Berezina T.V., Savin E.Z. FEATURES GROWTH FRUIT CROPS IN THE BASIN OF URAL AND SAKMAR IN THE ORENBURG AND SAKMARSKY DISTRICTFruit crops are an integral part of the steppe and forest steppe regions. The first garden and parkland appeared in the region with the arrival of the first settlers here in the first half of the XVIII century. Most of introduced fruit crops quite successfully acclimatized in the territory of the Orenburg region. A significant impact on the safety and crop species have a microenvironment in which grow fruit and berry plants. In the basins of the Urals and in the Orenburg Sakmara and Sakmara areas were examined 19 areas of fruit plantations. At each site work was carried out as follows: to consider the factors of the geographical environment, represented by the surveyed area (micro-relief, climate, availability of garden protection plants, the presence of a water source, soil cover); to determine the species composition of plants and their cultural value class; establish a link between the yield class plants and growing conditions; to draw a conclusion about the suitability or fitness of each of the sites studied under fruit crops. According to the results of this work are set optimal conditions for the functioning of garden systemsš— a land located on the slopes of the south-east, north-eastern and eastern and northern areas reduces the likelihood of solar-frost burns, protected from cold winds by forests, mitigating actions northerly winds from the winter withers, with the close proximity of water sources, which mitigate the negative effect of low temperatures in winter and spring.Key words: garden, environmental conditions, water sources, Forest, position slopes, apple.
Dubrovnaya S.A., Khusnetdinova L.Z., Galyautdinova R.I. ANATOMICAL AND MORFOSTRUCTURE MULTI-SHOOT PLANTS OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTANH. perforatum forms rootš— suckers life form obligately under conditions of the forest-steppe Zavolzh'ye of the Republic of Tatarstan. Weed forming sprouts are formed on side roots of the individuals of the second year. In disturbed area renewals of annual monocarpic sprouts dominate in the structure of the cluster of individuals. Under the condition of intact natural communities the renewals of biennial or perennial sprouts dominated in the structure of the cluster greatly. H. reforatum forms life form of hemicryptophyte and cryptophyte. The renewals of buds of some individuals were on perennial sprouts above litter, that shows that Hypericum forms intermediary between hemicryptophyte and chamaephyte.Key words: Hypericum perforatum, life-form, life strategies of plants.
Kapustina N.V., Egorova N.Yu., Egoshina T.L. STATUS OF DACTYLORHIZA FUCHSII (DRUCE) SOO COENOPOPULATIONS IN "BYLINA" STATE NATURE RESERVE10 coenopopulations (CP) of Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soo were investigated in middle-taiga subzone of Kirov region within the area of "Bylina" State Nature Reserve. It was shown that D. fuchsii is found in forest communities of Vaccinio-Piceetea class. the species is predominantly found in sparse linden-spruce and also aspen-birch and spruce-birch Majanthemum herbaceous forests. 33šspecies are marked in herbaceous-undershrub layer of phytocoenoses. Dominant species are:Vacciniummyrtillus, Vacciniumvitis-idaea, Lathyrusvernus, Rubussaxatilis, Solidagovirgaurea, OxÁlisacetosÅlla, Majanthemumbifolium, Melicanutans, Viciasylvatica, Poanemoralis. D.šfuchsia onthogeny consists of 2 ontogenetic periods (pre-productive, productive) and 4šontogenetic states (juvenile, immature, virgin, productive). All studied CP are incomplete, individuals of pre-productive group of immature ontogenetic state prevail. Basic ontogenetic spectre is ancipital with local maximum in immature individuals group. The part of productive individuals varied from 7.7 to 100š% in the investigated CP. The following morphometric parameters points are givenš— sprout length, inflorescence length, parameters of the first leaf (length, width, number of veins). The analyses of basic morphometric features of productive individuals showed that the highest plants were found incowberry-blueberry spruce-linden forest on an overgrowing runway. The estimation of parameterscarried out on pooled data of studied CP demonstrated high level of variability. The least variable features of productive individuals of D.šfuchsia are the width of the first leaf and inflorescence length (3.4 and 8š% correspondingly). Maximum variability level was marked for sprout length (62š%). The range of integrable coefficient (SC) forD. Fuchsia is between 1.6 and 2.8. The status of 6šcoenopopulations of D.šfuchsia is estimated as "close to threatened". One CP is in satisfactory condition which is determined by high share of productive individuals and maximum density. The rest of the coenopopulations are in the state "depending on protection". For that matter it is recommended to monitor the status of all coenopopulations. Key words: Dactylorhiza fuchsii, coenopopulation, demographic characteristics, age structure, morphometric parameters.
Makarova T.A, Makarov P.N., Revutskaya N.P., Maximenko Y.P. INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF PLANTS FAMILY SALICACEAE IN THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS OKRUGš— YUGRAEvaluated phytopathological state of the plant family Salicaceae in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrugš— Yugra. We have established the basic types of plant diseases, extent and intensity of the lesions various willows in phytocenoses district and were identified infectious agents. Guidance has also been on the development of plants with the plant resistance to infectious diseases.Key words: family Salicaceae, phytopathogen, exciter, disease, resistance, planting, phytocenoses, measures to combat infectious diseases of plants.
Muldashev á.á., Elizaryeva ï.á., íÁslova N.V., Galeeva á.Kh. SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF ALLIUM NUTANSšL. (ALLIACEAE) IN INTRODUCTION AND REINTRODUCTION IN BASHKORTOSAN REPUBLIC Study of the biology of rare plants species is necessary to establish the reasons for their rarity and developing methods for their effective protection. Seed productivity (in particular, the realization seed potential) is the important indicator of vitality species in specific habitat. The results of the study of inflorescences seed productivity of rare species Allium nutans in artificial populations ex situ and in introduction in Bashkortostan Republic are presented in the article. A. nutans is species of South Siberian and North Kazakhstan. It is included in the Red Data Book of the Bashkortostan Republic (2011). Species is on the list of priority rare and endangered species of the steppe zone of Bashkortostan Republic need to special measures for their protection. The material for the study of seed productivity was collected in the Natural Botanical Garden "Gurovskaya gora" in Kushnarenkovsky district of Republic of Bashkortostan (where are reintroduced and studied in conditions close to nature more than 20 rare plants species) and in the nursery of rare and endangered plants of the Southern Urals located at the Botanical Garden in Ufa. The study showed that this species has a fairly high seed productivity. Indicators of seed productivity have high variability: amount flowers of inflorescencesš— 32—452, the potential seed productivityš— 192—2š712 ovules, the real seed productivityš— 135—492 plump seeds, coefficient of productivity (the ratio of real to potential seed productivity) š— 23,8—44,0š%. These data are consistent with earlier finding by us and other researchers on seed productivity in nature and culture. Conditions of reintroduction were acceptable for the receiving of seed. There is the increase of quantitative indicators of seed productivity of this species depending on the duration of the existence of the sample in experiences.Key words: Allium nutans, Red Data Book, rare species, seed productivity, introduction, reintroduction, protection.
