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June 2015, № 6 (181)



Khasanova R.F. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION SALINE SOILS OF ТRANS-URALS OF THE BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLICSaline soils are an integral part of soil dry steppes. Salinization leads to physical degradation of land and further to remove them from agricultural use. Due to the physical properties of the salinity, the biological activity of the soil have their specificity, different from the process in non-saline soils. The aim of our study was to investigate the structural and aggregate state and cellulolytic activity of saline soils, presented in conjunction with the southern black soil, having the most widespread in the Тrans-Urals Republic of Bashkortostan. Results of the analysis of salt water extract of saline soils showed that the largest dry residue meadow chernozem soil belongs to slightly saline. Solonet meadow in the 0—10 cm layer refers to the average salted soils in the 10—30 cm layer goes into the category of strongly saline soils. Type of salinity on the anionic composition of salts in the meadow-chernozem soil sulphate, while solonets meadow — soda-sulfate. In the meadow solonets observed not only increased amounts of sodium and magnesium. Comparative analysis of structural-aggregate composition of saline soils revealed a trend: the more water-soluble salts, the less agriculturally valuable air-dry aggregates and more water-resistant aggregates. Fractional analysis of soil structures showed that for saline chernozems are characterized by high blocky. According to the scale and S.I.Dolgov P.U.Bahtin structural state of meadow chernozem saline soils rated as "good", solonets meadow  — "satisfactory". One measure of the biological activity of the soil and its fertility is the cellulolytic activity of soil. On a scale O.E.Pryazhennikova intensity of cellulose destruction on meadow solonetses very weak (≤ 10), on the meadow chernozem saline soil medium (30—50 %). Thus, meadow-chernozem soil composition anionic salts are sulfate salinization, solonetz meadow — soda-sulfate. Soil salinization is reflected in some of their properties: deteriorating structural condition and reduced cellulolytic activity.Key words: saline soils, structural-aggregate composition, cellulolytic activity.

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About this article

Author: Hasanova R.F.

Year: 2015


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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