Gerasimenko T.I. ETHNOS AND CULTURE: INTERPRETATION OF TERMS AND APPROACHES TO THE STUDYIn the modern science, there is no unity in understanding of the phenomena of "ethnos" and "culture", although the problem has been investigated for a long time. In the representation of different scientific traditions and schools the views on the nature, feature set, the relationships between these concepts differ. In the context of a burst of scientific interest in issues of ethnicity and ethnic culture in response to globalization and the growth of intercultural communication studies ethnicities and cultures are extremely relevant. It is necessary to streamline the conceptual and methodological apparatus of interdisciplinary projects. The main directions of the Western ethno-cultural studies (European tradition, American Scientific School) are analyzed in the article. The Russian scientists' views evolution on the subject of the study has been analyzed. The basic concepts and approaches to their description have been described: primordialist (objectivist), postmodern (constructivist, instrumentalist) and practical. Ethno-constitutive and ethno-differentiating features have been divided and systematized. Hierarchization of ethnic groups has been shown. Correlation of such concepts as "diaspora", "ethnic communities" or "ethnic fraternities", "ethno-cultural group", "regional ethno-cultural group", "etniya", "people" has been described. The definition of ethnic culture has been given, its structure has been shown. Ethnos and ethnic culture — the notions are close, but not identical. Ethnic culture and the culture of ethnic groups are distinguished. Ethnic culture has several levels: household, professional, mass, as a rule internationalized. The article analyzes the formation at different levels in the development of intra ethnic cultural differences, including the regional and ethnic cultural similarities. Transformation of ethnic culture is influenced by various factors, including different parts ethnicity urbanization and westernization, geographical position, landscape, proximity to other ethnic groups, mutual complementarities. Ethnic and cultural differentiation is also affected by the age structure of the population, the level of economic development, especially the organization of the economy and others.Key words: ethnicity, ethnic culture, the culture of ethnic, ethno-cultural group, ethniya, primordialist (objectivist), biosocial, constructivist, operational approaches and ethno-constitutive and ethno-differentiating features.
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Information about the author: Tatyana Il'inichna Gerasimenko, Doctor of Geography, Professor, Head of Geography and Regional Studies Department
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Author: Gerasimenko T.I.
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