Scheglova E.G. ABOUT OF STATE FORESTS ORENBURG REGION (ON FORE-STRY EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG)Forests are unique and one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, occupying the third part of the land. They are characterized by a high productivity and the accumulation of a large part of the organic matter of the planet, which is presented in the form of wood, detritus, humus. Forests play a major role in the water cycle, enrich the atmosphere with oxygen and maintain the level in the content of carbon dioxide. According to the state forest register on 1šJanuary 2014 the total forest area of the Orenburg region is 721,6šthousand hectares All forests of the Orenburg region for the intended purpose are classified as protection forests. Protective forests perform important functions such as habitat, water protection, protection from wind, soil erosion and so on), health, Wellness. That is why the study state forests of the Orenburg region on the example of Orenburg forestry and identification of the main factors preventing their formation, development and functioning. is the most relevant. Studies were conducted on the territory of the Orenburg forestry, which includes five sub-districts: Komsomolskaya, Blagoslovennoe, Orenburg, Nizhyn, Pavlovsk statistical, mathematical methods, and analysis of literary sources. The study revealed that forest Orenburg forestry presents QuÊrcus rÕbur, PÕpulus nÎgra, PÕpulus Âlba, PÕpulus trÊmula, Betula pendula. Mostly rocks are middle-aged, the stability of a classš —šII, stage of degradationš— šII, which requires the appointment of forest protection measures. One of the main reasons hindering the formation, development and functioning of forests Orenburg forestry is drought, which can cause firesš— another of the main reasons. Fires in the forests of the Orenburg forest change their primary species composition, inhibiting the growth of some types and intensificar the development of other species. In areas covered by ground fire, the undergrowth is mainly dominated by Acer negundo.Key words: forest, biological assessment, species composition, drought, fires.
Arinzhanov A.E., Miroshnikova E.P., Kilyakova Y.V. USE SUPPLEMENTS AND IRON NANOPARTICLES IN THE CARP FEEDINGCurrently, the practice of using feeds with different kinds of dietary supplements. In this paper we study the effect of fine iron powder, the enzyme preparation RovabiošXL, probiotic preparation bifidobakterin bifidum (Bifidobacterium bifidum) on the growth, development and hematology carp at their joint use. Object of research are carp (nš= š50), age (0+), with the sample of 10—15šg, grown in a cage farms Ltd. "Lake" Orenburg. Fe nanoparticles obtained at the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) and synthesized by high-temperature condensation installation MiguÊn technology MJ Gene and AV Miller. The size of the nanoparticles 100šnmš± 2šnm. The studies found that the combined use of nanoparticles and probiotic bifidobakterin bifidum increases the growth rate by 28š% relative to control. Hematologic parameters of blood in all the experimental groups were within the physiological norm. In the analysis of blood parameters of the experimental groups was recorded similar picture of changes in hemoglobin and red blood cells: the second week of the experiment there was a decrease in hemoglobin level and the number of red blood cells compared to the control group in I experienced a 7 and 29š%, in IIš— 16 and 19š% inšIIIš— 5 and 34š%, respectively. In the fourth week we have noted the increase in the level of hemoglobin and red blood cell count in the I and III experimental groups: Iš— 4šandš86š%, inšIIIš— 14šandš59š%, respectively. In the sixth week, recorded a slight decrease in hemoglobin levels compared to the control in the Iš— 0.7š%, inšIIš— 6.3š%, inšIIIš— byš2.7š%, and a significant reduction in the number of red blood cells in thešIš— 38š%, inšIIš— 34š%, in thešIIIš— 25š%. Changing the number of white blood cells had a similar pattern changes in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration. Thus, in the second week of the experiment there was a decrease of leukocytes compared to the control inšIš— 13š%, inšIIš— 13š%, in thešIIIš— 12š%; in the fourth week we noted an increase in the number of leukocytes in thešI and GroupšIIš— 49š%, in thešIIIš— 12š%. Fixed constancy protein composition of plasma and absence of inflammatory processes in the body, as evidenced sedimentation rate of erythrocytes (2—5šmm/h).Key words: enzymes, probiotics, fish feeding, nanoparticles, iron.
Kurakin I.V., Mikhailichenko D.V., Ponomarev S.V., Fedorovykh Yu.V., Bakaneva Yu.M., Miroshnikova E.P. THE DEVELOPMANT OF ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT DIETS FOR TILAPIA IN RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONSIn the course of the work three recipes of diets for tilapia with different conten-tion of proteins and amino acids compositions were developed. The tests of getting diets and also the production diets of different origins were carried out in the conditions of aquacomplex of Innovative center "Aquabiotechnopark — STC of aquaculture" ASTU, using the fry and yearlings of red tilapia. Some piscicultural, biochemical parameters of cultivated fish were analyzed, and also the resulting evaluation of production traits and their efficiency was given. The best results of weight (absolute and average growth rate), survival rate, and also fatness were shown by the fish, growing on the following diets: foreign diet (40š% protein, fat 9š%); recipe of ASTU (protein 33š%, fat 9,7š%); carp feed (protein content of 38š%, fat 9š%); catfish feed (protein content of 42.5š%, fat 11.8š%). It was revealed that the protein content was higher in the body of the fish that received diets of ASTU (33š% protein), experimental carp feed, the content of total lipids was low. It was also found that along with diets fish receives the full range of essential amino acids, which positively affects its physiological status.Key words: tilapia, diets, recipe, fish meal, protein, fat, energy.
Markova T.O., Repsch N.V., íÁslov M.V. ZOOGEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DIPTREA FAUNA (DIPTERA: TACHINIDAE, PHASIINAE; ANTHOMYIIDAE) OF USSURI RESERV AND ADJACENT AREASAbstract. Tachinid flies of subfamily Phasiinae (Diptera) are specialized parasites of insects (Hemiptera). Most species of Anthomyiidae are phytophages, many of them are agricultural and forestry pests. During the research (1996—2012) in the Ussuri Nature Reserve and adjacent territory 37šspecies of Phasiinae (Tachinidae) belonging to 17 genera were found. Anthomyiidae fauna consists of 36šspecies belonging to 19šgenera (74 and 64š% of the fauna of Primorye Territory, respectively). The aim of the research was arealogical analysis of Diptera fauna, Tachinidae (Phasiinae) and Anthomyiidae families of Ussuri Nature Reserve and adjacent territory of the South Primorye, which is presented in this paper for the first time. Area classification based on the scheme of globe zoogeographical division by A.P.šSemenov-Tyan-Shanskyi with additions by O.L.šKryzhanovskyi. During conducting the analysis literature was used which gives information on the Diptera distribution in the Palaearctic, data on the Nearctic and Oriental Diptera also took into account. In the subfamily Phasiinae (Tachinidae) 3šzoogeographical complexes were divided. Fauna mainly consists of the Palaearctic species complex (81š% of the total species number in the investigated area). An important feature of the faunaš— the presence of East Palaearcticš— Oriental species (5.5š%), Palearchaearctic species (8.1š%) and conditional endemics (6.2š%). In the family Anthomyiidae 4 zoogeographical complexes were divided. The fauna is represented by widespread Holarctic and Trans-Palearctic species (80.5š%), the proportion of Eastern-Palearctic and Palearchaearctic species is relatively low (5.6š%). Cosmopolitans and species spread apart from temperate latitudes in the tropics and subtropics make up only 13.9š% of the fauna.Key words: Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Anthomyiidae, fauna, parasites, Hemiptera, zoogeographic complexes.
Tsyurik A.V., Bezborodov N.V. INFLUENCE OF THE VITAMIN AND MINERAL COMPLEX MIKSODIL ON THE HORMONAL BACKGROUND AND THE CONTENTS SQUIRREL IN BLOOD OF LAYING HENSIn article the results of researches connected with studying of a hormonal background and protein content and proteinaceous fractions are presented to blood of laying hens of cross-country of "Hayseks Braun" in the period of egg production after application of a vitamin and mineral complex Miksodil. Definition of some biochemical indicators in blood raising productive indicators of laying hens, and efficiency of application of vitamin and mineral feed additive Miksodil was the purpose of researches. Researches were conducted in the conditions of an educational poultry farm of the Belgorod state agricultural academy of V. Ya. Gorin on laying hens of cross-country of "Hayseks Braun". In serum of blood of each group of a bird (nš=š5) according to the standard techniques of the immunofermental analysis investigated existence of hormones of an estradiol-17β, a progesterone, a cortisol, the general protein, albumine, α-globulins, β-globulins, γ-globulins. Proceeding from the received results of efficiency of a bird on groups, indicators of a hormonal background during a reproductive cycle of laying hens and structure of a vitaminnno-mineral additive Miksodil is offered the scheme of application of Miksodil.Key words: laying hens, vitamin and mineral complex, hormones, general protein, proteinaceous fractions, natural resistance, albumine, globulins.
