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Orenburg State University october 25, 2021 RU/EN
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№ 7(182),16july2015

Pedagogics

Erofeeva N.E., Melekesov G.A., Chikova I.V. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE REALISATION OF TUTOR COMPANIONSHIP OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN THE INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATIONThe reform of the higher education in Russia requires innovational approaches to the organization of education process. Federal State Education Standard of Higher Education aims us to this as well, and orients us to the principle of individualization, openness, and variability for all the participants. To create multiaspect education space a higher education institution needs a specialist, able to perform as a medium and systematizer of education space. A tutor can become such a medium. The article deals with the main notions of tutorship, the comparison is given between tutors of general education, secondary vocational education and higher education. It is noted that while speaking about higher education institution we can deal only with tutor position in the way of performing the tutorship by working educators and psychologists. The technologies are named which can be effective in the higher education institution— such as reflective ones, questionnaire technology, the technology of active listening, coaching and mentoring technologies. With the example of work of Orsk Humanities and Technology Institute (the branch of) Orenburg State University the developed and experimentally tested model in higher education institution is given which can develop in two ways— linear and vector (non-linear). The authors prove that non-linear model, based on the system "dean's office— curator— student" is effective in the sphere of social and upbringing work. The most effective is the linear model, based on the system "dean's office— teacher— student". It allowed to include a teacher as an educator-consultant as well as the tutor-mentor and tutor-facilitator and orient him to the realization of mentoring as lengthy process of concentrating at the professional and personal way of development of students and partially the tutor himself. During the process of realization of the tutorship model the definition of tutor competence was given for the first time which the authors agree to understand as the integrative quality of educator's personality, possessing the knowledge of psychology and pedagogics, having the skills of subject-subjective interaction in the society and practically realizing the ability to build the route of personal development of a student. Thus tutorship can be adjusted to the specific conditions of high school regarding the peculiarities of bachelors training in the higher education institution.Key words: tutor, tutor position, tutor companionship, tutor competence, educational process, higher education institution, student, technology, coaching, mentoring.
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Kabisheva M.I., Glasina T.A., Podkopaeva O.V. ON THE INTRODUCTIONJF THE "READY FOR LABOR AND DEFENSE" AT OSU DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATIONEvaluation of physical fitness of students is currently being conducted on the existing control tests referred to in obrazovatelnyh state standards of higher education of the third generation. The aim of our research— a comparative analysis with the standards set by the TRP Benchmark physical fitness of students at OSU. To identify the factors that determine the need to introduce a new set of TRP, we conducted a survey of 46teachers of the department of physical education of the Orenburg State University. The findings suggest that the prevalence of socially significant priorities necessary for the implementation of the new complex TRP. Comparing the types of exercises (regulations), which were part of the Soviet TRP complex, new, we found a number of significant differences. Changes have occurred in the regulatory requirements set by the TRP in the dynamics over the years. In the 2014/15 academic year, the students 1—3 courses all specialties of full-time students of Orenburg State University took an active part in the delivery of standards set by the TRP on the Status of DOSAAF Russia. Analysis of the results showed that the requirements of tests overwhelm 53.6% of boys 1st year, 49.7% of girls 3courses. The introduction of the All-Russian novogo sports complex "Ready for Labor and Defense" (TRP) in the practice of higher education institutions will require improving obrazovatelnyh state standards of higher education and programs on the subject "Fizicheskaya culture". The question important to alignment and cohesion benchmarking new complex TRP as the basis of the pedagogical control aimed at improving the efficiency of physical training.Key words: omplex "Ready for Labor and Defense," the regulatory requirements, the system of physical education, physical fitness, students.
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Kobseva N.I. TEST CONTROL AS INTEGRATION TOOL OF FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL-SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE OF STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITYAnalysis of the integration of basic scientific knowledge of students on the basis of the leading concepts of modern science, revealed a direct correlation of becoming natural-science world view of university students on the timely correction, diagnostic control over the process of mastering the natural sciences. Therefore, as a technical means of integrating scientific knowledge, we have seen the intensification of "feedback". Easy to implement and productive one for the actualization of "feedback" (the evaluation mechanism) between teacher and student, based on the specific content of the discipline, test control acts as a modification of the pedagogical control. This test control assists in addressing the two key problems of optimization technology in the teaching of management: achieved the educational results and the teachers and students spent time on it. According to the principle of "feedback" function pedagogical control should be treated as timely and continuous adjustment of mental activities of students, i.e. validation of the response and errors as a motivational element of further training. In keeping with the integrative approach of the test tasks are not the result of a mechanical, mathematical addition, as the result of a complex interaction of the individual images. Logical integrity of the structure of tasks aimed at creating methods of thinking; specifically reveal the real potential to develop student's general and specific mechanisms of mental activity: synthesis, analysis, synthesis and abstraction. Based on the research we can say that systematic, orderly, focused test control knowledge provides efficient mastery of the students a large amount of new information, develops the ability to exercise self-esteem and self-control, to solve important problems— fully effectively use every minute of the student and faculty time. Thus, the integration of scientific knowledge on the basis of the leading concepts of modern science is yielding positive results in the context of deepening cooperation in the value "teacher↔ student": the introduction of the test control, the creation of problematic situations, the organization of collective interaction. Key words: test control, university student, scientific knowledge, natural history, "Feedback", integration, world view.
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Pavlenko F.N., Pikhtilkova O.A., Chetverikova A.G. TO THE QUESTION ABOUT ORGANIZATION OF THE INTRODUCTION COURSE "MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA"The various approaches to introduction of the course "Mathematical Processing of Experimental Data" are considered in the article. It is noted that application of traditional statistical approach has a lot of essential shortcomings. The possibility of experimental finding of the necessary number of direct measurements of physical quantity sufficient for receiving the limit absolute error is proved. It is offered to imitate results of direct measurements by means of a computer mathematical MathCAD package, generating the random variable having normal distribution. As a result of numerous measurements there is not displaced estimation of an average square deviation providing a limit absolute error of result. Expediency of finding of absolute errors of results of indirect measurements by means of a method of borders for which it isn't required the knowledge which is far going beyond the school program is proved. Features of application of this approach to processing of results of indirect measurements are illustrated on two examples . Expediency of use of the interactive methodical instructions integrated with a computer mathematical MathCAD package for increase of efficiency of assimilation of this course by students of the natural-science and engineering directions is noted. In this case the operating control of correctness of mathematical processing of experimental data in audience leads to sharp increase in motivation of students to studying of the considered material.Key words: mathematical processing of experimental data, precision of repeated direct measurements, normal distribution, MathCAD, indirect measurements, method of borders.
