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Orenburg State University november 25, 2020   RU/EN
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№ 2 (225), 17 april 2020

doi: 10.25198/1814-6457

Pedagogics

Aptikieva L.R. MODERN METHODS OF WORKING WITH ADOLESCENTS WITH EATING DISORDERSThe growth of addictive behavior in the teenage environment is caused by a number of reasons (economic, political, demographic, social stability). One of the groups of addictive behavior is eating disorders of adolescents: anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The problem of eating disorders in adolescence is gaining worldwide scope because it leads to impaired health, death, which necessitates a comprehensive study of it and the search for modern, effective methods of work in this direction, which is the aim of the study.
My theoretical research allowed me to identify modern, effective methods of working with adolescents with eating disorders (group therapy, family, rational, behavioral, hypnosis); identify risk factors for eating disorders of adolescents (genetic, family, biological, age, personality, cultural, factors of stressful events); consider types of food addictions in adolescents (anorexia nervosa and bulimia).
A common symptom for adolescents with food addiction is dysmorphomania; loss of perception of hunger and satiety; low self-esteem; decrease in the circle of interests; violation or loss of social ties; the predominance of depressed, depressive mood; the appearance of obsessive thoughts on food and calories; decreased interest in the opposite sex and sexual sphere. Types of food addiction in adolescents are: anorexia nervosa and bulimia — a common concern is the control of one’s body weight, a distortion of his image, a change in nutritional value in the hierarchy of values, the formation of a stable vomiting reflex, irritability of the intestines, and nervousness. Difference: anorexia leads to severe weight loss; represents a complete rejection of food (bulimia — a constant desire to consume food); is deadly. Prevention of addiction is early prevention; effective working methods: group therapy, family, rational, behavioral, hypnosis.
Key words: adolescents, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, anorexia, bulimia, correction methods, rehabilitation.
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Gerasimenko S.A., Pavlenko A.N. ORGANIZATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL CYCLE DISCIPLINES PROPAEDEUTIC STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING DIRECTIONSCurrently, the main trends in the reform of higher education naturally lead to a significant reduction of the part of classroom studies in the educational process, which is extremely negative for the study of the mathematical cycle disciplines due to their abstraction and often cumbersome presentation of the material. Thus, there is a need to increase the effectiveness of contact work and to strengthen the role of students’ independent work.
One of the factors contributing to an increase in the effectiveness of contact work is independent propaedeutic consideration of the material under study.
The approach to organizing extracurricular independent work in the propaedeutic study of the mathematical cycle disciplines by students of natural sciences and engineering should include the following steps: recalling the facts previously studied, presenting the natural science (engineering) applications in their historical retrospective and presenting the main ideas of this section. The latter is supposed to be performed the most clearly, with the maximum use of interdiscipline relations.
To increase the effectiveness of propaedeutic independent work, it is advisable to use appropriate methodological support. As the latter (depending on the section under study), you can use interactive study guide integrated with applications written in various high-level languages, presentations, educational films and study guide in written form.
Thus, the preliminary acquaintance with the new mathematical section should be during extracurricular independent work with the widespread use of interactive teaching technologies.
Key words: independent work, propaedeutic study, information technology, methods of teaching mathematics in high school.
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Eremina N.V., Tomin V.V. THE EDUCATIONAL GAME AS A TECHNIQUE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NON-LINGUISTIC STUDENTS FOREIGN-LANGUAGE SPEECH ACTIVITYEducation faces the challenges of modern society, which is in high demand for effective tools for teaching foreign languages at a non-linguistic university. Today the main approach applied is a combination of traditional and intensive methods relying on a functional-communicative linguodidactic model. In the context of learning a foreign language, students not always have an opportunity for speech practice. The peculiarity of the discipline is that communication is the goal and means of learning. Thus, it is required to frame out the imaginary activities as an operational background of the communication (as means), and to show the necessity of speech acts, without which it is impossible to reach the goals of such activity.