Samkova E.B., Karimov I.F. ASSESMENT OF LIGHTING SOURCES BIOSAFETY BY REPORTER LUMINESCENT BACTERIAAbstract. In recent years a number of studies purpose was to develop a biosensor methods for the evaluation of mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of environmental factors on the cell, in particular biosensor test systems whole cells that have in their composition two main genetic elements: a promoter that responds to exposure to a toxicant, and gene-reporter transcribed from the promoter. It may be noted that reporter microorganisms very suitable object for the study of DNA-damaging effects, due to ease of cultivation, inexhaustible resources, to ease of changing the irradiation conditions, and finally the ability to transcriptional response that is easy to visualize the level of luminescence of the bacterial strain. In this work reporter luminescent strains that are based on E.šcoli K12 MG1655: E.šcoli K12 MG1655 recA::lux, E.šcoli K12 MG1655 colD::lux and E.šcoli K12 MG1655 ibpA::lux were used to assess the biosafety sources artificial light, with the first two luminescence respond to DNA damage, and the latterš— on the damage of heat shock proteins. For creating optimal conditions for the work of strains was established method of estimating the light, and a comparison of the physical characteristics of light sources, including incandescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps. The results allowed to state that all types of lamps are able to provide the DNA damaging effects in different degrees, but more important is the brand, rather than the type of lamp; wherein a correlation damage from ultraviolet radiation intensity emitted by all types of light sources. There was also a difference in the response of the features of the strains E.šcoli recA::lux and E.šcoli colD::lux.Key words: reporter strains, compact fluorescent lamp, incandescent, LED lamp, ultraviolet, DNA damage.
Lebedev S., OsipovÁ E., Salnikova E. CHANGING THE QUANTITY OF ELEMENTS IN WHEAT TRITICUM VULGARE VILL. BY DIFFERENT FORMS OF IRON WITH HUMIC ACIDThere is the prospect of using nanoiron as plant growth stimulants. Literature data on the effects of fine particles of iron on the elemental composition of plant species TriticumvulgareVill (soft wheat) inadequate, moreover, virtually no study the interaction of these particles with natural sorbentsš— humic acids, which control the bioavailability and transport elements in natural objects. Therefore, this article examines the change of elemental composition plants TriticumvulgareVill under the influence of the spherical iron nanoparticles Fe0 (diameter of 80šnm ± 5šnm) and nanoparticles of magnetite Fe3O4 (50—80šnm in width and a height of 4—10šnm), as well as solutions of iron sulfate (II) sulfate and iron (III) in the presence of humic acids. It was revealed that the potassium content under the influence of nanoparticles and ionic forms is about on par with the control. However, the shortage of nutrients for 21šdays the amount of potassium is increased by 25š% (22š393šmkg ± 4š479šmkg/g) under the action of magnetite in an amount of 0.01šg/l of iron and 20š% (21š738šmkg/g ± 4š348šmkg/g) under action of nanoparticles of iron in an amount of 0.0001šg/l as compared to controls (17š752mkg/g ± 3š550šmkg/g). Nanoparticles of Fe0 iron on dayš21 reduces the amount of magnesium at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01šg/l at 27š% and 12š%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.001šg/l magnesium content is on par with the control (2š957šmkg/g ± 443šmkg/g) and at a concentration of 0.0001šg/L of this element increases the amount of 10š% (3š266mkg/g ± 490šmkg/g). Under the influence of all forms of iron and phosphorus concentration varies similarly control experiments and is 4š967šmkg/g ± 993šmkg/g, 7š154mkg/g ± 1š431šmkg/g, 9š943šmkg/g ± 1š989šmkg/g at 7, 14 and 21šrespectively. Thus, nano forms of iron can be used to enhance the stability of wheat TriticumvulgareVill on depleted soils in a lack of nutrients.Key words: iron, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nanoparticles, humic acids, wheat.
Gamm T.A., Grivko E.V., Dolgikh E.S. EKOLOGICHESKOYOPTIMIZATSII OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT ORENBURG)The question of the natural landscape as a resource gradoobrazujushchego now becoming increasingly important. The modern city is fenced off from the natural landscape of the industrial, transportation zone or compacted residential multi-storey buildings. Deepening of the process of development of urban areas entails the development of the negative effects of human activities, expressed in pollution, abuse and degradation of the urban landscapes that form the basis of the urban environment. Orenburg, being the administrative center of one of the largest regions of the Russian Federationš— Orenburg region, which is part of the Volga Federal District, located mainly in the arid steppes with low rainfall. Therefore, anthropogenic factors exert their combined and the associative property is particularly strong in the urban environment. In order to develop local mechanisms to optimize the urban environment on the example of the Southern District of Orenburg the authors conducted a comparative analysis in some respects the ecological state of the air, soil and one of the water bodies of the city of Orenburg. Calculation of the demographic capacity Environment Facility and the rate of natural protected areas of the Southern District allowed the authors to conclude that this part of the city is characterized by the excess of the threshold balance of the urban environment for its ability to residential and recreational resources for recreation in the forest area and the analysis of the proportion of green spaces public use of the area of the city to establish the fact of its failure. As a set of measures to improve detection of adverse changes in the urban environment by the authors it was justified local algorithm ecological optimization of the urban environment in the form of the multifunctional park with a central water body, and concluded the stabilizing role of the object, which can improve the microclimate of the city in the Southern District.
Garitskaya M.Yu., Chekmareva O.V., Ishanova O.S., Patokina N.S. CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF SOILS OF THE TERRITORY ADJACENT TO SOROCHINSKO-NIKOLSKOMU TO MESTOROZHDENYOn oil production volume Russia holds a leading position in the world. On objects of an oil and gas complex where are observed the constant intensification of technologies connected with increase of temperatures and pressure, strengthening of single capacities of installations and devices, existence in them of large supplies vzryvo-, pozharo- and the toksikoopasnykh of substances. At production and use of natural resources there is a deterioration of ecological properties of environment that bears threat of life of many live organisms including the person. Soils are capable to absorb and hold chemicals, protecting from them water, air and plants. Respectively control of efficiency of the soil in restriction of migration of chemicals in the technogenic loaded landscapes is the most important link of geochemical monitoring of soils. Research of the territory adjacent to the Sorochinsko-Nikolsky field showed that on an indicator of chemical pollution of soils the main part of the territory experiences considerable anthropogenous strain and is characterized as a zone with an intense ecological situation. Key words: soil horizon, acid-forming impurity, oil products, concentration coefficient, chemical pollution, indicator of chemical pollution of soils, ranging of the territory.