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Psychology

Aptikiyeva L.R., Aptikiyev A.Kh., Bursakova M.S. THE FORMATION OF THE IMAGE AND REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY OF THE TEENAGERS WHO ARE IN SHELTERThe urgency of the problem of forming a positive image of the family in adolescents living under the shelter is in stock formed a distorted image representations of the family, leading to the "secondary" orphan— to replenish orphanages, boarding schools, shelters children from families of former pupils of these educational institutions. Finding adolescent children in the shelter lead to serious psychological difficulties plan: the emergence of social exclusion; autocratic care of the shelter; abandonment, neglect, vagrancy adolescent prevention which are currently not developed sufficiently (insufficiently developed psycho-pedagogical methods of effective assistance). The emergence of latent social orphan hood due to: a) a sharp deterioration in the material situation of the family; b) decline in its morals; c) removing the many moral prohibitions; d) increase of psycho-emotional overload parents; d) the change in attitudes towards children. At risk are: orphans; social orphans; hidden social orphans. An effective system of work to create a positive image of the family is: 1) on the list of competent diagnostic tool for the study of the image representation of the family: a) the method of study, analysis of the documentation; b) the survey method (interview, talking about a family on the proposed topics, personality questionnaires ["Parental behavior and attitude of teenagers to them"— ADOR, E.Shafer, "an emotional relationship in the family" E.Bene— E.Antoni]); c) projective methods of personality study ("Interpersonal relationships of the child" R.Zhil; "Family Drawing" R.Burns and S.Kaufman; "incomplete sentences" Sachs-Levy collage); d) methods of analysis of experimental data (qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of research, tabular and graphic display of data, comparative analysis, the use of t— t-test, correlation analysis); 2) the development of correctional and development program that forms: a) ideas about family roles, functions, tasks of the family; b) psychological basis of a healthy relationship, men and women; adequate representation of the opposite sex; c) develop the skills of constructive communication and interaction; d) reducing aggression and hostility; d) prepare for responsible parenthood; Planning the future of family life.Key words: social orphan hood, the image of the family, the notion of the family, family deprivation, social orphans, older adolescents, a distorted image of his family, an adult.
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Glavatskikh M.M. RESEARCH OF A SOCI-PSYCHOLOGICAL MATURITY OF THE PERSONALITY In the article the main point of the socio-psychological maturity of personality are analyzed in terms of the history and stages of formation of this phenomenon. In the article the history of development of the a modern approach to the study of social and psychological maturity are analyzed. The socio-psychological maturity of personality is considered psychological construct generated in the process of integration of social and individual theories of personality maturity. The author consider that the research of the of personality's maturity according to socially oriented and individually oriented criteria used separately and even used in their connection with each other is ineffective because their integration gives rise to qualitatively new subjective integrative formations. The socio-psychological maturity of personality is considered psychological construct generated in the process of integration of social and individual components of the maturity and as the subjectness, notional, cognitive, semantic construct. The main point of the socio-psychological maturity , structural-functional dynamic model is presented and the perspectives of the research of this psychological construct are defined on the basis of the subjective approach. Key words: socio-psychological maturity of personality, development of the personality, subjectness, integrative approach.
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Philosophical sciences

Kolomiets G.G. THE AESTHETIC ASPECT OF GENIUS GENETICSAppeal to the aesthetic problem of genius, related to the theme of genius in art, is caused by the interest in the genetics of genius in aspect of modern genetics, which affirms the power of stochastics, the role of entropy origin in the appearance of geniuses. The aim of the article was to draw attention to the modern scientific view of the genius in the context of aesthetics and theory of art at the example of musical artists, to address the ethics component of the genius genetics. The axiological approach in philosophical reflection of the creative process is used and a method of aesthetic analysis of musical art, based on the results of the author's study. The main conclusion of the aesthetic perspective of the genius genetics is the idea of unpredictability of the implementation of natural genius in the creative process. The emergence of genius occurs at the optimal point of coincidence of many factors, including biological, biosocial and sociobiological (V.P.Efroimson), excluding the effect of the role of chance, stochastics (modern molecular genetics). The aesthetic component of genius is the act of the entropy of the random factor, and anti-entropic force of harmony, drawn to the perfect, beautiful and is disclosed in the aesthetic expression of the highly sensuous receptivity, inspiration, exceptionally high intellectual ability of imagination. A connection between the aesthetic component with an ethical component, as the ontologicaladherence the genius ought to follow, is revealed.Key words: aesthetics and genetics of genius, creativity and the creative process, V.P.Efroimson, philosophy of music.
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Konnova S.M. SPIRITUALITY UNIVERSAL Article is devoted to a spirituality subject. As an object of research the spirituality universal acts. Relevance is caused by radical updating of philosophy of the XXIcentury. The idea of development forms the general basis. The purpose is general determination of spirtuality. Proceeding from ontologic opposition of being and exists, the concept of research iis defined: variety of forms of the movement, status problem, question of criterion. The conceptual moment of spirituality with a keyword "virtue" is revealed. In an History and Philosophy context the criterion of a universal of spirituality is considered. The structure of a universal of spirituality containing categories is described: freedom of will, freedom of spirit, form, matter, nature, art, life, death. In this regard research models are offered: totemic, astrological, scientific and practical, model of experience of consciousness, romantic, symbolical, essay model, bioethical. The spirit event is revealed. It is shown that the event of spirit is the beginning of definition of concept of spirituality. The characteristic of a universali of spirituality in categories of form and content as valuable prerequisite of research of a problem is given. The volume, the contents, the relation of volume and the content of concept of spirituality of the categories "being", "exists", "measure" are determined. Determination of spirituality as measures exists is offered. The conclusion is drawn on the universal value of spirituality. The research problem of a spetsiifcity of the concept "spirituality"in the being of the native language is set.Key words: virtue, spirituality, measure, universal.
