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Orenburg State University october 28, 2021 RU/EN
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№ 8(183),14august2015

Pedagogics

Kargapoltseva S.M. IMAGE CREATING PROECTIONS OF PEDAGOGICAL VIEWDialogic context of education, is equal to the maximum life understanding of educational co-beingness, and causes the extreme importance of a humanistic (humanizes, image creating) potential ingenuous, personal, trust and, ideally, loving communication "face to face", believing thereby sight component of pedagogical relationship as the most important factor of spiritual and moral formation and development of the pupil. In the integral of the formation of aesthetic attribution "sight form giftig" "selfless admiration" and "self-sufficient contemplation" loving gaze of the teacher, being the direct guide of the life-giving power of love, sympathetic kindness and supportive care projective intentions uplifting pro-visions approves truly human, humane, beautiful, and therefore "good" image/shape of the pupil, is a true guardian of his person in his own "look at themselves" and making other sight. If a pupil does not feel beautiful in the eyes of the teacher, with a high probability of its educational development will be deprived of an important spiritual and moral positive image creating, sight gifting, entailing for self-projection of the actual pedagogical relationship is genuine, deep essence of which lies the unconditional (loving) approving of high and beautiful potential (possible) in optimizing the status of the actual (real and present). Sight component of teachers' attitudes, project-imaginative realizing the spiritual and moral, personal (face, image) elevating potential of faith, hope, love, repeatedly verifiable in their raising, as well as training importance in the pedagogical heritage of the past and the present, which is certainly shows undeniable presence in the nomenclature number of pedagogical tools image creating potential of positive sight projection.Key words: attitude, sight, projection, image, face, reception.
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Maslikova E.F. THE TRAINING OF GRADUATES FOR THE PASSING OF THE GSE ON THE BASES OF MONITORING OF MASTERING GENERAL EDUCA-TIONAL PROGRAMMS BY STUDENTSThe growing demand of the Russian society to improve the quality of education of its citizens makes it necessary to identify the projective resources and model vectors improving the education management system, the creation of independent, objective forms of evaluation and monitoring, development of content-organizational and pedagogical aspects of directional monitoring, which is particularly important in the humanitarian aspekt of general education, based on personal development of students as independent and responsible subjects of academic work. The level of formation of labour-conventional foundations of education in life of the undergraduates is more open and democratically connected with subs-tantive results of the exam preparation process which, as shown by the analysis, is a quality resource to increase their effectiveness on the basis of pedagogical profitability analysis system for monitoring the development of students in general education programs at all stages of instruction in primary and secondary (full) school. In the pedagogical context of improving the system of organization, the process of preparing high school students for general state exam is considered propaedeutic, activity and heuristic monitoring of the quality of the regional development of studying educational programs. The survey showed that the productive decision about valued issues, based on monitoring data includes: the creation of a regional system of preparation of students for the state (final) certification on the main and upper levels of education in all subjects; organizational and legal institution of regional and training (test) exams in the format of the exam; inside-the-school increase of objectivity of evaluation and expansion of the scope of the assessment tools of quality education with low rates; pedagogical support on the consistent implementation of the principle of optimizing correction "omissions" and "gaps" in the subject knowledge of high school students going back to the situation "labour-conventional success" and claimed (waking up) students' confidence in their strength and basic personal ability to overcome.Key words: education, quality, monitoring, system, individualization, optimizing correction, labour conventional success.
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Economic sciences

Averchenkova E., Averchenkov A., Kulagina N., Aksenenko D. THE MODEL ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL OF CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CLUSTER AGGLOMERATION IN THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF BRYANSK REGIONThe article describes the features for creation the cluster agglomerations in the Bryansk region in the framework of the Strategy of innovation development of Russian Federation for the period till 2020. There is algorithm for the assessment of possibility for creation and development the cluster agglomeration in machine building industry of Bryansk region. In accordant with it, the region is considered as a social economic system. It has interconnected-governmental and interacting components, and the relationships between them in a changing environment. On the basis of a mathematical model of cooperation regional social economic system with the internal environment, and classification model of the indicators, defining innovative sub sectors of machine-building complex in the Bryansk region, it was formed multivariate model, which determines the position of sub sectors of machine-building complex in the Bryansk region in point of view the making of cluster agglomeration. The work result is the creation of the priorities list for the region cluster agglomeration formation. So, it was proposed the model of information advising system of the evaluation and diagnostic type. The main goal of the proposed information advising system is constant observing over the cluster functioning, identifying positive and negative trends of changing regional social and economic system and it's environment. The output system parameters are increasing the quality of the managerial decisions in clustered agglomerations.Key words: innovation and technology cluster, mashing-building sector of the region industry, social economic system, information advising system, managerial decisions.
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Bobreshova I.P. THE CONJUNCTURE OF THE REGIONAL LABOR MARKETIn modern conditions, folding market relations, raised the question of the formation of the aggregate market, the main of which is the labor market. In the labor market forms an important production resource— the human potential of the country. The labor market is a complex mechanism, which varies according to different characteristics, properties and degree of development. Formation of the regional labor market performed quite differently because of the heterogeneity of the territory, although the laws of their formation and operation are basically common. The study of the regional labor market is impossible without studying the specific features of the region. This will re-create a more complete picture of the national labor market, to distinguish between general and specific principles of the functioning of the labor market. The study of regional labor markets is the most important task of the economy, because today the region is an autonomous economic entity and can build their own economic policies within the framework of solving local problems without affecting the interests of other regions. It should be noted that the system of labor market regulation, to date, remains highly topical problem of the formation conditions of the labor market in the country and in the region. There is an imbalance between demand and supply of labor in the labor market has led to the need for an integrated approach to the study of labor market conditions of the Orenburg region from the standpoint of the relation of its quantitative and structural performance. On the basis of the study identified the main disadvantages of regulating conditions of regional labor market.Key words: labor market, labor market conditions, regional labor market, supply and demand, employment and unemployment.