Debelo P.V. EKOLOGO-GEOGRAFICHESKIE ASPECTS OF DISTRIBUTION OF INSECTIVOROUS MAMMALS TO URALO-KASPIYSKOM REGIONFor the unique territory of the Uralo-Kaspiysky region in the landscape and biogeographical relation now special relevance the problem of studying of reactions got it the most archaic insectivorous on escalating influence of a versatile economic complex. Thus paramount value the problem of inventory of fauna assuming the solution of the following tasksš— studying of specific structure of group in general on the region and its structural components gets, specification of qualitative and quantitative structure of various ecological groups and the faunogeneticheskikh of complexes, identification of outlines of their areas, especially on borders of biomes where pass the major biogeographical boundaries. It will allow to adjust monitoring of structure of fauna and to develop system of actions for preservation of a biodiversity. The analysis of literary data and personal materials the ezhinykh, mole and the zemleroykovykh allowed to establish dwelling in the region of 15štypes. From them 4šlook (26,6š%) belong to European, 5š(33,3š%)š— palaearctic and 6š(40,0š%) to Asian faunogenetichesky complexes. In the ecological plan 2šlook are semi-water, 2š— typical geofila, 3š— the land running forms and 8š— gerpetofilam. Landscape and climatic features of the territory and specifics of ecology of types determined nature of their distribution in general by the region and its parts. In forest-steppe, steppe and semidesertic zones it is known onš10, in desert 11štypes, ÎÏÓÏÓÔÁ× them significantly differs. The number of representatives European and palaearctic complexes in process of advance to the South gradually decreases, the area of the habitats occupied by them is reduced, there is a fragmentation of areas, and at the southern limits they meet only locally. At representatives of Asian faunistic complexes the opposite tendency is observed. Key words: Uralo-Kaspiysky region, biodiversity, insectivorous, fragmentation of an area, krayearealny populations, number, spatial distribution, protection.
Kuksanov C.F., Kuksanova E.C., Ishanova O.C. ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE RIVER URAL AND RUSSIAN-KAZAKH OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF ITS WATERSThe article gives a brief description of the ecological status of the river Ural, quantitative indicators of the quality of its waters. The analysis of statistical data of the state environmental monitoring is carried out on the biological and chemical indicators. The authors consider the main areas of implementation of environmental measures and the Russian-Kazakh cooperation in the field of nature protection of the pool of the Ural. Summary: the Ural River is one of the major rivers of Europe and the increasing impact of human needs in the Russian-Kazakhstan joint action on environmental issues. The quality of surface waters of the pool r. šUral does not meet sanitary-hygienic and environmental requirements on all its length from source to mouth. Within the Orenburg region surface water quality r.šUral characterized as "polluted" and "very polluted". This is due to the high content in water copper, zinc, iron General and other chemical elements. The most polluted tributaries r.šUral river is the Ilek, Blava, Most Urtzika, Sakmara, Great Satyr and other. To solve the conservation pool r.šUral necessary practical steps including improvement of Russian and Kazakhstan environmental legislation, development and implementation of the interstate program of salvation r. Ural-based "Schemes of complex use and protection of water bodies in the basin r.šUral, the increasing volume and quality of environmental monitoring, development and implementation of a comprehensive program of continuous ecological education and enlightenment. As a priority action should be to make changes in the State program "environmental Protection of the Orenburg region for 2014—2020" in honor of the expansion of the network of specially protected natural (water) areas, development of methods of compensation for damage to natural complexes in cross-border transfers of pollution, increased funding of environmental measures through targeted use of pollution charges the environment and other activities, primarily legislative and normative-legal nature of managerial decision-making on education intergovernmental authority for the protection r. Ural and international information-analytical center on a continuing basis.Key words: issues in the basin r.šUral, systemic environmental change, environmental emergency situation, contaminated and highly contaminated water, complex program, special protection of soils.
Yakubovich á.N., Yakubovich I.A., Rassokha V.I. ASSESSMENT OF INDICATORS OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF TERRITORIES OF THE ROAD NETWORK OF THE STATE COMPANY "AVTODOR"Development of road economy in the territory of Russia is connected with ensuring rational environmental management which is directly provided with the scientifically based decisions directed including, on reduction of the negative consequences connected with influence of motor transportation streams on ecosystems of roadside territories. In relation to the existing and perspective road network of the State company "Avtodor" the list was created and the quantitative assessment of values of each indicator characterizing the current ecological state of roadside territories and degree of their resilience to technogenic influences from a transport complex is executed. Natural zoning of the territory of a road network on zones of a taiga, the woods, steppes, semi-deserts and deserts is made. Such major climate factors as radiation balance, a territory relief, district height are considered. Kinds of soils of the territory of a road network of Avtodor Group depending on such factors as emission of carbon dioxide by soils, the capacity of a cationic exchange of soils, acidity, the content of nitrogen in the soil, organic substance of the soil, fertility, number of phytoweight, vegetable community are in detail analysed. The made analysis because of the scale didn't put (and I couldn't set) a task of development of concrete recommendations about these or those technical decisions promoting preservation or improvement of ecological indicators in certain roadside territories. For this purpose additional detailed and purposeful inspection of the most ecologically vulnerable sites of a road network is necessary.Key words: road construction, road network, geoinformation technologies, natural complexes, ecological condition of the territory.
Galaktionova L.V., Vasilchenko A.V., Suzdaleva A.V. BIODIAGNOSTICS SOILS OF ïRENBURG PARKLANDThe article deals with the prospect of the use of indicators of biological activity of the soil for an adequate assessment of the environmental state of the soil cover of parkland in Orenburg. The current approaches to the diagnosis of soil biological indicators include the definition of the actual and potential biological activity. Potential biological activity indicates the ability of the soil to the implementation of a process under optimal conditions for soil body. It reflects the latent ability to induce a number of biological processes and thus to maintain the constancy of soil parameters. Indicators relevant biological activity reflects the intensity of these processes in real environmental conditions. For a comprehensive assessment of soil processes of tension indicators have been used to date (the production of carbon dioxide and cellulolytic capacity of the soil) and potential (catalase activity and phytotoxicity / seed germination test culture) biological activity in combination with integral indicator of a biological state (IPBS) proposed KolestnikovšC.I., KazeevšK.S., ValkovšV.F. (2003). To assess the impact of the urban environment in the soil-biotic complex was carried out determination of the content of mobile forms of heavy metals in soils research facilities. Results of the study revealed the dependence of the volume of carbon dioxide produced by cellulolytic capacity of soils and their hydrothermal regime. Last corrected by human activities in the implementation of measures for the care of green areas. The study of indicators of potential biological activity revealed a statistically significant link them with the content of heavy metals (such as individual items and total content) in soils. The indicator IPBS allowed the authors to make comprehensive conclusions about its dependence on the impact of anthropogenic factors. Reducing the integral index of the biological condition of soil degradation indicates the park area of Orenburg city and oppression intensity exercise of important ecological functions.Key words: biological activity of soils, IPBS, heavy metals.
Eliseeva M.V. ASYMMETRY STEPPE LANDSCAPE AS A FACTOR PREDURALIE INHOMOGENEOUS SOILSThe steppe region is characterized by a complex geomorphology, landscape asymmetry. River valley Common Syrt, located on the territory of steppe of the Ural and have an asymmetrical structure, which is expressed in raznoslojnost interfluvial spaces, as well as in the different typological placement of landscaping on these slopes. The watershed areas one slope is always the slope of the southern exposure, it receives a greater amount of solar radiation compared with smooth surface watersheds and with a different slope in the opposite direction. This affects the functioning of the whole ecosystem and its separate elements, including determines the direction of the processes of soil formation in asymmetric sloping landscapes. The influence of asymmetrical contrast (North-South) watersheds on the processes of soil formation in the steppe zone. It is established that the disproportion of the watershed areas associated heterogeneity in terms of soil formation and, as a consequence, a variety of morphological, biological, chemical, physical and other important properties of chernozems. Take into account the following indicators of the genetic properties of soils: humus content in the soil and its fractional-group composition, enzymatic activity, density, permeability, structural condition of soils. The following results are obtained: differences in temperature and water regimes of soils multidirectional slopes manifested in the heterogeneity of the biological factors of soil formation — in the species composition and productivity of plant communities; the heterogeneity of the biological conditions of soil formation have led to differences in the content and qualitative composition of humus in soils of slopes of different expositions; differences in the humus status of soils is reflected in the heterogeneity of soil multidirectional slopes on the totality of the most important physical properties: density, structural condition, water permeability. These circumstances must be considered when conducting monitoring studies of soils and for the development of regional criteria of rational use of agricultural lands. Key words: landscape asymmetry, heterogeneity of soil formation, the usual black.