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Lyashenko P.V. POLITICS AS A "GAME" IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC THOUGHT OF ANCIENT GREECEAt the present stage of Russian science there is a rethinking of political knowledge, which creates an opportunity for a modern interpretation of the ancient philosophical and political thought, for which policy is identified with the play and was based on the values of beauty and harmony. Synthesizing character of the interaction of philosophical and aesthetic and political beginnings in ancient Greek philosophy explains a meaningful interpretation of the category of "politics" having not only political, but also aesthetic and metaphysical essence. In an effort to understand the nature of the place and the role of politics in public life, the ancient thinkers focused on the conditionality of its cosmic order of life. In this context, the policy depends not only on the person as a subject of the political process, but on the objective laws of space identified with fate as the supreme power of being. Fate, building course and policy rules as the game has been interpreted as an objective cosmic process which are reflected in real social and political practice. Game, representing an ancient form of aesthetic activity aimed at getting pleasure and joy appears metaphysical form of politics as the highest art and defines human existence in the policy. In ancient philosophical tradition of the category of " politics" is closely correlated with the category of "game" and understood in a holistic sense of artistic and aesthetic act. The perception of political reality as a process of the game, points to its aesthetic base, where beauty performs the highest value, being the principle of the policy and the cause of the harmony of all social life.Key words: politics, aesthetics, policy, space, game, beauty, harmony.
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Mishuchkov A.A. M.R.DEMETRADZE AND T.ZVART'S APPROACHES IN THE RELATION TO TRADITIONAL VALUES IN DIALOGUE OF CIVILIZATIONSActual tool approaches of M.R.Demetradzei T. Zvartak are presented to a problem of interaction of traditional and liberal values as methodological tools of the civilization discourse removing a conflictogenity of these values at the level of a political discourse. Applicability of the presented concepts in the international practice will allow to optimize dialogue on a problem of a ratio of universality and uniqueness of traditional values and human rights, to come to civilization consensus of the western and not western alliances of civilizations. The appeal to an assessment of crisis of traditional culture at K.Klakhon and M.Mid from positions of ethnopsychological school of anthropology and the concept of cultural patterns is important. Concepts of "the central zone of sociocultural values" of M.R.Demetradze and receptor approach to traditional values of T.Zvart are important in understanding of the mechanism of influence of the discourses of globalization destroying structures of traditional cultures. Installation on refusal of negative konnotat locates in liberal and aliberalny reading of scientific terms— tradition, values, a civilization discourse that increases potential and prospects of civilization dialogue in the world. The carried-out modernization of the Russian society will be much more successful if in ideology of society the civilization potential of traditional values of society, sacral ideas of a civilization ideal of Russia is used.Key words: traditional values, central zone of sociocultural values, receptor approach, culture, civilization discourse, human rights, institutionalization of values, institutes of society, identity crisis, scientific consensus, dialogue of civilizations.
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Myakinnikov S.P. HE SPECIFICITY OF THE WESTERN WORLDVIEW OF THE SOCIETY AS AN OBSTACLE FOR GLOBAL GREENING Postulated that worldview determines any activity. Marked specificity of the ideological determination of environmentally oriented activities related to the culture of the West. Pointed out that the Western powers intensified the attempts of the expansive remodeling of the traditional consciousness of other Nations under the standards produced by relying on the values of their worldview. The attention is focused on the environmental aspect of the worldview of the Western world based on the premise that ecologism is holism. Emphasized that the creation of an optimal system of relations between different social communities and their natural environment is possible only through the organization of an integral system of the social relations of mankind. In this regard, the analysis of the characteristics and components of the worldview of Western society, not only transforming social and cultural traditions and norms of other countries, but detrimental to the globalization of environmental trends social activities. Investigated the specificity of Western (Western European and North American) worldview in relation to the relationship between man and nature. Describes the features of the traditional worldview of the West, having special ecological significance (anthropocentrism, individualism, sociocentrism, technocentrism, scientism, self-centeredness, theocentrism, etc.). Shows its anti-ecological essence of orienting man in the world artificial. It is noted that the increasing trend of imposing Western ideological values in the world not to contribute to global greening. In the end, it is stated, that the worldview of the West in General, all of his options in one way or another antiecological because oriented human artificial world, created by man from natural and better meet the needs of Western man. It is concluded that the worldview of the West has a position of disengagement from the nature in the world of technology, culture, man is a created being existence. For him nature or only the outer shell, a certain length which functions as a source of livelihoods (Western anthropocosmism), the application of will and power (extreme anthropocentrism and sociocentrism), or a source of vanity and sin, it substitutes the true divine essence of the world of the unbeliever (theocentrism).Key words: worldview, greening, anthropocentrism, the technocracy.
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Pereselkova Z.Y. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRARIAN REFORMS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SOUTHERN URALS)A common feature of the Russian agrarian reforms is that radical agrarian transformation has always done in times of crisis development of the country, in the process of searching for new directions of social development. The most important role in these processes was given to the rural population, which acted here and the object and subject of transformations. In the 1980-s, during the global reform first, economic and socio-political conditions of the Soviet model of state in the field of agriculture was tested practice of transition to a mixed agricultural economy, primarily through the dissemination of the lease, a restoration of rights farms and cooperatives, the recognition of a voluntary choice by the peasantry forms of ownership and management. Because the basics of administrative command, contradictoriness of concurrent old and new regulations, insufficient material and technical equipment of farms, lack of necessary personnel to fully implement the transition to a new model of agricultural development, the Soviet leadership failed. Key words: the rural population, agricultural economics, social infrastructure, food supply, in succession, rent.