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Volohina V.A., Malyshev V.V. TO THE QUESTION OF REGULATION OF INTERBUDGETARY RELA-TIONS IN MODERN CONDITIONSThe development of interbudgetary relations in modern conditions requires new approaches in interbudgetary regulation, primarily originating from the need of local budgets increased finan-cial independent activities not only through the delegation of expenditure responsibilities and obli-gations, but also to secure for them their own sources of revenues. The development of foreign eco-nomic relations and the needs of the domestic market of the country give rise to the desire of local authorities to develop capacity in their territory. Such commitment to the development of separate regions and municipal formations may be destabilized due to the differentiated financial assistance from the Federal budget, which can occur when the stimulus to socioeconomic development of some territories and the lack of such incentives in other territories. In our opinion, such a trend of development of interbudgetary relations should be accompa-nied by a gradual merging of the results of interregulation with the assessment of the activities of the authorities, because they are, in our view, have access to the levers of formation and develop-ment of the revenue base for the budget. For example, the formation of the tax base at the expense of social development, growth of people's welfare, the development of industry on an adjustable territory, the establishment of the investment climate. The achievement of the planned indicators in these areas through the implementation of state programmes and the implementation of government targets, will help to promote economic development and tax potential of the territory. Responsible authorities for the development of own revenue sources of local budgets must be stimulated greater autonomy of local budgets in defining the directions of an expenditure of budgetary funds. This will allow to get out of interbudgetary regulation to a new level of its development.Key words: intergovernmental relations, the stages of development of interbudgetary relations, techniques of intergovernmental regulation.
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Gorkanova L.V. TRENDS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN ORENBURG REGIONIn these modern conditions of regional economic development focuses on the organization and development of the tourism industry in the region. The tourism industry is important in the life of individuals and society, as it promotes interpersonal relationships have a profound positive effect on the harmonization of relations between peoples and nations. A feature of the tourism industry is the fact that it produced tourism services consumed in the place of its production. Thus, the state of cultural and historical heritage, natural environment largely determines the competitiveness and attractiveness of the tourism product separate territory. In this regard, the main objective of this study is to determine the conceptual apparatus and characteristics of the tourism industry in the region, identification of problems, the analysis of preconditions and factors of its development in the Orenburg region. The methods of system analysis, statistical methods for processing and collecting the information in the study are analyzed and presented materials and the statistics that determine the state and the main directions of development of the tourism industry in the Orenburg region. Based on the analysis identified the main trends of development of the tourism industry in the Orenburg region, which include: the presence of a regional tourism development program with clearly defined segments of development; the emergence of new large and medium-sized enterprises in the tourism industry (hotel companies, restaurants, bars, c. fes, tourist enterprises engaged in tour operator and travel agency activities); Amateur increase tourist flow in the directions of domestic tourism; increasing demands of visitors to the quality of service at the enterprises of the tourism industry; reorientation of potential consumers of the tourism product with the domestic foreign market.Key words: tourism industry, Orenburg region.
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Dedeeva S.A., Lapaeva O.F. INNOVATION AS A MAJOR FACTOR OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION Russian agriculture, as well as all branches of the Russian economy requires a huge investment. From the capital invested in agriculture depends not only on the development of agriculture, but also the entire agricultural sector, as well as the development of infrastructure in rural areas and of course the solution of social problems in rural areas. In agriculture, there are a number of factors that hinder the stable growth of the innovation activity. These include: reducing the production of agricultural products; weak policy of the state; the high cost of new equipment and technologies; unfavorable investment situation of agriculture. To solve the problem of increasing the efficiency of agricultural production requires its modernization. In this connection it is necessary to solve the following tasks: to ensure the growth of investment attractiveness of the agricultural sector to private investors, both Russian and foreign; increase the growth rate of technical— technological re-equipment of agricultural enterprises and organizations; to develop and introduce new technologies based on innovation. To these objectives have been implemented, it is necessary to create a favorable climate for sustainable rural development. To do this, you need to implement a set of measures including the improvement of social infrastructure, the allocation of state and regional subsidies, in order to improve the living conditions of the village, increasing employment and rural incomes due to the various activities of both agricultural and non-agricultural (crafts, rural tourism, etc.). In addition, the need to improve land and tax legislation, c. mpetent to carry out anti-monopoly policy, c. eate associations and unions of agricultural organizations, to improve the information base and access to it, to maintain soil fertility. This will ensure the growth of competitiveness of Russian agricultural products and import substitution throughout the country, as well as to increase the profitability of agricultural enterprises and organizations.
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Demchenko L.V. THE NATURE AND SPECIFICITY BANKING RISKS Ensuring system stability in the monetary and credit sphere, and including assistance to stable development of bank mediation is impossible without understanding of the economic and legal nature, level and borders of bank risks. In this regard, actual is a question deeply and comprehensive study of the contents, specifics of bank risk (threat), scientific concepts of its development, understanding of functions and forms of manifestation of bank risk in the economic relations. Research of theoretical concepts of risk allows to allocate the main key directions: the classical concept (a risk ratio with probability of approach of an adverse event); the neoclassical concept (a risk ratio with uncertainty, or activity in the conditions of uncertainty). Idea of bank risk in many respects remains conformable to interpretation of risk in business activity of the subject. Equating of the concepts "risk" and "threat" since bank risks constantly are present at activity of bank owing to its enterprise (commercial) nature is contradictory, and threats result from illegal infringement of the subject of safety of bank (basic inadmissibility of threats from a position of criminal law). As to economic concept characteristic features, such as alternativeness, uncertainty, discrepancy that demands reflection of similar specifics and in definition of bank risk are inherent in risk. The understanding of essence of bank risk at the general-theoretical level is carried out from a position of economy, philosophy, sociology, affecting specific functions, the subjective and objective parties of this phenomenon. The essence of bank risk is expressed by means of its main functions, such as innovative, regulatory, protective, analytical. The subjestive-objective nature of bank risk is shown in type and structure of the market, a legal status of bank, activity scale, administrative and organizational structure, a decision-making level of responsibility by the personified staff of the credit organization taking into account an economic, legal, social orientation of activity of bank. Thus, despite the accumulated theoretical and practical knowledge in the sphere of a riskologiya which is available a divergence in understanding of the nature of bank risks demand further researches, including owing to influence of world financial crises, growth of requirements to management of financial risks from the state regulators.Key words: risk, bank risk, economic and legal nature of bank risk, threat.