It is shown that the most productive way to arrange group communication in class is the educational plot-based role-playing game. Being a methodical technique belonging to the group of active methods of teaching practical knowledge and skills, yet, it is one of the forms of the speech situation organization, used for training purposes. However, the article describes an attempt to prove the advantages of a polylogical form of communication over the dialogic one.
It was discovered that the number of game roles influenced the nature of the participants’ verbal interaction and the level of their overall involvement. Besides, regular role-playing in class allowed to raise the general learning level of most students gradually.
The obtained results, conclusions, and recommendations allow more extensive use of role-playing for a foreign language learning and upbringing of students.
Key words: speech activity, foreign language, role-playing game, gamification, methodical technique, interaction.
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Zhiguleva L.Yu. CONDITIONS FOR FORMING READINESS OF RURAL SCHOOLCHILDREN FOR SOCIAL INTERACTIONThe conditions of modern realities orient the rural school and rural pedagogical community towards ensuring the readiness of rural schoolchildren for social interaction within the framework of these conditions. The current sociocultural, economic and political transformations predetermine new guidelines and value-semantic aspects of social interaction in the conditions of the rural educational environment. These changes completely affect the rural school, which is subject, as well as urban schools, to trends related to technological innovations in education, ways of interaction of participants in the educational process in the new emerging conditions of social life, and most importantly, the development of ways for further successful socialization of students. The author approaches the solution of the problem by analyzing the essence of social interaction and expanding the etymological spectrum of this concept in new sociocultural conditions extrapolated to the life and work of subjects of the educational process in a rural school. The article identifies significant components that determine the content spectrum of the concept of “social interaction”, expanding on the basis of updating social and humanitarian knowledge; rural features in their influence on the process of formation of readiness of rural schoolchildren for social interaction, as well as the conditions for the formation of this readiness. The author considers some aspects that determine important patterns in the implementation of conditions in the formation of the readiness of rural students for social interaction during the period of study and socialization in a rural school.Key words: rural schoolchildren, social interaction, conditions for the formation of readiness for social interaction, the specifics of a rural school, socialization, social relations.
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Ismailova Sh.A. APPLYING OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN DISTANCE LEARNING CONDITIONSIn modern conditions of informatization of society, the use of information and communication technologies is becoming a necessity. The Internet provides tremendous opportunities to improve the process of language learning, increase motivation and enhance learning activities. In the educational process, teachers can use both ready-made software tools and materials from the Internet, and independently developed electronic textbooks, interactive tasks and tests based on Internet technologies. The author analyzes various platforms that allow you to organize the educational process in the format of distance learning. The article discusses various online services that allow you to create interactive tasks in the discipline for distance learning and in online format. The article provides practical recommendations on the implementation of information and communication technologies in the process of language learning. The author has developed various interactive tasks in the Russian language based on ready-made templates offered by various Internet services and designers. The author explains how to implement such services as Learning Apps, H5P Designer, Learnis educational platform to create your own interactive tasks,. The use of a set of exercises based on interactive technologies is considered as a promising and effective direction of the scientific and methodological work of the teacher. The author concludes that the use of information and communication technologies will increase the level of information competence, motivation in language learning, cognitive activity and logical thinking.Key words: Internet technologies, information and communication technologies, educational process, Russian language, teaching methods.
