anodization time; the value of anodization constant for alkaline electrolytes is less than for acidic type; the anodization constant value allows you to control of anodic film thickness and production of films of certain thickness.Key words: anodic alumina, sodium hydroxide, kinetic curve of anodization; anodization constant.
Filyak P.Yu., Fadeev A.N. INTERNET TRAINER FOR INFORMATION SECURITY ORGANIZATIONThe article is devoted to the development and implementation of integrated training-controlling system using, including Internet resources and training-controlling environments, representing global and local resources for information security organization to prevent and protect against threats by members of the organization that do not have the requisite level of competence or responsibility, as well as from external intruders. The most relevant at the present stage is the creation of an integrated training-controlling environment to ensure information security. For an organization that cares about the long-term prospects of development is very important training and supervision knowledge for their employees. Therefore, in relation to them, requires serious theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of their activities. Requirements to the level of professional knowledge, on the one hand, establishes the normative legal acts, on the other hand, can be determined by internal corporate standards of the organization. The reality is that the legislation is constantly changing-so lately in the sphere of information security passed many new laws and regulations. In addition, the technology does not stand still, before employers rises the need for qualitative recruitment, meeting all requirements. All this leads to the necessity of creation of a modern system of training and testing of knowledge. This is really the current system and was developed by the authors of the article, and is described below in the present publication.Key words: training-controlling environment, information security, testing, periodic monitoring, monitoring, global and local information resources, Internet resources.
Fot A.P., Reshetov S.Yu., Mullabayev A.A. GEARBOX DESIGNING BASED ON THE CLOSED DIFFERENTIAL DEVICEAt design of test benches for corrosion and mechanical tests of materials in the modes with a big difference of working speeds (in thousands and tens of thousands of times) executive devices, captures for samples at tests for stretching as imparted, consecutive installation of several transmission gears was used, and ensuring two various speeds of tests required two kinematic chains that led to unfairly overestimated weights and dimensions of the drive. This problem is offered to be solved use in drives of known transmission gearsš— the closed differential mechanisms with tooth gearings. The transmission ratio of these mechanisms reach values in some millions and are practically limited only to the mechanism efficiency value that sharply falls with growth of value of the transmission ratio. The use of the offered scheme of a gearbox based on the closed differential allows with a sufficient accuracy to receive two preset values of the transmission ratio differing in tens of thousands times. Taking into account observance of conditions of coaxiality, the neighbourhood and assembly the ratio of numbers teeth of Z1 and Z3 must be provided: Z3š=š3Z1š+š2. In this case the value of the total ratio of the box i13 (from the guide link 1 to the driven link 3) will be determined by the formula i13š= [(3Z1š+š2)Z5Z7]š/ [2Z4Z6(2Z1š+š1)š— Z1Z5Z7] for the first speed or i13š= [(3Z1š+š2)Z5"Z7]š/ [2Z4"Z6(2Z1š+š1)š— Z1Z5"Z7] for the second speed. For the negative effects excepting when cutting wheels teeth (teeth cutting and sharpening) it is recommended to take wheels teeth numbers of the box in the range of 17…160. Taking into account preliminary researches the interval of teeth number values fromš17 toš52 is recommended for Z1. Selection of wheels teeth numbers of the locking part is the most difficult, and the options quantity of numbers combinations of wheels teeth has millions. In this regard the transmission ratio of transmissions of the locking part is expressed through the demanded transmission ratio of i13 and possible value of Z1: (Z4Z6)š/ (Z5Z7)š= [Z1i13š— 3Z1š—š2]š/ [i13 (4Z1š+š2)]. Further i13 value and Z1 value are substituted in the formula, the received calculated value of the right part of the formula is transferred to the special computer program of selection of wheels teeth numbers of Z4, Z5, Z6 and Z7 (or Z4”, Z5”, Z6 and Z7) two-level tooth gearing. Key words: the special drive, the transmission gear, a gearbox, a tooth gearing, the closed differential, the planetary carrier, the central cogwheel, the satellite.
Hasanov R.H. JUSTIFICATION OF THE COMPLEX INDEX EFFECTIVE OPERATION OF VEHICLESFor modern vehicles set high demands for safe, comfortable and efficient operation. However, the number of emergency situations in the operation of road transport due to poor technical condition remains at a high level. So, 15š% of road accidents and 20š% of cases of fires on vehicles due to technical failures of motor vehicles. One of the most effective measures to ensure serviceable condition of vehicles is the use of the system preventive maintenance and repair. Therefore, for new and improved models of vehicles need a new system of technical maintenance of vehicles. Then you need to evaluate a new system of technical maintenance of vehicles. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the new system of technical maintenance of vehicles proposed to use a composite indicator of the operational efficiency of vehicles. This indicator aims to assess road safety and other indicators of operation of vehicles and to assess the feasibility of the developed activities with a minimum expenditure of labor and time resources. The proposed integrated indicator of the efficiency of operation of the vehicle allows us to consider performance of the vehicle, diagnostics, maintenance and repair, reliability, road and environmental safety, and damage from emergencies, and to perform the calculation of the indices in the differential form by comparing the present and projected periods. Key words: vehicles, safety, the efficiency of operation, the integrated indicator of efficiency of operation of vehicles, the maintenance vehicles, the technical condition of the vehicles.