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Donetskova O.Yu, Sadykova L.M. ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANCASSU RANCE IN RUSSIASince the mid-80s in Europe actively there is a process of mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions, who in the mid 90's and joined Russia. Financial intermediaries began to create financial unions and associations, in particular the merger of banks and insurance companies that led to the emergence of markets of financial services of the phenomenon of bancassurance. With the institutional approach, bancassurance is a way of organizing cooperation between banks and insurance firms. With the functional approach, bancassurance is the organization of the system of cross-selling banking and insurance products through a single point of sales, mainly through a network of Bank branches and Bank offices.In practice, the cooperation between banks and insurers can be represented in several forms, which represent successive stages of development (from simple to more complex) joint business banks and insurers in banking insurance. Cooperation of banks and insurance companies is carried out mainly in the following areas: retail bancassurance, c. rporate bancassurance and insurance risks faced by banks. Since 2013 has formed a new sector bancassurance— non-credit insurance, including investment life insurance mixed life insurance and property insurance of physical persons. Currently, there are few problems that restrict the development of bancassurance in Russia. The authors have systematized the difficulties of development of bancassurance: the high cost of time and resources, high risk of interaction, the reluctance of banks to implement new projects high Commission, "imposition" of bancassurance products, the mismatch performance of insurance firms, the problem of personnel, incompatibility of technologies for banks and insurance companies, the low level of financial literacy and insurance protection. In addition, proposed solutions to these problems that banks and insurance companies must implement together.Key words: bank, insurance company, bancassurance, bancassurance.
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Ermakova Zh.A., Holodilina Yu.E. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF TOURIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BASIS OF CLUSTER APPROACHTourism development is associated with a specific resource, located on the local territory, which has its own peculiarities. In this regard, the planning and forecasting of tourism development is necessary to conduct a flexible regional policy, focused on the specific characteristics of each territory. One of the modern tools for solving these problems is the spatial organization of tourism on the basis of cluster approach. Studied the legal documents of the spatial organization of tourist activity in the Russian Federation. The data on the prospective tourist and recreational zones of Russia. Identify potential tourism and recreation cluster Orenburg region and the peculiarities of their formation and development. On the basis of the study revealed promising tourism and recreation cluster Orenburg region and determine their specialization. The structure of tourist and recreational cluster "Bronze Age", which are the main subjects of authorities, research organizations and businesses.Key words: tourism and recreation cluster; regional tourism; spatial organization of tourism; the cluster approach.
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Zaloznaya G.M. Iskhakova N.B. THE CONTENT OF REGIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC POLICY IN THE SPHERE OF EMPLOYMENT: A THEORETICAL APPROACHRussia's transition to a market economy has required a deep economic reforms in employment. Drawing on international experience, in the Russian society have been developed and enshrined in legislation, particularly the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal law "About population employment in the Russian Federation", the main directions in the sphere of employment. Thus, we should not forget that the transformation of the social structure of Russia in 90th years of the twentieth century put on the agenda the task of choosing a new social model of the state and the formation of new social institutions. Improvement of socio-economic policy in employment is any qualitative changes, i.e. changes in the composition of the elements present links within them and as a result of changes in the entire socio-economic system. It should be emphasized that a special role in the implementation of socio-economic policy areas of employment given to the provision of unemployment benefits. Benefits associated with protection. They are paid in the form of partial or temporary loss of income, but, at the same time, the implementation of the policy should be implemented in such a way as not to reduce the incentives for the generation of income or to find jobs. Think it is worthwhile to note that the effectiveness of the implementation of regional socio-economic policy in the sphere of employment of population in modern conditions in the Russian Federation, in addition to institutional conditions, requires the improvement of the functioning of organizational-economic mechanism, by the designation of new forms of relationships between the state, employers and employees.Key words: employment, employment potential, active and passive employment policy.
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Inevatova O.A. THE IMPACT OF INFLATION ON THE CONSUMER MARKET OF THE REGIONInflation on the consumer market of the Volga Federal district. The article is devoted to the study of inflationary processes in the consumer market in the Volga Federal district. Detected the following problem: the strengthening of inflationary processes in 2014 compared with 2013 and as a consequence identified socio-economic problems. The article analyzes the cost of a fixed set of consumer goods and services in the regions of the Volga Federal district, the cost of food and nonfood goods and services. The correlation value of the minimum set of food products and per capita monetary incomes of the population of the Volga Federal district. It is revealed that inflationary processes affect not only the economy but also the social environment in the society. As a result, the following conclusion: modern inflation in the consumer market is not episodic but continuous, in nature. Therefore, in the conditions of market, special attention should be paid to pricing. When carrying out a flexible pricing policy must take into account the costs of production, c. nsumer choices and the degree of influence of competition, and there is a need to clarify and concretize the long-term objectives of the state strategy of pricing.Key words: region, consumer market, inflation, consumer price index, the average income of the population of the Volga Federal district, dynamics of consumer prices, the regional economy, inflation in the consumer market in the Volga Federal district.
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Korabeynikov I.N. INFORMATION SERVICES: CONCEPT, CHARACTERISTICS, GRADEThe modern stage of social development, based on the transition to the information economy, the emergence of new predestined areas of production, exchange, c. nsumption and accumulation of wealth. One of such areas is the market of information services. Relations arising in the market, are a relatively new phenomenon have not yet found an objective and fully reflected in the work of scientists. It is not enough to set forth the understanding of information services. In modern interpretations information service appears as a form of implementation of the economic information, manipulation of information products, action to meet the information needs specific commodity in a series of processes, and others. It is not quite worked out the issues of economic information content provider. The article highlighted the shortcomings in the existing definition of "information service", which allowed the author to offer clarification of the term by the economic content additions to the description of the phenomenon as a coherent process of creating consumer value through the activity information needs. On the basis of the author's approach implemented clarified the concept of "information product", as a set of methods and techniques in the historically conditioned forms. The role and place of information products in the production, sale and consumption of information services. On the basis of research in the refinement of the concept of "information product" it shows that the historically conditioned form of information product involves material, software, technical, infrastructural and other manifestations, including in the form of commodities. Information products are used in the implementation of information services, but do not constitute its content. The very information service in production, sale and consumption aimed at meeting the information needs of the economic actors, such as in information, access to information, c. mmunication, self-expression, and others. It has a number of qualities: formalization, machine orientation, depending on the information and other products.Key words: information service, information product, information, features, c. ncept, term, quality, c. assification, properties.