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Kiryakova A.V., Suleimanova A.K. AUTHOR’S MODELS OF EDUCATION OF FOREIGN AND RUSSIAN THEORY AND EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AS AN AXIOLOGICAL ORIENTATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF AUTHOR’S SCHOOLThe educational system in the world is in constant innovative development. This article uses learning models (concepts and educational projects) that provide an opportunity to develop humanistic pedagogy in modern times and to serve as the basis for the formation of new pedagogical theories and practices. Models of education are distinguished by a qualitative originality, a pronounced author’s approach, axiological significance. We came to the conclusion that there are irrefutable human values in the world that exist in the world not less than a hundred years ago. The purpose of the article is to show that they are the axiological basis of pedagogy. We have presented the models of anthroposophical pedagogy by Rudolf Steiner, Alexander Neill Free School, “Children’s Home”, Maria Montessori, Yen Plan, “School without Forcing”, Celestin Freine, as well as some Russian models of upbringing, such as “School on Pudozhskaya”, lyceum No. 2 in Orenburg, pedagogical ideas of L.N.Tolstoy. A more detailed consideration of the listed alternative models of education allows us to highlight the provisions that are most important for axiological orientation of building the concept of the author’s school. A comparative analysis of axiological ideas in foreign and Russian pedagogies of the twentieth century is also presented.Key words: educational system, author’s school, concept, author’s models of education, axiological reference, pedagogy.
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Perekhodko I.V. THE ROLE OF STUNDENTS’ ORGANIZATIONS IN DEVELOPING SOFT SKILLS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTSThe article focuses on the issue of soft skills development in the university students which comes from the necessity to improve educational process to make professional training effective.
This detailed research reveals the key approaches and ways to form personal and social characteristics which in addition to professional skills make up the base of the professional activity.
Having analyzed social work and character building experience accumulated by specialists of the Orenburg State university in development of students’ autonomy within students’ organizations we could make a conclusion on the efficiency of using university social and educational potential in development of the students’ soft skills.
Key words: competence approach, professional skills, professional competence, soft skills, student’s organizations.
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Avdeeva A.E., Dmitrieva N.M. FEATURES OF STUDYING ETHICAL CONCEPTS OF RUSSIAN FAIRY TALES IN THE LESSONS OF RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGEThe fairy tales contain plot and language elements that illustrate the ethical concepts of the Russian language picture of the world. Linguistic and cultural unit, which is rich in Russian fairy tale, known to every native speaker, on the one hand, complicate the understanding of them foreigners, and on the other help to understand the “Russian spirit” and traditions of Russian involved in Russian culture and allow formation of linguocultural competence for learners of Russian language.
When referring to fairy tales, it is effective to use a linguocultural comment. Linguistic and cultural commentary refers to additional culturally significant information contained in texts and disclosed in their interpretation. This comment can be used at the elementary and basic levels. At an advanced level, you can analyze concepts that reveal the features of the Russian worldview.
Ethical concepts reflect the value picture of the human world. These concepts include love and loyalty, humility and submission, joy and suffering, wisdom and patience, charity, and others.
Russian fairy tales, describing the way of life, customs and traditions, spiritual and ethical values of the Russian people, are a reflection of the Russian mentality. For successful communication with native speakers and comfortable stay in a foreign language space, foreigners need to understand the values and mentality of the Russian people. Studying ethical concepts in fairy tales in the RFR classes forms a linguistic and cultural competence for foreign students, whose knowledge leads to rapid and successful adaptation in Russia, and the elimination of cultural and communicative barriers when communicating with native speakers of the Russian language.
Key words: linguistic and cultural competence, linguistic and cultural commentary, linguistic and cultural analysis, mentality, fairy tales, ethical concepts, love, charity, loyalty.
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Ruban Yu.A. APPLICATION OF DIDACTIC GAMES IN THE SUBJECT FIELD OF MILITARY INSTITUTIONS PEDAGOGYMore and more obvious is the need to change the teaching methods of Military Pedagogy. The training methods used are already inconsistent with the changing situation in the troops, making a request for the active pedagogical activity of future officers. The use of didactic games in military institutes is of particular importance during the pedagogical training of cadets of military institutes of the national guard forces of the Russian Federation.
In the course of my research, I theoretically studied adapted approaches to the use of didactic games from other branches of pedagogy to the branch of military pedagogy. It has been established that the implementation of the game method in the process of pedagogical training of cadets requires the observance of fundamental conditions: determining the purpose of use, implementation algorithm, imitation of professional activity. The game method makes it possible to build the ability for independent decision-making by cadets, increase self-esteem, as well as professional motivation.