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Strelets J.Sh. UTOPIA AS A CIVILIZATION PRESUSHCHESTVLENIYE RESOURCE IN CULTUREIt is useful to look at an immemorial question of a gumanitaristika of a ratio of culture and a civilization through a prism of the concept "utopia" which has both positive, and negative connotations. About a utopia speak as about the "fruitless" and "bezosnovny" dream which isn't considering social and economic realities. But also it designates the highest and limit prospects of development of object, its desirable or due, perfect condition valuable not only in itself, but also as something motivating the person, promoting his transtsenzus— to transition through possible or imaginable borders. The culture as the spiritual and humanitarian party of human activity accumulates in itself this movement to the highest and ideal, is a product (and process) sublimations of all energiya of the person and mankind in the direction to complete perfection, to the Absolute. The civilization as the technical and technological party of activity of society acts as the necessary stabilizer of human development; as cash in space and time ("here and now") it resists to "eternal cash" due, ideals, etc. According to N.A.Berdyaev, a civilization— a product of "necrosis" of culture, its "cooling", that is the basis of such negative processes and tendencies in culture of modern society as its dehumanization, an omassovleniye and degradation in the authentic quality. Utopia, being the vital statement of need due in real, ethical judgment of human life, can be a source of cultural sublimation, a real resource of a presushchestvleniye (realization, transformation) civilizations in culture. In anthropological aspect this process is identical to individual self-determination. The person, adapting for the world, its technological rules (civilization), has to keep "limit", "measure" of the possible variability to please to this process and its requirements. This limit is set by freedom and itself sets the scale of this freedom; choosing due as real higher order, than ordinary real", moving on utopian lines of self-development, the person finds himself, the freedom, the cultural contents. Continuous domination in our life of the cultural beginning over civilization, free over necessary, self-determination over all forms of external influence and influence appears sense of human existence. Thus, the utopia "okulturivat" a civilization, doing possible its advance in the external— social— space and internal— human.Key words: utopia, dream, freedom, civilization, culture, time and eternity.
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Historical sciences

Belov S.I. SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES "ARMIES CRAIOVA" IN AN INITIAL STAGE OF LIBERATION OF POLAND (JULY— DECEMBER, 1944)Within the framework of the present study raises the problem of how justified were tough actions of the Soviet leadership with regard to "Home Army" during the liberation of Poland from German occupation. Particular attention is paid to the question of how systematic, planned and politically subversive actions were justified saboteursAK. The focus of the author is also the question of the extent of damage caused by the Soviet troops and the Interim Government of the Polish nationalists terrorist attacks. The decision of the designated range of problems has been made possible through the conversion to unpublished and already entered into scientific circulation sources, including the documents of the Red Army, and interior materialsAK. Accumulated at the stage of source material heuristics was systematized and analyzed through the application of scientific and special methods, including multi-disciplinary practices and approaches. The main conclusion of the study amounts to the recognition that Moscow tough stance against the AKunits wore a reasoned nature. Guide nationalists was not originally planned to cooperate with the Soviet side, considering the USSR as its enemy. PositionAK and affiliated structures was conditioned with her territorial ambitions, anti-Soviet and russophobia typical of pre-war Polish elite, whose members dominated among nationalists. Already in the initial period of the liberation of Poland AKlaunched a large-scale subversive activities against the Soviet troops and the government formed by the Lublin government. Results militancy AK Steel emergence of the USSR significant difficulties in the fight against Germany, the beginning of the civil war in Poland in the post-war period, growth of the probability of starting a new "big war" in Europe after the defeat of the Nazi empire, as well as the strengthening of the anti-Russian tradition in Polish culture.Key words: Home Army, the Soviet Union, Poland, subversion, and the politicization of the falsification of history.
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Huseynov Y.M. FOLDING AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRIMEAN POLICY OF RUSSIA: FROM THE BEGINNINGS TO THE PRESENTThis article is devoted to the folding of the Russian-Crimean relations in the past three centuries. One of the objects of study is negotiated letters, which were signed between Crimea and Muscovy. They regulated trade, economic and political relationships between States. In later period of the Crimean khanate came under the influence of the Turkish state. Almost the entire political life on the Peninsula dictated the port with its trade, economic and military interests. Not without the author's attention is the problem of annexation of the Crimean Peninsula to the Russian Empire, or rather the whole accession process. This article highlights about the Russo-Turkish wars of the late eighteenth century and, therefore, stems from her signing peace treaties that regulate the political development of the Peninsula. A separate object of study becomes 1783 (the date of the official accession of Crimea to Russia), as well as the policy of the Crimean region in the Soviet period. The annexation of the Crimean khanate to Russia has spawned a host to a number of reforms on the Peninsula. One of which was the provincial reform, which changed the governance structure of the Peninsula. Established new provincial units, which were controlled by governors. With the accession of the Peninsula to the Russian Empire on the Peninsula there has been a rapid economic recovery. In particular, trade, industry, agriculture, etc.In the beginning of XX century the Crimea was the stronghold of the white movement led by Wrangel, who have built their Republic. After the defeat of Wrangel and fall of the "white Republic" on the Peninsula was restored Soviet power. In1954 Crimea came under the protectorate of Ukraine began a long process for the return of the territory to their ancestral Homeland. 2014 after a referendum in the Crimea and the hero city of Sevastopol have returned to their harbour— Russia.Key words: Russia, Crimea, the Crimean khanate, the black sea, the Caspian sea.
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Polyakov A.N. COMMUNISM AND CIVILIZATION: IDEA AND EMBODIMENT OF THE DREAM ABOUT EARTHY PARADISEThe article is devoted to the human's dream about liberation from Labour, which was embodies in the idea of building the communism, and in practice— in the appearance of civilization. Having analysed this, the author comes to the conclusion that in the end both points lead to the ruin of mankind.Key words: communism, civilization, Labour, liberty.