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Kutsenko E.I. ASPECTS OF EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INNOVATIVE PROJECTIn a fast market, the instability of socio-economic situation, a quick update equipment and technology acquires special importance the management of innovative projects at the regional level. The problem of economic substantiation of the effectiveness of innovative projects under current conditions of uncertainty and risk, both during the design and the implementation phase is the subject of study of foreign and domestic scientists, but studies for regional innovation projects is not enough. Innovative project work is presented as a set of measures to substantiate the feasibility of developing and implementing new or improved products sold on the market of new or improved technological processes used in practice. Determination of the effectiveness of innovation is key in the management of innovative projects in micro and macro levels of management. Evaluating the effectiveness of any innovation project is based on common methodological principles of determining the effectiveness of investments in innovation. To date, determined a significant diversity of aspects of efficiency evaluation of projects, from which it can be determined that the main task of assessing the effectiveness of the innovative project is an integrated approach to the notion of "efficiency", therefore, in addition to the indicators characterizing the economic effect of the innovative project, it is necessary to assess the degree of achievement the project objectives in the economic, financial, budgetary, social, scientific, technical, environmental, resource, information, and other areas; to combine quantitative and qualitative indicators; to consider the interests and objectives of all the participants of the innovation project.Key words: innovation, innovative design, effect, efficiency of the project, the principles of evaluation of the effectiveness of the project.
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Lapaev S.P. PRIORITIES OF INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE REGION IN THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTIONAn important role in the organization of import-substituting production plays an industrial complex in the region, which is a set of industrial enterprises located in the same area and work closely together. The basis of the development strategy of the industrial complex of the region are the national technology priorities. In terms of import prioritization of industrial development should be determined by the need for the production of the products in Russia, which previously came from abroad. For the development of import-substituting production should be established to work with the business community, to provide a set of incentives, provide financial assistance to such enterprises and to remove various administrative barriers. In addition, it is necessary to analyze the market of imported products in each sector of the economy with a view to establishing production in the region. It could play an active role "Corporation of the Orenburg region." It is also important to create regional institutions that contributed to the organization of import-substituting industries, such as the organization of a regional support center for import substitution (RTSPI), which will create a database of suppliers and customers. These units will assist the providers of domestic products look favorable orders, develop business plans, c. nduct technological and economic and financial expertise to organize the financing. An important area of improving the competitiveness of the regional industrial complex is to deepen industrial and trade specialization, innovation and the formation of a regional innovation system. Another important direction of development of industry— industrial clustering. In the Orenburg region develop oil and gas chemical, machine building, metallurgy, food processing clusters. The region effectively operates "Corporation of the Orenburg region", which seeks to implement the priority projects on the basis of public-private partnership.Key words: import substitution, production, integration of enterprises, a national center to support import substitution, the development of industry clusters Orenburg region.
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Lapaeva M.G. STAFFING OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES IN TERMS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTIONIn the terms of use of Western sanctions against Russia the priorities of the authorities of the country and regions is a substitution. Import substitution involves the development strategy and economic policy of import substitution to protect domestic consumers by substitution of imported goods of national production; the shift to knowledge intensive production. National program of import substitution should be realized in three areas: production of goods, the analogue of which is produced in the country is insufficient; the production of goods which are not produced in the country; the goods in the country to produce unprofitable or impossible, and reduce and consumption. For successful import substitution need to take care of training, effective use of human capital, especially its intellectual component. However, in the Orenburg region the last decade has seen a reduction in the number of scientists and researchers. In2013, the number of personnel engaged in research compared to 2000, a decrease of 1.7times, while the number of researchers decreased by 1.9times. A positive trend is the increase in 2times the number of universities engaged in research and development. As a result of these processes has reduced the number of granted patents for inventions and utility models. Restocking working in the field of research must occur at the expense of University graduates and postgraduate courses. Here the following should be noted: the increase in the number of employees in the universities are not accompanied by an increase in human capacity because of the decline of interest of young people in employment in the scientific field due primarily to low wages and lower academic status. Decline in the training of graduate and doctoral students. The current situation in the scientific and technical complex of the region is threatened by the exhaustion of intellectual potential, the discontinuity in science, the loss of tradition, experience, knowledge. In connection with the deployment of import substitution it is important to ensure the preservation and development of human scientific-technical complex. For this it is necessary to raise the prestige of the scientist to provide social guarantees researchers. Special attention should be paid to training of specialists in innovation management, intellectual property management, innovation and investment projects. To participate in the financing of training and retraining of personnel for innovative management of the need to attract leading enterprises of the region and the Government of the Orenburg region.Key words: import substitution, research and development, scientific training, innovation management.
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Lapaeva M.G., Lapaev S.P. THE FORMATION OF CLUSTER MODEL OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES MANAGEMENT IN THE REGIONInnovative economy requires the employee's initiative and creative attitude, high level of education, professional skills. In this regard, the role of universities in training. Science and education requires innovative transformation. The most important mechanism of development of the education system is a cluster approach based on the interaction of science, education and production. Production and scientific-educational cluster is one of the forms of cooperation. The structure of this cluster included the University, other educational institution of higher education, secondary schools, colleges, business incubators, industrial Park, industrial enterprise, innovation and investment funds, research centers. The University, in addition to traditional functions, performs such as innovative, entrepreneurial, career support, cluster. Production companies work together with universities on training, scientific research, provides practice base, etc. Thanks to this cooperation in the cluster is activated innovative environment, a cluster is formed innovation infrastructure. M.Porter has defined a cluster as "a form of network." It is therefore important to evaluate the clusters from this point of view, i.e. to measure its composition, number of employees, the relationships between them. It is also important to formulate a model of interaction between higher education and enterprises in the region. It appears that this form of cooperation requires intensive development. This requires the creation of regulatory framework and development programs of the cluster policy.Key words: cluster modeljapanese, innovation process, production and scientific-educational cluster, innovative transformation of science and education, functions of University, the cluster as a form of network model of interaction between higher education and enterprises.