The use of didactic games in the subject area of military pedagogy makes it possible to detect a complex of both positive and negative effects from the use of the game method. A proper understanding of the basic structure of each didactic method in the field of military pedagogy is facilitated by knowledge of its features. This makes it possible to determine the basic conditions for their use in the process of training cadets and their place in the pedagogical system of the military educational organization of higher education.
Key words: didactic game, military pedagogy, pedagogical training of cadets, military institute, didactics, didactic technology.
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Shevchenko O.N. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN UNIVERSITY DURING TEACHING GEOMETRY AND GRAPHIC DISCIPLINES TO THE BACHELORS OF TECHNICAL SCEINCESThe education system at the university at the present stage is being created in the context of reforming education and other areas of activity that are closely related to the development processes of civil society. In todays’ Russia, the educational system that developed during the Soviet period has essentially lost its influence, and in accordance with the new challenges of the time, a different system for organizing the educational process is being formed. When teaching bachelors of technical sciences, it is possible and necessary to take into account the educational potential of technical disciplines in the complex process of a future engineering and technical worker personality forming. The methodological basis of the study is the psychological and pedagogical theory and practice of creating a system of educational activity when teaching engineering disciplines at a university with the aim of forming the personality of a competitive specialist in engineering and technology and reflecting the requirements of educational and professional standards for the training of experts in engineering profiles. The purpose of this article is to determine professionally important qualities and professionally significant psycho-physiological properties, based on theoretical analysis and study practical experience in teaching geometric graphic disciplines at a university, which students can form in the learning process for personal development and successful mastering of the profession in accordance with professional standards and the realities of industrial and technical sphere. Graphic culture has an impact on the worldview and moral values of the individual, forms aesthetic tastes, contributes to the formation of a civic position and responsibility. Educational activities at the university should be implemented not only in sports, leisure and entertainment events, but the most important aspects of personal education in learning technical disciplines are the formation of cognitive independence, strong-willed personality, emotional, behavioral, intellectual flexibility, which are the key qualifications of the future engineer. The results can be used in the teaching of graphic disciplines in technical universities.Key words: geometrical and graphical training, training of bachelors of technical sceinces, educational activities in a university.
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Kozhamberliev Е.S. THE CURRENT STATE OF THE CONTINUOUS MILITARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTANThe current system of military education of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides for a continuous educational process. It covers five levels: secondary education, technical and vocational, higher education — bachelor's degree, postgraduate education — master's and doctoral studies, as well as additional education — military departments, advanced training of specialists, training and retraining of military-trained reserves.
The leading role of the postgraduate level is assigned to the National Defense University named after the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan — Elbasy. This is the only military educational institution in the system of military education for the education, training and advanced training of higher and senior officers of the Armed Forces, other ministries and departments of the Republic of Kazakhstan, heads and officials of state and executive authorities, enterprises and institutions of the military-industrial complex , officers of foreign armies. The position of a number of Kazakh scientists on the problem of the military education system is not unambiguous. The systematic approach made it possible to reveal the goals and characteristics of the stages of continuous military vocational education. Statistical data show a tendency towards an increase in the number of military departments and military technical schools functioning at present. In our opinion, the main task of continuous military professional education should be considered the formation and development of the image of a modern soldier, who will be distinguished by immense devotion and love for the Motherland, high professionalism, competitiveness, universalism, mobility, creativity, as well as the ability to think outside the box and make decisions quickly. in any environment.
Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the domestic system of continuous military vocational education in the Republic of Kazakhstan has a fairly well-formed structure, meets international standards and contributes to an increase in the scientific and scientific-pedagogical potential of military personnel.
Key words: military education, continuous military-professional education, system approach, military training.
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Fomina M.V., Mikhailova E.A., Zherebyateva O.O., Kirgizova S.B., Lyashenko I.E., Sokolova O.Ya. VALUABLE ORIENTATIONS OF FOREIGN STUDENTS UNDER SOCIAL INTERACTION UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTRussian universities are actively positioning themselves on the international export market of educational services, and therefore educational migration has become the realities of our day. Significant is the formation of the value orientations of foreign students in the aspect of social interaction in the educational environment of the university.