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Popov V.B. THE INTRODUCTION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE INSTITUTE ZEMSTVO CHIEFS IN THE PROVINCE OF ORENBURGThe article offers an analysis of the law on County chiefs from 12July 1889, provides assessment of its substantive provisions. The contents of this article suggests that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited". Institute of Zemstvo chiefs was to strengthen authoritative supervision of the peasants, to reduce the intensity of social contradictions in the village, to centralize and organize the activities of bodies of local self-government. Summary. Institute of Zemstvo chiefs, as a special type of local government was introduced in the process of reforms of AlexanderIII and was an important stage in the formation of governance structures at the local level. The reason for the establishment of the Zemstvo chiefs was the need to restore order in the village, which led to a diversity of projects to streamline peasant life.Almost all of them boiled down to the need to establish administrative control over the peasant population. Nobility is fascinated by the new law, as evidenced addresses directed to Alexander III noble collections of various provinces of Russia. No wonder, because it was a return to this bar still influence and was a means for economic advancement at the expense of public service. The class interests of the nobility and the public interest of the government at this stage was identical.In the Orenburg province originally Cossack territory Institute of Zemstvo district chiefs was not introduced, but 19February 1894, after a lengthy discussion, the Main Department of the Cossack troops ordered to extend the validity of the law on County chiefs and military lands. In Ufa province division into areas demanded a quick solution to the issue of the subdivision Bashkir same. The law of 1890 was recognized as "the Zemstvo case is a matter of state, and provincial agencies— state and subdued them in court against the rules established for the conduct of Affairs of state institutions.Analyzing legislative acts, it should be noted that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited".Analyzing legislative acts, it should be noted that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited".It should also be noted that the extension of power and control activities of township officers and clerks, village chiefs, was really caused by the need.Compared with the draft law was amended primarily editorial in nature. Despite the establishment of educational qualification, the law provided for the possibility of appointment to the position of the Zemstvo of the head, and persons who did not have secondary education.A local Department of the Ministry of internal Affairs, 1291 Fund RGIA, contains information, according to which we can conclude that the number of persons held the position of Zemstvo head and had higher and secondary education, no less than those who graduated only colleges that shows quite a high level of education among these officials.The law of 1889 was designed to create institutions that vozvrashalsya nobility significant share of its former estate, the police authorities. Undoubtedly, the law on County chiefs had serious shortcomings and was far from ideal.Two decades of the post-reform development has revealed a number of negative moments in the life of the Russian village. This weakness officials of rural self-government and insufficient activity of the volost courts, as well as the increase in rural crime. Thus the elements of administrative control that carried the law, were important. It should also be noted that the very form of guardianship is quite consistent with traditional installations peasant paternalism. Thus, the introduction of guardianship over village self-government consistent with the objective needs of the Russian village of the late XIX— early XXcenturies.Key words: district chief, local government, Orenburg province, province in the country business presence.
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Social sciences

Perminova M.S. TO THE QUSTION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF VOLUNTEER ACTIVITIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCTION (ILLUSTRATED ORENBURG)Under present conditions the Russian state should be built on the basis of such a society, where people will be social activity, have a positive outlook on life, have significant spiritual qualities. The basis of such a society may be young people who have all the necessary personal qualities. However, there is a major problem that arises in front of many social institutions— is how to educate and train the younger generation, and how to further engage in socially useful activities of the state. The most appropriate way to create such conditions— it is to attract young people to volunteer work. Volunteering allows the individual to develop spiritually, to gain knowledge, experience and skills in the areas and structures of interest to the young man. Consequently, young people on their own initiative will be better able to pass all the stages of socialization with the support of the state and society. In the scientific literature, there are many approaches to addressing volunteer activities. Note that in many definitions emphasizes three main features of volunteering: there is no compulsion in the work, there is no material reward, is the direction for the benefit of individuals, society and the individual. However, many researchers have noted this phenomenon, that the individual must have a high motivation for this kind of activity and a number of personality traits that support the results of the sociological research involving the author. This sociologicalresearch has allowed us to make a number of recommendations to optimize the performance of volunteer centers at institutions of higher education: to enhance public awareness of the activities of the volunteer center; develop youth volunteering program in the education system; develop a framework volunteer center; to carry out a set of activities and trainings for volunteers to train different skills, abilities; expand financing volunteer center; develop a system of incentives volunteers. Creating a volunteer center at a university, you can get an effective instrument of state policy in the sphere of social and youth policy, education and employment of students.Key words: young people, social activities, volunteering, volunteer, motivation of volunteers, volunteer centers.
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Hamidullin N.R. "TEACHER, EDUCATOR, POLITICIAN" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATIONEducation in the modern "Sociology of education" is presented as a layered system, which characterizes the process of formation of knowledge among young people, the quality of citizenship, independence, ability to work and life, patriotism and other Humanistic nature of education determines the relationships between all participants in the educational process. The main link in the educational process is teacher who is using a variety of pedagogical technologies, ensures the growth of students " knowledge and prepares them for practical professional activity, showing the elements of balance, moderation, self-control and sensing of a student as he is. In the modern system of education as never demanded an educational effect on the part of the teacher in relation to the learners, it is necessary to develop the algorithm of the elements of education taking into account a wide range of psychological and pedagogical characteristics of the trainees. It is important to have a certain educational tools. These could be, for example: autobiography and response (for the first course— option school, for subsequent documents issued by the curators of student groups). Ownership of primary information is especially important in the educational process. Curators of student groups are encouraged to conduct psycho-pedagogical diary, systematically producing entries that reflect the ideological position of trainees, dispositions and motives of behaviour, attitudes to learning and to others, and so on. In the sociology of education the concept of "teacher", "teacher", "policies" are interrelated. The teacher is advisable to possess certain qualities policy. This does not mean direct participation in public policy, there is no need to have a high oratorical art, first of all, you must be an active participant in the political life of society, to have a direct relation to significant socio-political and economic problems. Pedagogical methods of interaction between teacher and learners, the ability to join a student group, to inspire and to persuade them of the correctness of group and individual judgments, as direct participants in political life, as well as the ability to motivate the trainees to act in the interests of the state, define a teacher as a subject of policy.Key words: sociology of education, teacher, teacher, education, educational system, educational process, worldviews, humane character, citizenship, policy, public interest, social and political processes.
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Chilipnok Y.Y. EMPLOYERS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES: RELATIONS WITH EMPLOYEESThe main purpose of this research was to study the specifics of the "employer-employee relationship "in small and medium-sized businesses from the perspective of the employer. Theoretical basis of the study amounted to classical theories of social interaction, based on the analysis that identified key characteristics of interactions of social and labour relations subject to empirical study. An empirical study conducted by semistructured interview, were made 68employers— owners of small and medium enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod region. Research focus was directed on the study of the characteristics of the interaction of employers with employees as: ways of interactions, the nature of the relationships, rules of interaction, mutual expectations nd interactions problems. By using content analysis of transcripts of interviews were obtained results which indicate a number of specific features that characterize the interaction of "employer-employee" in small and medium-sized businesses. These features reflect the specifics of the complex and volatile situation in which today is the small and medium business in Russia. It shows a dual attitude towards their employees. On the one hand, we see a situation in which social and labor relations in general are not the main subject of interest for modern business. It is mainly concerned about the economic problems, the issue of relations with the government and its contractors. Therefore, employers are not put at the forefront of concern for their own employees. On the other hand, we see a small return to the paternalistic traditions. And a modern employer, realizing the importance of human resource especially for your small business is to the employee and the defense, and the union. Maintaining this delicate balance between its own interests, the interests of the business interests of the state and the interests of its employees is a fundamental and difficult task for small and medium-sized businesses. For the first time identified a number of features that reflect the specific relations in the small and medium business. On the one hand, social and labor relations in general are not the main subject of interest for modern business. Therefore, employers are not tied for first place concern for their own employees. On the other hand, there is a return to the paternalistic tradition is for the employer and employee advocate, and the trade union.Key words: social and labour relations; small and medium business; employer; employee.