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Lapaeva O.F., Dedeeva S.A. THE INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ENERGY SECTOR IN TERMS OF IMPORTRussian natural resource company focused primarily on designing the most cost-effective deposits, limiting investments in new technologies. This reduces the potential for long-term profitability, as a significant part of natural resources remains in the bowels. But in terms of Russia against Western sanctions, it is necessary to deploy high-tech and innovative sector of the economy, which will increase orders for local businesses and tax payments to the budgets of the regions. Technological innovations in the energy sector differ in their characteristics: they are used in extreme temperatures, in a remote and harsh environment, their use is characterized by high capital intensity. Purchasing new technologies abroad has resulted in a reduction in the number of experts involved in the development and implementation of new technologies, reduction of funding. But in terms of the introduction of Western sanctions, the only solution is the development of the domestic technological base. In Russia there are such companies that will be able to replace foreign companies with their products. In the development of import substitution need purposeful work between oil and gas companies and providers of innovation services, which should help the authorities of the regions. In modern conditions, when the decline began on the continental Russian oil reserves, a transition to the development of the Arctic deposits, which is impossible without innovative approaches. You need high-tech equipment and infrastructure. In addition, it is important to improve the tax legislation for companies entering the Russian shelves. In Russia the program of import substitution in critical technologies, equipment, materials and oilfield services.Key words: import substitution, fuel and energy complex, innovative technologies, and Western sanctions, Russian oil and gas equipment manufacturers, the development of Arctic offshore fields.
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Miheeva N.N. CAPITAL BANK BUILDING IN CRISISThe effective functioning of the banking system in the conditions of crisis to a large extent depends upon retaining its own development, primarily through the provision of stable growth of Bank capital. The major problem at the moment is the low degree of capitalization of the banking system, limiting its lending capacity. The recovery of the economy after the crisis intensifies competition among commercial banks, which further spur the banks to increase capitalization. In our view, the way of increasing capital of banks in crisis the following. First, to develop mechanisms to prevent and mitigate the risks that can be further introduced to the domestic banking system in connection with the expansion of integration processes and instruments of implementation of this mechanism. Secondly, to increase the market of retail and corporate lending. Third, to reduce the share of influence of the political situation in the country on credit and investment policy of banks. Fourthly, to increase the share of credit card products, as the most technologically advanced and quickly adaptable for any needs. Fifth, to increase focus on the management of customer loyalty, as one of ways of increase of profitability of banks. One of the measures to increase the capital of banks is the recapitalization of banks through Federal loan bonds. The implementation of this mechanism makes it possible to increase the tier II capital of banks, and allows credit institutions to attract more resources from the market and direct these resources at increasing its assets, that is lending to the economy, which in the current environment is experiencing a clear shortage of funding. Conducting a program of recapitalization of small and medium-sized banks, focusing on the regional credit institutions, the state is able not only to protect regions from economic recession, but also to create momentum for further development. And this at a time when Russia is fighting for every fraction of a percent GDP growth, an extremely important and urgent task.Key words: bank capital, capital base, capital increase, the capitalization of banks, sources of growth capital.
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Pinaev I.F. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL PROJECTS METALLURGICAL CORPORATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF UNSTABLE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTModern external environment metallurgical corporations has negative factors that weaken competitiveness and reduce social activities. The main form of social activity are social projects. It is proposed to use a synergistic approach to the management of social projects. The essence of the synergetic approach is to estimate indirect effects from the implementation of social projects for a specific destination. The use of synergistic approach will allow metallurgical corporations to save money on social projects meet the needs of multiple stakeholders at the consumption of the same resource. Synergetic approach to the management of social projects is the most appropriate in the context of unstable external environment, assessment of direct and indirect factors, which are presented in the article. The research allowed establishing the presence of risk factors and factors of development of the metallurgical complex at the macro, meso and micro. Based on the assessment of the influence factors on the activity of metallurgical corporations, formulated practical recommendations on directions of implementation of social projects in the conditions of instability of the environment. First, it is recommended, to focus social projects on creating favorable relationships with customers, Resellers, enterprises of leading industries and sales of steel products. Secondly, in the current conditions recommended to limit the number of social projects, and reducing their budget at the expense of active use of indirect effects, which are the basis of synergetic approach. Thirdly, it is proposed, to use a synergistic approach to the management of social projects to minimize the negative impact of the volatile external environment in the least protected area of corporate activities.Key words: management of social projects, synergetic approach, synergetic effect, turbulence f external environment.
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Polyakova I.L., Ermakova Zh.A. STANDARDIZATION IN REGIONAL HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: TRENDS, MILESTONES DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATIONThe dynamic development of the tourism industry in the Russian Federation puts the state and entrepreneurs a variety of tasks, one of which serves to provide high quality services for tourists, matching tourism products and services expectations. Especially important it is to solve these problems for the development of tourism as a priority species of domestic and inbound tourism. However, in the framework of program-oriented planning of the regional hospitality industry insufficiently elaborated tools such as the quality of tourist product standardization, c. rtification and categorization. The article specifies the direction of developing a set of regional standards for the hospitality industry, depending on the stages of the life cycle of a tourist destination. Studied approaches to the application of the categorization of accommodation facilities in different countries. The main stages of development and implementation of standard comfortable tourist accommodation. The benefits of standardization and categorization of accommodation are to increase the competitiveness of hotels and other accommodation; promotion of tourism by strengthening consumer confidence; It will strengthen the reputation and creating a positive image of tourist destinations and others.Key words: regional hospitality industry, tourist destination, tourist industry, standards of hospitality.