Milanovskiy E.Yu., Shein E.V., Rusanov A.M., Tygai Z. N., Il'in L.I., Zinchenko S.I., Fomin D.S., Bykova G.S. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT IN THE SOIL IN THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM AGROLANDSCAPESThe study of the organic carbon and CaCO3 distribution of in the 80šm long transect crossing the field of agriculture and forest belt characteristic of the age showed significant differences in the distribution of organic and mineral carbon profiles in chernozems under the arable land and in the vicinity of the forest belt. This is due to a dominant role in the formation of hydrothermal conditions of reserves and the content of organic matter in the chernozem and points to the importance of assessing the physical conditions that lead to the formation conditions of accumulation of organic and inorganic carbon in soils, determining the conditions for the functioning of soil biota in steppe landscapes.Key words: chernozem, organic matter, carbonates, shelterbelts, agrolandscape, complexity of the soil cover, hydrothermal conditions.
Ondar E.E., Dergacheva M.I., Bazhina N.L., Ochur K.O. HUMUS OF MOUNTAIN TAIGA SOD SOILS OF TODZHA BASIN (NORTH-EASTERN PART OF TUVA)The composition of humus, structural features of humus profiles and specific elemental composition of humic acids of mountain taiga sod soils key area "Azas" (north-eastern part of Tuva) are discussed. According to the classification in 2014 WRB, these soils are Umbric Gleysols Dyst Soil sections are located on different positions of complex Catena that differ by relative height, expositions and a steepness of slopes. The vegetation cover is represented by light-forest of subtaiga nature-with rich grassland. The lower horizons of soil profiles are characterized by low temperatures. Analysis of materials of humus soil study showed that the features of its composition are higher value of Cha: Cfa and higher solubility (hydrolyzability) of humic substances and calcium humates share in them as well. This distinguishes these soils from analogues located in the European part of Russia. Characteristics of humus profiles depend on the exposure of slope on which the soil is formed and the soil position in the Catena, but in general the type of humus profile is characteristic as a forest soils. Specifics of of composition and ratio of elements in humic acids of the mountain taiga sod soils under study of the key area has been the lack saturation of of humic acid with nitrogen, a high proportion of carbon and relatively low values of H / C. Position in the relief has little effect on the elemental composition of soil humic acids under studied: the ratio of elements is changing the slope just as a trend. But the effect on the elemental composition of humic acid has a history of their formation which included the stage of development of steppe soils. Until now, in areas close to key sites "Azas" locally common steppe.Key words: soils, humus, ratio of humus components, humus profiles, humic acids, elemental composition, the north-western part of Tuva.
Rusanov A.M., Shein E.V., Milanovskiy E.Yu., Lazarev V.I., Tygai Z.N., Fomin D.S., Il'in L.I., Zinchenko S.I., Bykova G.S., UËenov B.S. FEATURES OF MIGRATION PROCESSES IN THE STEPPE LANDSCAPES SOIL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FOREST SHELTER BELTSThe study of the influence of forests in the steppe zone on the soil cover complexity formation is carried out by investigating the distribution of moisture and carbon organic matter and carbonates in the transect consisting of chernozems, underneath the forest shelter belts and under agricultural lands. It is primarily manifested through the formation of special hydrothermal conditions, arising under the forest belt, and entails the formation of stable soil properties such as organic carbon content.Key words: soil, black soil, migration processes in the soil, the distribution of organic carbon and carbonates in the soil.
Khasanova R.F. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION SALINE SOILS OF ôRANS-URALS OF THE BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLICSaline soils are an integral part of soil dry steppes. Salinization leads to physical degradation of land and further to remove them from agricultural use. Due to the physical properties of the salinity, the biological activity of the soil have their specificity, different from the process in non-saline soils. The aim of our study was to investigate the structural and aggregate state and cellulolytic activity of saline soils, presented in conjunction with the southern black soil, having the most widespread in the ôrans-Urals Republic of Bashkortostan. Results of the analysis of salt water extract of saline soils showed that the largest dry residue meadow chernozem soil belongs to slightly saline. Solonet meadow in the 0—10šcm layer refers to the average salted soils in the 10—30šcm layer goes into the category of strongly saline soils. Type of salinity on the anionic composition of salts in the meadow-chernozem soil sulphate, while solonets meadowš— soda-sulfate. In the meadow solonets observed not only increased amounts of sodium and magnesium. Comparative analysis of structural-aggregate composition of saline soils revealed a trend: the more water-soluble salts, the less agriculturally valuable air-dry aggregates and more water-resistant aggregates. Fractional analysis of soil structures showed that for saline chernozems are characterized by high blocky. According to the scale and S.I.Dolgov P.U.Bahtin structural state of meadow chernozem saline soils rated as "good", solonets meadowš — "satisfactory". One measure of the biological activity of the soil and its fertility is the cellulolytic activity of soil. On a scale O.E.Pryazhennikova intensity of cellulose destruction on meadow solonetses very weak (˜š10), on the meadow chernozem saline soil medium (30—50š%). Thus, meadow-chernozem soil composition anionic salts are sulfate salinization, solonetz meadowš— soda-sulfate. Soil salinization is reflected in some of their properties: deteriorating structural condition and reduced cellulolytic activity.Key words: saline soils, structural-aggregate composition, cellulolytic activity.
Shvarov A.P., Kubareva A.V. WATER-RETAINING CAPACITY AND PHYSICAL PROPETRIES OF STEPPE ZONE SOILSThe physical properties and water-retaining capacity of steppe zone soils (from the Voronezh region) have been studied. There were discovered the features of the soil water retention throughout the range of humidities for cycles of drying and wetting for chernozem, solonetz and solod. The evaluation was given to the degree of manifestation of the hysteresis of water retention curve these soils in units of moisture and integrated energy of water retention. There were found that the main factor determining the degree of capillary-sorption hysteresis is dispersity. We have shown that the swelling and shrinkage processes increase hysteresis water retention curve in the capillary range. For sorption range differences of humidities with one value potential of water ranges from 0,005šg/g in Ešhorizon solod to 0.018šg/g in the lower horizons of solonets. For capillary water range hysteresis of water retention curve varies from 0.053šg/g in BCCA chernozem's horizon to 0.102šg/g BSa horizon of solonets. Integral water retention energy is best reflects the effect of soil composition and properties on capillary-sorption hysteresis. Maximal hysteresis in integral water retention energy is observed within the range of adsorbed water and it varies from 701šJ/Kg in Ešhorizon of solods to 3š182šJ/Kg in solonets horizon BNa. Hysteresys of water retention energy takes lower values in the range of pellicular moistureš— from 1šJ/Kg in BNa and BCašhorizons of solonets to 24šJ/Kg in the chernozem's ABšhorizon. Integral water retention energy takes it's minimum value in the range of capillary moisture and it's difference in the cycle of desiccation and hydration varies from 0.2šJ/Kg in the Ašhorizon of chernozem to 1.2šJ/Kg in Bg horizon of solod.Key words: steppe zone soils, water-retaining capacity, hysteresis of water retention curve, integrated energy of water retention.