Baranov A.P., Buligenova D.A. FEDERAL POLITICS IN MODERN RUSSIACurrently, federal relations in Russia are transformed, the development of a federal state is not finished yet. In this way, the government is faced with many challenges. In particular, the search for ways to decentralize authority, the choice of direction changes in the degree of participation of the Federation in the implementation of regional policy. The problem of decentralization of powers associated with the expansion of the responsibility of the authorities of the federal subjects in solving social and economic issues. Set the ratio of centralization and decentralization of economic, social and political life, to create a common economic, social and political space through the delineation of powers allows federalism as a form of organization of the state. For the theoretical development of the problem of reforming of federal relations and the development of the mechanism of interaction of bodies of the government of the federation and its subjects, allowing allow contradictions of powers, the theoretical aspects of federal policy in the Russian Federation, the nature of federal relations, revealed the concept of economic federalism, mechanisms of federative relations, studied the process of transformation, how to improve it. To improve federal relations it is needed to create a system of relationships and the division of powers, making it possible to develop independently of each region; to improve the mechanism for the implementation of the constitutional measures; to create a system of state power on the basis of the constitutional model of the federal structure; to create such an economic mechanism of federative relations, which will encourage the subjects of the federation to achieve economic self-sufficiency, self-development and self-sufficiency, build productive capacities, attracting investment, the introduction of advanced technologies, strengthen economic relations in general, federal type.Key words: federalism, separation of powers, federalization, federal relations, authority, economic mechanism of federal relations.
Zatsarinina Yu.V., Blech A.V., Ovchinnikova I.P. DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING POLICY AND REGIONAL HOUSING MARKET AS PART OF REGIONAL POLICY BALANCED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG REGION)Standard and legal regulation of the housing sphere of the region, mechanisms of participation of the regional government in the solution of housing questions are considered process of carrying out at the regional level of a state policy in the field of housing construction and providing bulk of the population with affordable housing. Researches in the field of implementation of the existing housing programmes of federal and regional levels are conducted. The following features of implementation of regional housing programmes and national projects on the example of the Orenburg region are revealed: the region participates in implementation of socially significant national projects and housing programmes directed on increase in volumes of housing construction; the main volume of budgetary funds is allocated for performance of actions for support of the region to construction branch and restructuring of mortgage loans. The main directions of regional housing policy and system of mortgage lending of the population of the Orenburg region are analysed. The main obstacles to development of housing policy, are: inefficient use of free land fund; the high cost of acquisition of housing for bulk of the population; difficult mechanism of mortgage lending; existence mainly market of "commercial" housing; need of modernization of municipal infrastructure; instability and regular increase of municipal tariffs; undeveloped system of insurance of housing. By results of research for effective development of housing policy in the Orenburg region in modern conditions it is offered: to carry out systematic monitoring of implementation of housing programmes; to develop the development plan of the territory of the Orenburg region and the program of development of infrastructure of the territorial units which are its part; effectively to use fund of free lands by transfer them on favorable terms under construction of the houses intended for delivery on the terms of social hiring; to provide stability of municipal tariffs and extra charges for services of a municipal complex; to enter the program of obligatory insurance of housing.Key words: housing policy issues, regional housing programs, prospects for the development of housing policy.
Zinyukhina N.A., Leushina T.V. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF AVERAGE WAGE SOCIAL AND SCIENCE WORKERS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATIONRaising the overall level of life recognized by the world scientific community as an indicator of development of the state. The introduction of new systems of payment of employees of budgetary institutions implies an increase in the federal payroll by 30špercent, which can avoid job cuts, while wage growth. In connection with the changes introduced and required new approaches to the methodology of statistical analysis of average wages of certain categories of social workers and Science. Federal statistical observation in wages of certain categories of workers in the social and scientific spheres conducted by Rosstat, starting with the report for the Išquarter 2013, on quarterly basis. On the basis of statistical observation we made up the ranks of the dynamics of wage workers in the social and educational sphere for 2013—2015 years. Determined by the average characteristics of the intensity of the analyzed indicators in a comparable form by adjusting the index of consumer prices (to the level of Išquarter 2015). Identified and assessed trends in compensation of employees of education, health and other categories of social workers, Scientific and Cultural Organization on the basis of the trend models for time series, which confirmed the presence of trend. The characteristics of the intensity of the analyzed indicators, the average system used absolute and relative indicators of the dynamics and trends of parabolic equations obtained, which revealed that the average monthly salary of social workers and Science of the Russian Federation in this period increased from quarterly slowdown.Key words: wages, social workers and science, statistical analysis, dynamics, trends, parabolic trend.