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Romanova O.A., Akberdina V.V., Buhvalov N.U. METHODOLOGY OF HARMONIZATION OF STRUCTURAL TERRITORIAL AND SECTORAL CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEMThe article presents the results of methodological research and its practical implementation concerning with issues of structural harmonization of territorial and sectoral changes in the economic system. The authors discuss a key global trend of a new industrialization. The authors put forward hypotheses about structural stability of regional economic system, formulated certain provisions of the methodology based on the evaluation of resonant response of the economic system to control actions in the form of mechanisms of industrial policy, serving as a catalyst for economic development. As the main approach there is a synergy that includes the resonant methods of management of economic systems. The article presents the experience of the Institute of Economics, Ural branch of RAS on territorial and sectoral integration of socio-economic indicators on the example of the Middle Urals, including the development of criteria, matrix of the pairing and automated software system. The authors proved the fundamental and strategic principles of the methodology of harmonization of territorial and sectoral development, the risks, the elasticities when pairing jobs in the process of formation of the high-tech sector. The authors substantiate the choice of territory for placing of objects of new construction from the viewpoint of its functional applications, which requires consistent implementation of a comprehensive assessment of the relative attractiveness of the territories. This assessment is to determine upon the basis of integration of ratings on individual factors, among which the authors included: the level of engineering arrangement of territory, accessibility, availability and quality of labour resources, level of social infrastructure development, etc. In the article the author presents calculations of the main indicators of placing of objects of new construction and modernization on the territory of the Middle Urals in the two alternative scenarios— the inertial and target. This article was prepared with support from the basic research program of UB RAS №15-14-7-5 "Regional Economics of the institutions of innovative development".Key words: territorial branch pair, new industrialization, productive jobs.
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Skuzovatova O.G. THE CONCEPT OF "ORTHODOX BANK" AS A TRANSITIONAL MODEL A NEW STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC THEORY World financial and economic crisis, accompanied by a crisis of economic theory, are aiming to develop new, ethical approaches and concepts to solve the problems of the financial and banking sector. The paper summarizes the current research on the development of an ethical model of "orthodox bank", which is a common alternative to Western banking model is now going through a deep crisis. The concept also includes the idea: the need to abandon the abstract index of "economic growth"; on the prevalence of the principle of maximizing profit in the absence of restrictions and ethical standards in the field of social production and distribution as the main causes of the crisis; unbalance the financial and real sectors of the economy. Conclusions: The heart of the crisis— not a lack of hard currency (basket of currencies), and the imbalance between the financial sector of the economy, suction the money and the real sector, which is not enough money for development. Tools of the crisis— the high cost of borrowing and the possibility of a mass of speculative operations in the financial sector, prohibited by all religions of the world.Key words: finance, banks, "liberal economy", orthodox banks, Islamic banking, the economic crisis, "ethical economy", religious ethics and morals, business ethics.
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Soldatkina O.V. THE CONTROL SYSTEM BAKING COMPANYOverall performance of the enterprises of any branch of economy substantially depends on management efficiency which is understood as stability of economic development and increase of level of competitiveness of the made production and the rendered services today. Now development of baking branch of Russia is interfaced to existence of a number of problems. For 2007—2014 the tendency of decrease in production of bakery products for 1,5—3% annually is observed. It occurs for the following reasons: the financial position of many enterprises remains unstable, profitability of branch doesn't exceed 2,5—3%, the level of an average salary for 25—30% is lower than an average on economy, there is no regional infrastructure of bread baking. Besides, degree of physical wear of the main business assets is high, at the majority of the enterprises it makes 50—70%, and the efficiency of capacities is at the level of 39—41%. The Russian baking industry still is at a transition stage from mass production to mass sale, it is characterized by that the enterprises seek to minimize prime cost, try to carry out active marketing and price policy for the purpose of optimization of profitability of the enterprise in the short term. Today to the baking enterprises it is necessary not only to carry out continuous monitoring of a condition of the internal environment, but also to develop such control system which will allow to react to the changes happening in environment and by that will increase competitiveness of the enterprise in the market quickly. In article the enterprise management system of the baking industry allowing to strengthen positions of the enterprise in the market and to increase its competitiveness is offered. The developed control system considers features of the Russian baking industry and feature of activity of the enterprises of the baking industry, and also will promote formation of a flexible and adaptive enterprise management system in general. Key words: control system, strategy of the enterprise, food industry, baking industry, c. mpetitiveness of the baking enterprise.
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Syvrachev A.S. FEATURES OF BANKING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AT THE REGIONAL LEVELThe banking system is a basic element of the real sector of the Russian economy and its regions. The current policy being implemented in the Russian Federation, aimed at modernizing production structures and improving the sustainability of economic entities on the basis of active innovation, investment in the sphere of material production puts the banking system in the region and the country's challenges related to the availability of financial resources, the preservation of assets of enterprises and individuals, introduction of new technologies of the bank and interbank transactions, etc. New realities determine the more active involvement of the banking system in regional economic processes that determined the relevance of the research. The ongoing changes in the economy predetermined the use in our study of the provisions which are formulated in the framework of the theory of stagnation. Scientists, developers have identified the need to eliminate the contradictions between the desire of owners to get maximum income from the use of capital and reduces the possibility of this process. To solve this contradiction is possible through a broad activation of innovative processes and purchasing power in the economy. In this situation significantly increases the role of the organizations of the banking system as a catalyst for innovation processes. The banks may, within its own activities both promote and "slow down" the scientific and technological development of the economy, either through expansion or narrowing of the possibilities of using debt capital. The research revealed features of the development of the banking system at the regional level: a significant reduction in the number of credit institutions in the Russian economy and the Orenburg region, increasing the role and position of the banking system in regulating the movement of money in the Russian regions, a significant part of the banking system in the revitalization of consumer demand in the economy of Orenburg region, the lack of participation of the banking system in the investment processes in the region and others. These features have predetermined the possibility of making some of the manifestations of the banking system at the regional level: reducing institutional representation in the banking market; krupnenie credit institutions in the regions of the Russian Federation through the rationalization of the internal structure and the aggregate supply of banking products; increasing the responsibility of the banks operating in the Russian Federation in the implementation of targeted activities for the development of the regional economy, and others.Key words: banking system, the region, features, the trend, the structure, the credit organization, development.