Shein E.V., Milanovsky E.Yu., Khaydapova D.D., Bykova G.S., Yudina A.A., Chestnova V.V., Fomin D.S., Klyueva V.V. MODERN INTRUMENTAL RESEARCH METHODS OF SOIL GRANULOMETRIC COMPOSITION, RHEOLOGICAL CHRACTERICTICS AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL OF SOLID PHASE SURFACE STUDIES In soil science new tool measurements of distribution of particles by the sizes (laser diffraction), a contact corner of wetting, rheological characteristics, etc. get a wide circulation. Are considered given the corresponding parameters of the soil received by means of the modern equipment, results of researches are compared to data, obtained by means of classical methods. New tools and methods demand methodical works on delimitation of their applicability, optimum ranges, conditions of measurement and comparison with traditional methods of the soil. New devices the measuring particle size distribution (a laser difraktometriya), a contact corner of wetting, rheological characteristics, etc. with use of other methodical approaches find a wide circulation in soil science. Data on the corresponding soil parameters received on the new equipment, their comparison with the received classical methods are considered. New devices and methods demand big methodical work on establishment and identification of limits of their applicability, optimum ranges, conditions of measurements and their comparison with traditional soil methods. Key words: laser diffraction, rheology, contact angle, soil organic matter.
Korotkova A.M., Davydova O.K. EFFECTS OF SYNTHETIC ALKYLRESORCINOLS ON DNA TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES, MEDIATED BY REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN VITRO SYSTEMThe problem of live systems protection against an oxidizing stress by means of various low-molecular organic compounds capable to neutralize reactive oxygen species attracts the growing interest in search, study and prospects of practical use of both naturaland synthetic antioxidants. Alkylresorcinols known by the function of adaptogens at plants and microorganisms can be also included to their number. In turn, a well-documented effect of alkylresorcinols concerning biopolymers and cells is change of their functional activity and resistance to extreme influences. Because the genetic structure is a one of the most vulnerable targets of various destructive factors, including oxidizing stressinductors, the aim of the work is experimental justification of a role of synthetic alkylresorcinols differing in chemical structure in protection of DNA against reactive oxygen species. The effects of destruction of topologically various molecules of pUC19 plasmid DNA associated with formation of single-stranded breaks and which are expressed in change of a ratio of the supercoiled and nicked molecules under the influence of reactive oxygen species are estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The system of photochemical induction of superoxide anion by a spontaneous reoxidation of photoreduced flavin with the subsequent formation of multiple active forms of oxygen is used as a model of an oxidizing stress. The significant prevention of DNA deep degradation in the presence of alkylresorcinols, directly dependent both from length of their alkyl and from the used concentration as compared with the oxidized tests is shown. On the basis of data of infrared spectroscopy the question of possible transformations of alkylresorcinols protecting of DNAconformation in the conditions of an oxidizing stress is discussed. The experimental studies of protector effects ofalkylresorcinol from reactive oxygen species concerning to DNA molecules are forming a basis for pharmaceutical preparations development. Key words: alkylresorcinol, methylresorcinol, hexylresorcinol, dodecylresorcinol, antioxidant effect,reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, plasmid DNA pUC19.
Petukhov V.I., Shchukov A.N. ABOUT THE JUSTIFIABILITY OF THE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS DATA EXTRAPOLATION OF THE HUMAN HAIR TO THE TOTAL BODYIn recent years, the method of quantitative atomic emission spectrometry of bio-substrates such as human hair has become very popular in determination of person's elemental status. However, in recent publications on the topic questions about the relationship between elemental hair composition and the total body mineral content has been raised and requires special discussion. This article contents an attempt of such discussion. According to atomic emission spectrometry data, concentration values of chemical elements (including but not limited to metals), which are contained in hair, show expressed individual variation. This very fact suggests that the observed shifts may be caused not nearly by 'hypo- or hyperelementosis' but by redistribution of chemical elements mediated by intra- and extracellular regulators of transmembrane mineral traffic which has practically no effect on the total body elemental composition. There are many factors to be considered in determining the most probable causes of quantitative shifts in metal-ligand homeostasis (MLH). Their distinguishing feature is the capacity of activation or deactivation (up to a total block) of ionic channelsš— hydrous pores of transmembrane proteins, which are in charge of metals transfer. Activation of ligand-activated channels may take place due to redox-modification of thiol groups of cysteine in the molecule of proteins-transporters. Among the latter ones is the P-type ATPases superfamily, which ensures the transportation of not just electrogenic (Ca, Na, K) but also heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Co). Active oxygen species (AOS) and active nitrogen species (áNS), which are constantly formed in cells, fulfil the function of redox-modifiers of cysteine residues in the molecule of membrane pumps (oxidation with formation of disulphide bonds, S-nitrosylation). Having said this, one cannot exclude that increased production of AOS and áNS (oxidative/nitrosative stress) which may cause further activation of P-type ATPases. Therefore, in the setting of oxidative/nitrosative stress, we may expect quantitative shifts in intracellular concentrations of not just electrogenic but also heavy metals (transfer of the latter is affected by P1B-type-pump from the superfamily of ATPases). Does it mean that hair is not a very "reliable" substrate for MLH evaluation? Answering this question, it is necessary to notice that the problem is not with the substrate but with interpretation of metal-ligand homeostasis' variations in epidermal cells meter mined by spectrometry.
Sciences about Earth
Solopova V.A., Efremov I.V., Yanbulatov I.I. FEATURES OF RECEIVING WATER BY CONDENSATION ON TERRITORY OF THE ORENBURG REGIONOne of the sources of fresh waterš— water in air did not investigate yet. Climate of the Orenburg region is abruptly continental. Warm season at night moisture condensate from cooled air to form of dew. The intensity of dew formation depends on the humidity, diurnal temperature difference, wind speed and orientation of the surface of the precipitation. To collect condensed water from ancient times to the present day systems with large surface perceptible with artificially created centers of condensation are designed. Based on the results of the comparative analysis of the average expected performance systems to producing water from the air by condensation for different localities of the Orenburg region we concluded that the greatest results may be obtained in the vicinity of Sol-Iletsk. Analysis data for this settlement shows that the most conducive period is Julyš2013. Calculated for this month amount of water 0,002šliters from 1škg of air per day or 0,00155šliters from 1šm3 of air. his value a little also testifies to low efficiency of use of a method of natural condensation for receiving fresh water in the territory of the Orenburg region. Respectively, that installation of natural condensation of water gave more than 1 liter per day it is necessary to carry out compulsory air circulation along the besieging surface not less than 645šm3/days.Key words: water, air, condensation, dew-point, relative humidity of air.