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Jurisprudence

Konovalov V.A. THE PLACE AND ROLE OF ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF COUNTERACTION OF CORRUPTIONThe article is devoted to defining the place and role of administrative law remedies in the legal system for combating corruption. The author describes the mechanism of anti-corruption activities supported with administrative, legal and management and implemented at Federal and regional levels. Currently, since the adoption in 2008 of the Federal anti-corruption law in Russia formed by the mechanism of anti-corruption activities supported by administrative, legal and management implemented at Federal and regional levels. Among the leading administrative and legal means of prevention and suppression of corruption include:— precise and full compliance with the principle of selection and professional development of personnel of the public service on the basis of evaluation of their professionalism;— providing employees a decent wage and benefits, which would be to the necessary extent stimulated honest work and guaranteed special social status, the loss of which would be more important than the corrupt enrichment;— the system of supervision and control over the official conduct of public servants, designed to stop their illegal conduct. Administrative and legal means of regulation of anti-corruption work in the field of public service can be classified by type of documents that become the legal basis of some or other type of relations (law, legal, contracts, enabling legislation), as well as by the form prescribed relations: legal incentives or restrictions (rights, privileges, prohibitions, rewards and punishments).Key words: anti-corruption policy, corruption, corruption, administrative law.
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Khadzharova E.M. POLITICAL OPPOSITION AND SOCIAL SECURITY OF CITYZENS IN CONDITIONS OF FORMATIONS OF THE CIVIL SOCIETYThe 13-th article of constitution of Russia recognizes the political diversity in country. The realization of this law in the life of society creates conditions for the genesis of political opposition in the face of a particular party, dissatisfied with their position in the political hierarchy. It tries to conquer the power by using critics of the course of policy of existing authority. However, the political activity of the opposition, based on criticism of the of conducted internal and external policy of the current government and the pursuit of its "capture" does not always lead to success due to poor organization and lack of resources. This feebleness is pushing the opposition to apply to foreign states and political structures for help and support. Using this treatment, foreign states use opposition to interference in the sovereign affairs of another state, which is their political or economic obstacle in the achievement of their interests in this country. As a result, the political opposition in a country becomes a foreign agent, realizing in the country of foreign interests, sometimes hostile states. That's why it is necessary to regulate the activities of such opposition and determine the compatibility of its activities with the social security of the population. On the basis of Article13 of the Russian Constitution created conditions for ideological and political diversity and the multiparty system. In the implementation of these provisions adopted federal laws "On political parties", "On Public Associations", "On meetings, rallies, marches and pickets", "On Noncommercial Organizations", which generally creates a legal framework for the implementation of the activities of various political movements. The political activity of noncommercial organizations with the status of a foreign agent is not always carries a positive meaning. Their movements often lead to destabilization in the society, the state and endanger public safety. Therefore, it should be emphasized that the law of NCO, in terms of regulating the activities of foreign agents is need to be improved so as to legally subdivide socially-oriented NCO and political direction. It is necessary to establish clear criteria for the political activities of those NCO that are focused on the realization of their political interests. It will certainly improve the performance standards and reporting NCO, ranked as foreign agents, as well as to legislate requirements for them to submit a comprehensive report on their sources of funding and expenditures.Key words: politic opposition, government, civil society, politic stability, security of citizens.
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Yakovenko N.A. THE USE OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ACTS IN THE LEGAL REGULATION OF LABOR RELATIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF REPRESENTATIVE OFFICES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ABROADIn connection with the latest trends of the Russian legislation on the isolation of civil servants, including diplomatic, as a separate category of persons whose work is regulated mainly norms of special laws in the scientific community expressed an opinion on the withdrawal of this category of workers from the scope of the labor law. However, the development trend of international labor law to suggest otherwise. Conventions of International Labour Organization (hereinafter— ILO) adopted in this area were aimed at the convergence of working conditions of civil servants with working conditions of ordinary employees. Labor relations of employees of representative offices of the Russian Federation abroad are governed by a special section of labor law, namely, the head53 of the Labour Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter— LC). However, in the science of labor law does not provide detailed independent research on legal regulation of labor relations, which indicates the relevance of the theme of this article and its novelty. The results of a study in this paper is the proposal to supplement the list of good reasons for the failure of diplomatic employee of the direction of the diplomatic mission in rotation circumstances related to family responsibilities, as well as securing the possibility of a single failure of the direction to work abroad without the threat of dismissal. According to the author, numerous acts adopted in the field of labor at the international level are directly relevant to diplomatic officials, contain important guarantees of employment and should be applied to this category of workers. It is concluded that the diplomatic employees subject to the provisions of international instruments in the field of labor, namely, the ILO Conventions on June27, 1978 №151 from July23, 1981 №156 from June28, 1930 №29, to consider in establishing the peculiarities of legal regulation of labor relations in this category of workers in the Russian law.Key words: international legal instruments, diplomatic employees, labor relations, civil servants, working conditions.