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Ushakova O.A STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE REGION PROCESS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTIONThe imposition of sanctions against Russia and the aggravation of the international economic and political conditions, exacerbated the need to intensify the import substitution process, including at the level of national and regional policies. Under the import substitution refers to a type of economic strategy of the state and the regions, which is primarily focused on the protection of domestic producers by replacing imported goods of national production. The result of the implementation of the import substitution strategy is to increase the competitiveness of their products due to technological upgrading of enterprises and increasing their efficiency, development of new types of products with high added value. The strategy of replacement of imports by domestic counterparts in the region should be carried out gradually by stimulating the production of simple goods to high technology and high-tech products through the development of production technologies and raising the qualification level of the staff. Implementation of regional import substitution strategy will entail the following changes: the development and implementation of the latest achievements of scientific and technological progress, improving the level and quality of education; increase employment, reduce unemployment and improve living standards; strengthening the economic and food security of regions and the country as a whole; increase in demand for domestically produced goods and the expansion of production capacity; conservation of foreign exchange earnings and the improvement in the trade balance of the country and regions. Analysis of the import structure of the Orenburg region to determine the most critical commodity groups of the region, which should be used as the basis for selecting priority directions of the concept of import substitution strategy. The objectives of the regional strategy of import substitution: achieving technological independence in critical areas; capacity building for the development of global markets; ensure regional surplus of the trade balance; ensuring economic and food security of the region and the country as a whole. Thus, the modernization and transformation of the economy of regions of Russia on the basis of the import substitution strategy must ensure maximum self-sufficiency and stability of the Russian anti-crisis model of innovative growth. Key words: region, strategic planning, import substitution, innovation, technology, regional strategy of import substitution, import substitution mechanism.
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Sharipov T.F. PLANNING STOCKS OF FINISHED GOODS ENGINEERING ENTERPRISEIn the absence of scrutiny and control, "immobilization" of current assets in stocks of finished products becomes unmanageable process. Lack of finance is necessary to compensate for the attraction of additional credit. At the same time reduce the profits of the enterprise loans in the amount of bank interest. However, it should be noted that there are also arguments in favor of increasing the reserves, as there are sufficient stocks of finished products is good for business as well as increase the speed of movement of goods and contribute to immediate customer service and satisfaction of the client request and reduce the costs associated with placing your order. That is, it is necessary to focus on the planning of stocks of finished products. For the planning of finished goods inventory needs a rationing mechanism turnover of stocks of finished products, consisting of stages: development of regulations; conduct a rapid test to confirm the validity of the data according to the standards of turnover of stocks of finished products; Adding to the position of refinements and adjustments; automation of the processes involved; and control algorithm for calculating the standard inventory turnover on the statistical method, which includes: collecting the necessary information from the financial statements for a given period; calculation of the actual inventory turnover for each period; determination of the average inventory turnover of raw materials; standard definition of the turnover of stocks of finished products. Inevitable reserves and increasing the number of days of their turnover indicate inefficient processes and unbalanced work units. Their time and resources to manage inventory should be appropriate and commensurate with the result. The main conclusion from the above, one of the main conditions of the enterprise inventory optimization and successful management— attention management, inventory management and continuous planning of stocks of finished products.Key words: planning, turnover, control, regulation, mechanism.
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Shepel V.N., Akimov S.S. METHODS OF DISTINCTION SYMMETRYCAL DISTRIBUTION LAWS (FOR EXAMPLE, THE NORMAL AND THE LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTION LAW)One of the basic problems of mathematical statistics— a comprehensive study and analysis of data. This is widely known that the exhaustive characteristic of any data set is the distribution law, which governs the array. There is a fairly large number of different methods for determining the distribution law, relying solely on the data array. At the same time it should be noted that all these methods are only approximate. Also It is worth be noted that some laws of distribution have a fairly similar characteristics, making it difficult to identify them. One of these characteristics is the symmetry. Main purpose of the research— a comparison of methods of identification the symmetric distribution laws. The article considers the four methods of identification the law of probability distribution: criterion of consent by Kolmogorov, coefficient of Kurtosis, assessment Hill and the method relationships. As the laws of distribution was used logistic and normal distribution, most similar symmetrical laws. Researches performed in the laboratory of Chair of Management and Informatics in Technical Systems of Orenburg State University. For obtaining necessary data sets used by the random number generator of the program MathCad15. To check the was generated distributions800 (400obeying the logistics law and 400— normal; N= 100). For assessment of reliability the parameters of distributions remained unchanged. It was determined that the most powerful method is to criterion by Kolmogorov. Also have been studied various combinations of the proposed methods. In studying combinations shown that the most effective is the use of a pair of criterion by Kolmogorov— a method of relations. All other pairs of methods give a greater percentage of errors.Key words: logistic distribution, normal distribution, methods of distinction, a combination of methods.
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Yakovleva Yu.K., Onosova I.A. SPECIAL FEATURES OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOGRAPHIC AND ETHNO-CULTURAL PROCESSES IN DONBASSSummary. Understanding and consideration of pupil's ethno-cultural traditions is quite important for effective state administration and development of a region as a whole. Economic establishment of Donbass was executed under the influence of labor migrations that functioned as the key factor of population formation of the region with its ethno-cultural environment. Such historical preconditions also influenced the modern decision of Donbass population. The efforts initiated to dispute the choice resulted in military and political conflict and difficult social and economic situation. These present challenges as well as the implementation issues of future development strategies condition the need for analysis in demographic aspects of ethno-cultural environment formation in Donetsk Region. It is established that labor migrations conducted under control of tsarist and further Soviet Government not only promoted the progress of Donbass industry but formed ethnic and cultural basis of the regional society. In various historical periods the inflow of Russian migrants, and their predominance in towns and industrial centers of Donbass conditioned the prevalence of the Russian language with culture and traditions in its ethno-cultural environment. It is found out that during the period that is relatively short for the history of mankind on the territory of Lugansk and Donetsk area there appeared a new specific community of people whose mentality and genetic memory was determined by unity with Russian world and Russian fundamentals. The complicated social and political situation, and military conflict in Donbass is the consequence of the natural response of Donbass people to the attempts initiated to deprive them of their native language, history and the right of choice of own development way that was predetermined by the historical past. The present situation demonstrates again that state administration and government policy cannot be effective and successful without taking into account and understanding of the nation's history and ethno-cultural traditions.Key words: Donbass, settlement, migration, population size, ethno-cultural aspect, assimilation processes, national self-identification, mentality, regional society.