Gerasimenko T.I. ETHNOS AND CULTURE: INTERPRETATION OF TERMS AND APPROACHES TO THE STUDYIn the modern science, there is no unity in understanding of the phenomena of "ethnos" and "culture", although the problem has been investigated for a long time. In the representation of different scientific traditions and schools the views on the nature, feature set, the relationships between these concepts differ. In the context of a burst of scientific interest in issues of ethnicity and ethnic culture in response to globalization and the growth of intercultural communication studies ethnicities and cultures are extremely relevant. It is necessary to streamline the conceptual and methodological apparatus of interdisciplinary projects. The main directions of the Western ethno-cultural studies (European tradition, American Scientific School) are analyzed in the article. The Russian scientists' views evolution on the subject of the study has been analyzed. The basic concepts and approaches to their description have been described: primordialist (objectivist), postmodern (constructivist, instrumentalist) and practical. Ethno-constitutive and ethno-differentiating features have been divided and systematized. Hierarchization of ethnic groups has been shown. Correlation of such concepts as "diaspora", "ethnic communities" or "ethnic fraternities", "ethno-cultural group", "regional ethno-cultural group", "etniya", "people" has been described. The definition of ethnic culture has been given, its structure has been shown. Ethnos and ethnic cultureš— the notions are close, but not identical. Ethnic culture and the culture of ethnic groups are distinguished. Ethnic culture has several levels: household, professional, mass, as a rule internationalized. The article analyzes the formation at different levels in the development of intra ethnic cultural differences, including the regional and ethnic cultural similarities. Transformation of ethnic culture is influenced by various factors, including different parts ethnicity urbanization and westernization, geographical position, landscape, proximity to other ethnic groups, mutual complementarities. Ethnic and cultural differentiation is also affected by the age structure of the population, the level of economic development, especially the organization of the economy and others.Key words: ethnicity, ethnic culture, the culture of ethnic, ethno-cultural group, ethniya, primordialist (objectivist), biosocial, constructivist, operational approaches and ethno-constitutive and ethno-differentiating features.
Myazina N.G. TO THE QUESTION OF FORMATION AND ORIGIN OF BRINES CHLORELLACEAE TYPE CASPIAN MEGABASINWith the development and production of hydrocarbons at oil and gas fields is extracted chloride brines, which are disposed of by pumping them into the underground reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure. Brines are the source of balneology and integrated hydromineral raw materials used in the economy for recovery of valuable micro-components, such as iodine, bromine, boron, potassium, magnesium, rubidium, cesium, strontium, Germany, lithium, sodium technical salt. In areas with salt-dome tectonics Cl-Ca-brines are found in post-salt and pre-salt thicker sedimentary cover. Identified Cl-Ca brines in aquifer complexes post-salt strata. Mesozoic (Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and upper Permian sediments have the capacity to 6—7škm, and the power of the pre-salt deposits of the Paleozoic (lower Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian deposits) reaches 13—15škm Brines have a salinity of up to 310šg/dm3 or more. The Br content varies from 46 to 1š039šmg/l Concentration I reached 80, Srš—š1š200, Liš—š35, Rbš—š20, Csš—š1šmg/l. Gas compositionš— N2-CH4. Brines of a pronounced type (IIIB by E.V.šPosokhov), occupy the deepest part of the sedimentary cover of the Caspian megabasin. In post-salt thicker in the deeper parts of marcopoli depressions at depths from 2š119 to 4š400 and possibly deeper on Abramowski and Prominently the areas are sodium carbonate and calcium chloride (sodium-calcium) strong brines of a pronounced type (IIIB by E.V.šPosokhov) with the content Br 410—1š038,9šmg/dm3. At depths from 590—3š050šm removed and installed sodium chloride brines (from weak to strong) weak chlorellaceae type with mineralization 101—262šg/dm3 and more metamorphosed (rNa/rClš=0,80Ÿ0,89, CaCl2 up to 7Ÿ11š% equiv). The Br content varies from 46 to 201šmg/L. Concentration I reaches 1.0—16šmg/dm3. In subsalt sediments from Artinskian on Devonian met sodium chloride brines (from weak to strong) weak chlorellaceae type with mineralization 105—310šg/dm3. The content of Br varies from 133 to 719šmg/l or more. The concentration of I is 80šmg/dm3. Key words: Caspian megabasin, chemical composition, salinity, chloride brines, Genesis, metamorphisize, iodine, bromine.
Petrishev V.P., Noreika S.Y., Petrisheva N.V., Akhmedenov K.M. ANALYSIS OF FEATURES OF COMPONENTS OF LANDSCAPE GEOSYSTEMS SALT-ORIGIN WESTERN CASPIAN DEPRESSIONCaspian basin is the world's largest area of salt-dome structures. Vaults salt uplifts, whose total number in the region reaches 3000, form a complex laminar structure caused by overflowing salt overburden pressure from the lower to the upper floors of tectonic. A variety of salt domes make the region into a convenient site for the study of the processes of manifestation of salt tectonics in the structure of the landscape. Active salt dome is accelerating inter-component communication, which allows to evaluate their importance in the formation of natural systems in the general theory of landscape genesis. The article investigates the origin of poorly studied landscape salt dome western part of the Caspian depression — Inder salt dome, salt domes Aralsor, Bish-Choho and Small Bogd (Urpek). As a form of expression of salt structures in the landscape complexes geomorphological interest are manifestations of salt domes in the western part of the Caspian Basin, forming ridges on the basis of gypsum plaster ruined caprocks may mean particular origin are not directly dependent on the existence of salt tectonism. The specific properties of springs Inder salt-dome are of particular interest, is the nature of the output water is not peculiar to the area. Geochemical features of soils are in their desalination on Inder karst hills leading to the formation litomorphs soils. Geomorphological research facilities raised in the article, were conducted in the field, post-processing of the accumulated material and comparing it with the available sources affecting the study of geomorphology territory. The study of the chemical composition of the springs Inder conducted on the basis of laboratory findings water samples taken during the expedition. Soil survey carried out by the classical method of bookmarks soil catena, as well as laboratory tests. Geomorphological studies morphosculptural forms indicate that salt dome landscapes of origin is not always associated with the peculiarities of manifestation of salt tectonics. The spring anomalies consist in high salinity and concentration of chlorides and sulfates, as well as differentiation springs. The soil cover of the salt dome landscape of the Caspian Basin marked the processes associated with the formation of litomorphs soils. The result of the data shows that along with the high-output and output with highly groundwater important form landscapes are important springs associated with sulfate-halogen caprock thickness.Key words: Caspian basin, the landscape, geosystem, salt-dome tectonics.
Ponomareva G.A. METALLOGENIC ZONING OF ORENBURG PART OF SOUTH URAL BY PLATINOID SPECIALIZATIONPrecious metals play an important role in science and the national economy. The increasing rate of consumption necessary to review the structure of the raw material base of platinum group metals and gold. Address this issue and the subject of this study, which attempts to investigate the regularities of spatial distribution of Pt, Pd, in association with Au and Ag over a wide area of Orenburg in the Urals. To solve this problem, analyzed samples from 17šindustrial types of deposits of Orenburg region by a single method with the use of the author's patented method for determining this metals. The resulting array of data formed the basis of the interpretation of geochemical data, during which the parameters were defined platinum group specialization sulphide deposits (gold, copper massive sulphide, copper sandstones), deposits in the ultramafic complexes and established an independent distribution of palladium in this group metals, that allowed the use of the ratio of Pt/Pd at systematizing results, produce metal zoning studies for each of the above structural-material complexes and identify metallogenic zonation platinoid specialization geological and structural zones of the South Ural and specific industrial types of deposits and pre-assess the metallogenic potential of the territory through the use of innovative sources of precious metals.Key words: platinum-palladium ratio, precious metals specialization, metallogenic zoning.