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Sciences about Earth

Kudelina I.V. GIDROGEOEKOLOGICHESKIE CONDITIONS ORENBURG URBAN AREAThe study area is located in the central part of the platform of the Orenburg region in the south-eastern edge of the Volga-Ural antiklizy in inter-dureche Urals and Sakmara. Water territory at the expense of water alluvial aquifer. The formation of the water flow and the hydrogeological zoning of the territory is affected mainly latitude, landscape-climatic zoning. In view of the zoning scheme developed guide-rogeoekologicheskogo zoning Orenburg urban area. Major groundwater resources are concentrated in the Quaternary al-lyuvialnom aquifer, runoff of which is estimated at 2.5l/s from 1km2. Dynamic water resources of the upper floors of the hydrodynamic very small. Very small modules of groundwater flow character-istic of aquifers Neogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Upper Permian rocks that do not exceed 0.2—0.8l/s from 1km2. Therefore, in-zobnovlyaemost their water supplies during the operation is extremely low. Elementary geochemical landscapes allocated under the terms of grace-chemical elements with landscape-geochemical structure of the area. In the study area are the following main types of anthropogenic impact: extraction and processing of hydrocarbons; extraction and processing of solid minerals; urban and industrial agglomeration; agricultural production; exploitation of groundwater for water supply. All of these sources of pollution are in the area of nutrition alluvium-cial intakes, almost not protected from contamination. From the point of view of protection of groundwater against pollution on the territory of the investigation when the wind blows, there are five types of area within which a water-earth differ in vulnerability to pollution. Scheme typing territory made taking into account its particular morphostructural-stey, which is well seen on the background of elementary geochemical landscapes. The boundaries between areas with different levels of water resources and the protection of these resources from pollution established taking into account the characteristics of each region on the hydrogeological, geomorphological, neotectonic and others featured.Key words: monitoring, drinking water, salinity, pollutants.
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Leonteva T.V. PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN THE MOUNTAIN AND FOLDED AREAS OF ORENBURZHYEWater flow and hydro-geological zoning of the Eastern Orenburg region are formed under the influence of altitudinal zonation and latitudinal, landscape and climatic zonality. With decreasing absolute marks and with the transition from forest-steppe zone to the dry decrease the intensity of the water flow, increasing the salinity of water and changing their chemical composition. Carbonate type water changes to sulfate, and then the chloride type. Drinking water supply of cities, district centers and villages of the mountain-fold of the Orenburg region is due to the alluvial aquifer, which is almost everywhere in the Central and Eastern parts of the region are interconnected with fractured waters of the Paleozoic rocks. The city of Orsk region, guy and Novotroitsk the water is supplied to the high floodplain R. Ural. The waters of these intakes on mineralization close to the waters R. Ural (0.4—0.6g/l). Water quality on the main components of the chemical composition to meet sanitary standards. But water contaminated with organic substances, like water R. the Urals, which increased the iron content, and sometimes marked by elevated concentrations of petroleum products. Iriklinskaya reservoir, which plays the role of large sump fills reserves alluvial aquifer below the dam. Being filtered through the alluvium, water subjected to purification, and water quality is improved. In some areas, for example, rivers, Hubers, hmelivka and Cebula alluvial deposits are not sustained, and groundwater Paleozoic rocks are discharged in the form of springs and reservoir outlets. Rock properties are not homogeneous, well discharge changes from0.17 to 5.0l/s at lower 1,2—34,7 m aquifer zone is 70,0m fresh Water, hydrocarbonate-sulphate. In the Eastern region groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Maximum water and technogenic load lead to the depletion and deterioration of groundwater quality. The main approaches to solving this problem is a combined water supply system (CWS) and artificial replenishment of groundwater reserves (USPV).Key words: water supply, water, water intakes, water-bearing horizon, reservoirs.
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Lyubichankovskiy A.V. MODERN CIVILIZATIONAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD IN CONTEXT OF THE L.N. GUMILEV CONCEPT OF ETHNOGENESISNowadays methodic of civilizational zoning is not universal. Such zoning, from our point of view, can be analyzed as geo-cultural phenomenon. For modern science, such zoning is still a question to discuss because it is extremely hard to find such integrating indexes reflecting a very complex structure of culture. The concept of L.N.Gumilev is geo-cultural, because it delimitates civilizations (super-ethnoses in terms of Gumilev) according behavioral stereotypes, which as cultural function influence on social, economic, military and other spheres. Author proceeds from the L.N.Gumilev concept of ethnogenesis, based on the assumption of the passionarity as bio-geo-chemical energy absorbed by the people after mutagenesis. Despite of the concept is not widely acknowledged, we underline its phenotypical character. Accepting the principle of the interpretation phenomena, we obtain not contradictory scientific picture of diverse processes of civilizational processes geography. Delimitation of civilization spaces according physiographic criteria is not correct because physiographic delimiters (for example sea dividing continents) in historical and cultural ways are often contact zones. Retrospective analysis of civilization zoning shows no general interpretations and even codification contradictions to such type of analysis. Thus the concept of L.N.Gumilev, based on criticism of civilization space delimitation methodic, ideate scientific relevance.
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Mykhaylychenko S.M. TEKTONO-SEDIMENTATSIONNY FACTORS AND ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OF CONDITIONS OF A BEDDING NIZHNEPERMSKIKH OF FLISHOID OF THE ORENBURG PART OF THE PREURAL DEFLECTIONIn the conditions of natural deterioration of hydrocarbons and exhaustion of their stocks search of new fields is necessary for development and operation. Perspective objects for search of new sources of hydrocarbons are nizhnepermsky flishoida of the Preural deflection. Their litologo-facial characteristic is for this purpose considered. In the regional tectonic plan the area of research is located on a joint three large the nadporyadkovykh of tectonic structures: advanced folds of the Ural orogen, Volga-Ural antekliza and Caspian syneclise. As a result of research the main tektono-sedimentatsionny factors influencing thickness the nizhnepermskikh of flishoid of the Orenburg part of the Preural deflection are allocated: the tectonic movements konsedimentatsionny (covering and Ural ); tectonic movements postsedimentatsionny; development of the Volga-Ural carbonate platform and its onboard ledges. The basic tektono-sedimentatsionny elements controlling conditions of a bedding and lithologic structure the nizhnepermskikh of flishoid within the South of the Preural deflection are: onboard ledge Devonian age of the Volga-Ural carbonate platform; noncompensated hollow of nizhnepermsky age; Syurensky vzbroso-nadvig; zone of development of carbonates of an asselsky circle; large tectonic blocks of the base; the even-aged noncompensated hollow limited to a sedimentatsionny onboard ledge. Thus, nizhnepermsky flishoida of the Orenburg part of the Preural deflection are perspective objects for search of nonconventional sources of hydrocarbonic raw materials— bitumoid and slate gas.Key words: Preural deflection, Ural, nizhnepermsky flishoida, sedimentatsionny onboard ledge, noncompensated hollow, Syurensky vzbroso-nadvig, Volga-Ural carbonate platform, tektono-sedimentatsionny factors and elements.