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Yarullin R.R. REVENUES FROM THE LEASE OF MUNICIPAL OBJECTS OF UNINHABITED FUND AND RESERVES GROWTHLease relationships recognized basic form of the use of property that could generate significant income to the budget. However, income from the rental of non-residential premises represent a small share of the sources of the city treasury, overseen by the Office of the municipal property, so this issue is of particular relevance. The name of the payment does not correspond to its essence, but points to the tangible form they use objects, which in practice is rented only in the form of non-residential premises, hence it is advisable to call it rent for the use of non-residential premises, c. nstitutes the treasury of the city district, and presented as cash payment wearing onerous and the equivalent nature of the use of the property. The mechanism of payment is a complex indicator, depending on many factors. Factors increasing the budget revenues were growing: lease agreements with market board and a list of methods for determining it; putting into use of the sublease, activate claims work to recover the debt and the introduction of indexation of rents. Reduction in revenues contributed to: exemption from payment for the property transferred to the operational management of autonomous and budgetary institutions; decrease in lease agreements and their respective areas; alienation of objects in the manner of privatization; benefits to tenants; the use of reduction factors. Addressing the efficiency and profitability of the budget from the lease of non-residential premises: the transfer of the lease on a market basis and non-residential buildings are in economic management and operational management, renting mode with the establishment of feasible for tenants rent; involvement in the rental turnover unused space; expanding the number of areas, the fee for the use of which is set by auction; reduction of benefits to commercial organizations; measures to ensure the full application of income and debt collection to the budget; the formation of an automated system of mass appraisal of objects based on computer models of the market.Key words: rent, residential premises, property, property, rate, the lease, the tenant, trading, real estate market, rents, benefits, repair, city budget information system.
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Yasybaeva R.S. NATURAL RESOURCE BASE— THE MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATOR FOR FORMING THE RESETTLEMENT OF BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLIC'S ZAURAL REGIONNatural resource potential of the TRANS-Urals region of Bashkortostan is a set of natural resources, where the main indicator is the formation of the system of settlement of the TRANS-Ural region with the economic growth of the territory development. The most important characteristic for the regions of the Urals is the placement of natural resources and the security of their individual sectors of the national economy, their influence on the formation of economic specialization and spatial organization of the territory. The value of the natural resource potential represents the sum of potentials of certain types of resources. Zauralye Bashkortostan is rich in natural resources, but the development of the region does not show the economic and social growth of cities and towns where they extracted gold, silver, manganese, cupper and other minerals before 1917 and 1940, the Mining industry developed after world warII. Intensive development of gold mining in the last century when the current level of technology has led to a outrageous accumulation of pollutants in the environment. This is especially true for the TRANS-Urals, where there is a large number of gold deposits. As we know that natural resources must submit environmental components used in the process of social production mainly to meet the material needs of people not only in Russia, namely the population of the Urals, but we do not feel this. Since, the environment, all landscape elements, including snow cover, soil, air, water resources considered by the relevant environmental protection measures to reduce environmental pollution in the Urals Republic of Bashkortostan. Although all gold mining companies in the Urals closed, still coming onslaught of the environment, still going technogenic load on the main components of the environment of the Urals, and then transmitted through air, surface water, groundwater, snow cover, soil and vegetation— the population, especially through drinking water. To establish the effectiveness of the activities necessary environment evaluation on the basis of ecological monitoring of environment of the TRANS-Urals region of Bashkortostan and the health of the population. Since the main factor in the development of the settlement system of the TRANS-Urals region of Bashkortostan is the population.Key words: fields, natural resources, mining, enterprises of the city, staff shortages, a large settlement.
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Philosophical sciences

Mishuchkov .. MUSLIM STRATEGY PROJECT DIALOGUE OF CIVILIZATIONSThe international organization "Alliance of Civilizations" has played an important role in the development of partnerships in the relations between civilizations of East and West. The discussion was developed Muslim strategy of dialogue with the international community, which is highly significant in a situation of collision trends of globalization and traditionalism in the modern world. For example, the program documents of international organizations— the "Alliance of Civilizations", the League of Arab States, the Organization of the Islamic Conference Cooperation systematized philosophical and political preconditions for the emergence of Islamic principles and the project of the "dialogue of civilizations" as a new regulatory approach to international fair multipolar world order. The main principles of dialogue are: the peaceful and stable development of civilizations on the basis of cooperation and mutual enrichment, c. mplementarity and civilizational experience of East and West, the inclusion of traditional values in the system of international law, the institutionalization of a dialogue of civilizations in global civil society, strengthening the system of international and national security. The strategy of the Muslim of the "dialogue of civilizations" aimed at the growth of civilizational identity, unity and identity of Muslims all over the world in connection with the challenges of globalization and Westernization; strengthening the peace movement in the fight against extremism, terrorism and the outbreak of war; overcoming Islamophobia in the cultural dialogue and the media; humanization of the image of the Muslim world in the eyes of the world community; Muslims gain an effective role in international politics. A key issue in the dialogue of civilizations is an understanding between the civilizational project of globalism and traditionalism, c. vilizations consensus between the values of inclusive liberal societies of the West and the values of the exclusive non-liberal societies of the East, the implementation of the rights and freedoms of international law in the traditional system of society, while maintaining the sacred core values, developed the world's religions.Key words: dialogue of civilizations, the Alliance of Civilizations, the League of Arab States, Organization of the Islamic Conference cooperation, fundamentalism, islamophobia, civilizational discourse, the institutionalization of a dialogue of civilizations, international security, cultural diversity.
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Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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