Svyatokha N.Yu., Filimonova I.Yu. SPORTS TOURISM IN ORENBURG REGION: CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTSTo date, the development of sports tourism in Russia and in the Orenburg region in particular, is associated with a number of problems. To date, the development of sports tourism in Russia and in the Orenburg region in particular, is associated with a number of problems. Firstly, despite the presence of favorable recreational resources, population dynamics involved in sports tourism tends to decrease. According to official statistics, in 2012 the Orenburg region ranks 12th in Russia by the number of persons engaged in sports tourism. Secondly, the number of firms engaged in organizing sports tours, is much inferior to the number of firms that specialize in the more popular forms of leisure (beach, cultural sightseeing, adventure tourism). Thirdly, there is practically no base of statistical information in order to assess the level of development of this type of tourism, and has not developed a unified approach to the terminology that characterizes this area. Orenburg region has a great potential for the organization of many types of sports tourism. Water sports tourism can be developed on major rivers (Ural, Sakmara) and on the reservoir areas (Iriklinskoe, Chernovskoye). Snowkiting, the winter's kind of sports tourism, can be further developed everywhere in region, but now — near the training centers, ski tourism is developed in the eastern part of Orenburg region. Speleotourism in the region is underdeveloped, although resources for its development are in Belyayevsky and Kuvandyksky districts. Great prospects for the development has a horse tourism (mainly in Orenburg, Novosergievsky and Kuvandyksky districts). The region's territory is also promising for jeeping and driving. Great resources region (especially the eastern part) has for the development of sport hunting and fishing tourism. To assess the prospects for the development of sports tourism authors analyzed the popularity of physical activities among the people in the districts of the Orenburg region, the most active people live in Saraktashsky, Gaysky, Novoorsky, Krasnogvardeisky, Novosergievsky and Ileksky districts. The authors conclude that for the development of sports tourism in the region are necessary, first of all, the revival of tourism clubs, development of special programs by authorities, and to promote this type of tourism and a healthy lifestyle.Key words: sports tourism, adventure tourism, classification of sports tourism, recreation, tourism and recreational sphere.
Sokolov A.G., Lyukshina L.V., Popova O.V. ELABORATION OF THE MODEL STRUCTURE OF LOCALLY OILš— OBJECTS SKVORTSOVSKY AREA IN THE ORENBURG REGIONThe geological-exploration well, search engines tend to provide structural maps issued by. However, despite the modern high level of methodological feasibility study of field work and subsequent processing of specialized computing centers, seismic building (maps, sections) contain errors caused by not so much technical as geological causes. Despite the positive drilling results at the Skvorcovskoj square, the genesis of the traps and oil and gas prospects square remained outstanding. To address these issues, the authors conducted seismic stratigraphic analysis on temporary sections using all geological and geophysical information. Seismic stratigraphic analysis showed: borehole drilled withinš104 Bashkir organogenic built and within the water-oil contactturnej deposits; the well was drilled in optimal conditions ofš105 that the body structure to the bottom almost as good as carbon. As far as Devon, the estimated trap (reflection horizon Dafonin) in carbonate sediments displaced South of the structure in overlying sediments; the well wasš115 in adverse conditions and on the upper and lower structural levels. At the same time structural floor prospects were outstanding. Boreholeš104 drilled outside the fault trap. Boreholeš105 has not reached Devon and possible trap is also well away from the deposit in the lower Carboniferous. According to the results of the analysis are to drill deep boreholes in no.š1 position on the River structure with opening of Devonian deposits in order to search for oil deposits in Bashkir, turnej and Devonian sediments and in position No.š2 on May day with opening structure of Devonian deposits in order to search for oil deposits in afoninsediments.Key words: seismic facies analysis, tectonic faults, deep drilling, Penetration of Devonian sediments, hypsometric level, wave pattern.
Popova O.V., Fatkullina R.R. GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECT OF RUSSIAN OLD BELIEVERS NATURE MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATIONThe Old Believers — is one of the ethno-cultural communities in the Russian part of the ethnic group, which is close to extinction, because their ethno-cultural system is susceptible to transformation. A very important aspect is the transformation of nature management, which is a heritage and an important characteristic of ethno-cultural community. Despite the large number of works devoted to the study of the Old Believers, there are practically no geographical works, studying the characteristics of their nature management. Territorial differences in the transformation of nature management of the Old Believers in Russia predetermine the specific economic and cultural development. The most important factors in the transformation of nature are the interaction with neighbor ethno-cultural groups and interaction with the host landscape. Old Believers pursued a policy of isolationism for a long time, but allowed interethnic contacts and even marriages because of their small size and inability to live in isolation in the changing world. As a result, their ethno-cultural system, including the system of nature management, converged and partially or completely transformed. During their resettlement the Old Believers adapted to the new landscape. They moved out of the forest zone of European Russia to the south of Russia, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Old Believers were adapted to the new natural and economic conditions, new building materials, borrowed tools, develop new activities, adapted to the different seasonal work, changed the food system, etc. The following groups of Old Believers areas were singled out and characterized, due to the nature management transformation: GroupšI with the low degree of conservation of natural resources of the Old Believersš— Upper Volga region, European North, Middle and Lower Volga region, Southern Russia, the Urals; GroupšII with the moderate degree of preservation of nature of the Old Believersš— Siberia; GroupšIII with a high degree of the Old Believers natural resources conservationš— the Far East. The contemporary nature management of the Old Believers is transformed and represents the agrarian type in rural areas and industrial type with elements of post-industrial one in cities.Key words: natural management, local ethno-cultural community, the Old Believers, landscapes, adaptation, transformation, ethno-cultural interaction, assimilation, migration.
Khan J.S., Pankratyev P.V. ABOUT DIAMOND POTENTIAL OF THE WESTERN SLOPE OF THE SOUTHERN URALS AND THE SOUTH-EAST OF THE RUSSIAN PLATFORM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG REGION)Regional patterns of manifestations of diamonds and productive on diamond rocks (kimberlites, lamproites) all over the Western slope of the Urals, as well as single finds of diamond crystals in the Orenburg southern Ural mountains, has necessitated the consolidation and analysis of modern data on the diamond potential of the territory of the Orenburg region. By the authors based on the results of previous studies (CherkasovšV.L., SmirnovšA.K., TishchenkošV.G.) diamondiferous rocks are divided into three groups: carbonate breccia-ultramafic, Intrusive rocks of ultrabasic composition, volcanic rocks of basic composition high magnesia content, as well as metasomatic altered varieties of these rocks, which petrochemically the diagrams lie in the fields of kimberlites or lamproites. When forecasting is of great importance complex set of direct and indirect search characteristics, confirming the validity of conclusions about the possible prospects of the territory of the Orenburg region for diamonds. The discovery of diamond deposits in the Urals and Central Urals raising (Kuvandyk and AI areas), and within Eastern edge of the Orenburg parts of the Russian platform indicated by the findings of diamond crystals, in Kuvandyk district (continental gold-bearing Sands of the Albian stage of the early Cretaceous, Quaternary alluvial sediments Central Ural uplift), etc. When forecasting the diamond potential also used the experience of Australian geologists and Arkhangelskš— aeromagnetic method of detecting volcanic pipes, which is quite applicable to geological conditions part of the Orenburg region covered by aeromagnetic survey in the scale 1:50š000. The analysis of available materials on the diamond potential of the Orenburg region shows that the Orenburg region is highly prospective for the discovery of diamond deposits.Key words: diamonds, kimberlites, lamproites, almazonosnosti, search signs, magnetic anomalies.
Chibilyov A.A., Grosheva O.A. STEPPE EURASIA AT THE INTERNATIONAL FORUM IN ORENBURGOn May 27—31 2015 in Orenburg took place the International Steppe Forum of the Russian Geographical Society organized by the Institute of Steppe of the Ural branch of RAS and supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and by the UNDP/MNR/GEF project Improving the Coverage and Management Efficiency of Protected Areas in the Steppe Biome of Russia. The main goal of this forum is the solution topical problems in steppe land use, in conservation and restoration landscape and biological diversity of steppe landscapes of Eurasia. About 300šscientists from 9šcountries (Austria, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Germany, Denmark, Kazakhstan, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine) and also 24šregions of Russia participated in this International Steppe Forum. Key words: the International Steppe Forum, the Russian Geographical Society, steppe land use, steppe landscapes of Eurasia.
|Sergey Aleksandrovich |