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Ponomareva G.A. GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTION OF PRECIOUS METALS IN THE OIL-GAS FIELDS OF THE ORENBURG REGIONNon-ferrous and precious metals in the hydrocarbon feedstock are of interest in connection with the work on the study of noble metallogeny carbonaceous formations Ural metallogenic provinces and are important in platinoids metallogenic zoning specialization eponymous folded region of East Orenburg. The purpose of this study was to establish the geochemical characteristics of the distribution of Pt, Pd, Au and Ag in oil and gas fields in western Orenburg. To solve this problem was in the creation of maps izokontsentrat metals, combined with structural-tectonic basis. Analysis of the card reveals two geochemical zones within the study area— the western and eastern, significantly different concentrations of platinum. The distribution of precious metals, their relationship to the physical and chemical properties of the oil fields in Orenburg Volga-Ural oil and gas province. The data obtained can be used in metallogenic zoning of the platform and the folded Orenburg on platinoids specialization for prospective evaluation precious metals for stratigraphic correlation of oil-saturated formations and address sources of precious metals in the hydrocarbon feedstock.Key words: oil and gas fields, precious metals, geochemical features of the distribution, geochemical zones.
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Popova O.V. TRANSFORMATION OF ETHNO-CULTURAL OLD BELIEVER COMMUNITIES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIESFor a long time the Old Believers or settlers, different in the place of output, formed several local ethnic and cultural groups. Settling of Old Believers abroad (in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, Western Prichudie, Turkey, China, USA, Bolivia, Uruguay) took place stepwise. The study of basic space-temporal parameters of the settlement of the Old Believers allowed to trace the specifics of formation and transformation of the Old Believer communities. Historical and geographical periodization resettlement process coincides with the main ranges of the Old Believers. The main periods, which are related to the settlement of individual regions and countries: I"European" (end XVII— early XVIIIcenturies.), II"Asia-Turkey" (the end of XVIII— XIXcenturies.), III"American-Australian (first half of XXcentury), IV"American" (mid XX century.). Various factors (economic, social, political, cultural, and others) significantly affected the process of ethno-cultural systems transformation. In different regions of the Old Believers have acquired regional specificity of natural resources, specialization, features of life. The local Old Believer communities in various degrees have been transformed. Cohabitation and close contact with other surrounding cultures are reflected in the Old Believers' House (in construction equipment, appearance and in the interiors). The activities of the Old Believer population have been significantly changed. A part of the population works in the industrial enterprises, farms, private firms. Extensive development has received such a traditional industry production, fisheries, that undergone significant changes in the labor supply, gear, vehicles. Gone is the traditional seasonal work. Hereditary builders either moved to cities and became regular workers, or work on rural buildings in their area. The traditional occupation— horticulture— is developed mainly on farms. Noticeable changes have occurred in the home and family rituals. Relationships in the family have been democratized, and this process is still going on. At marriages religious and ethnic affiliation is rarely taken into account. Rituals related to birth and death are more stable and conservative among Old Believers. Such traditional features as strong family ties are held (including children who have left for the city and relatives), as well as mutual economic families.Key words: local ethno-cultural community, the Old Believers, migration, adaptation, transformation, ethno-cultural interaction.
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Semyonov E.A., Akhmetov R.Sh. SPACE-TIME TRANSFORMATION OF THE RURAL SETTLING IN THE ORENBURG REGIONOf the Orenburg region for a 25 year period of spatial transformation rural settling. This research identifies the main factors that reflect the spatial patterns and trends in agrarian settlement. In the course of research some significant intraregional dynamics for rural municipal administrative-territorial formations was revealed provided that the average density of rural population in the whole area had not changed. Center-periphery gradients have begun to dominate and grow in their density since the early 1990-ies under the influence of market factors and agglomeration effect of the regional center in the rural settling of the region. On the basis of a large array of statistical information this research demonstrates the spatial texture of those changes. It has been established that there is a "compression" and fragmentation of the extra-urban space with further formation for areas of rural population concentration and agricultural areas as well as sustainable reduction and its agrarian depression. Reasons for the current dynamics of agricultural settlement transformation have been explained. The dominance of Orenburg as a carrier of the regional capital administrative status, the concentration of a variety of social functions, better infrastructure and higher economic activity are conditioning factors, which attract rural population of the semi-periphery and periphery areas. The dynamic trend of changes in the hierarchical structure of rural settlements was set. Agrarian population is increasingly concentrated in larger settlements with the potential development. Transport accessibility, urban agglomeration effect play an important role. As a result, currently 26% of the rural population live in the district centers, and more than 65% of the villagers live in settlements with a population of more than a thousand people.Key words: agrarian population, rural settling, population density, rural settlements, settlement system.
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Filimonova I.U., Chibileva V.P., Sviatokha N.U. KOUMISS TREATMENT AS A PROMISING DIRECTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL USE OF NATURE IN THE ORENBURG REGIONRecreational nature managementin this article is considered as a part of sustainable territory development system. Recently great attention is paid to problems of sustainable territory development.According to the authors kumiss therapy,which is the traditional form of treatment of the Orenburg region, must be considered as a promising direction of development of recreational nature management in the steppe and forest-steppe zones. The article analyzes the history of the development koumiss treatmentbased on medical institutions of Russia and the USSR. It is noted that with the collapse of the Soviet Union ceased to exist organized in the early XXcentury network of health centers, practicing kumiss therapy. Also schematic mapswere made,they show the accommodationof koumiss treatment institutions in the Soviet period and at the present stage. The article also noted reduction of a livestock of horses in Russia from1991 to2009. The authors have shown increased production of koumiss in Russia from2010 to2013, for a several years a leader in this indicator is Volga Federal District. The article also provides an overview of three existing koumiss treatment institutions of Orenburg region— summer camp "Dzhanetovka" and sanatoriums "Red glade" and "Steppe lighthouse". To regardcompetitive advantages of the region (steppe climate, unique opportunities landscape therapy, horse breeding as a traditional form of management and others)andalso a high incidence of tuberculosis, authors concluded, that it isadvisable to revive the traditions of koumiss treatment and to modernizethe networkof koumiss treatmentinstitutions in the Orenburg region. The most promising areas for development of koumiss treatment included: Kuvandykskskii, Saraktashskii, Belyaevskii, Pervomaiskii, Sol-Iletsky, Akbulaksky regions.
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