We conducted a study on the diagnosis of value orientations of foreign students of a medical university according to the method of S. Schwartz. The statistics of answers showed that the most significant for students in this period of life are the achievements associated with educational success (80.8 % of respondents). According to the data obtained, being in a foreign country, foreign respondents in 82.2 % of cases put priority on the well-being of people close to them. In turn, 78.1 % of foreign respondents noted for them the importance of independence and freedom that they received when they came to study in Russia. As the study showed, power and tradition are not a priority for entering the educational environment of the university for respondents (among 80.8 %). At the same time, 76.7 % of Indian students do not prioritize manifestations of social power, such as controlling other people and managing their actions. With regard to material security, 60.9 % of respondents prefer to think more about the soul than about the material, which may be explained by differences in incomes of families of students. Response statistics showed that 72.0 % of young people rate safety as not very important, which indicates a comfortable stay in Russia.
Thus, the educational environment in the context of the higher education system is decisive in the formation of personal values and the disclosure of the internal potential of foreign students, thereby significantly determining the image, prestige and relevance of the university.
Key words: words foreign students, value orientations, internationalization of education.
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Chugunova S.V., Ovchinnikova L.P., Michelkevich V.N. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF THE SYSTEM DEVELOPING READINESS OF TRANSPORT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FOR INNOVATIVE PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITYAbstract. The article summarizes the results of the research on building a theoretical model of the system developing readiness of transport university students for innovative professional activity. The suggested theoretical model consists of nine interrelated links, each with its own functional focus, its own local purpose, didactic significance, theoretical and practice value. The original link of the theoretical model is goal setting, which means developing readiness of transport university students for innovative professional activity. The second link reflects the structure and content of the concept of students’ readiness for innovative professional activity. The third link presents the information didactic basis of developing readiness of transport university students for innovative professional activity. The competence practice-oriented technology of developing readiness of transport university students for innovative professional activity is provided by link four. The elements of this technology include students’ activity to carry out practice-oriented term papers and degree qualification projects, their activities for the performance of work under industrial practice programs in enterprises as well as conducting practice-oriented research work. The criterium diagnostic apparatus is presented by link five comprising the following components: the criteria to evaluate students’ readiness for innovative professional activity, the test package for identifying the levels of students’ readiness for innovative professional activity, the methods of conducting summative and formative assessments for identifying the levels of students’ readiness for innovative professional activity. Link six is the control procedure; link seven shows the results of students’ readiness for innovative professional activity; link eight is self-correction, and the educational process correction is presented by link nine.
The practical significance of the suggested theoretical model can be formulated as follows: it is used as an algorithm in the consistent and continuous implementation of all the interrelated phases of the study allowing to identify the role of each structural link of the model and its influence on the outcome; moreover, it will promote an imaginative and holistic view of the process of developing students’ readiness for innovative professional activity as a holistic and purposeful system.
Key words: students, innovative professional activity, theoretical model, model link.
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Psychology

Bizyuk A.P., Kolosova T.A., Kac E.E., Sorokin V.M. INTELLIGENCE STRUCTURE OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER AND CHILDREN WITH MILD MENTAL RETARDATIONAccording to statistics in recent years, there has been a steady increase in the number of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), characterized in particular by disorders in the field of socio-psychological relations and specific changes in the cognitive sphere that impede the course of natural psychological adaptation. The theories of the origin of autism advanced in Western psychology are the theory of mind, the theory of central binding (central coherence theory) and the hypothesis of the weakening of the so-called. executive functions and individually and combinatorially quite adequately linked to the recorded changes from the three morphological-functional blocks according to A.R. Luria. The diversity, and sometimes the inconsistency of the obtained morphometric data in autistic children (regarding the total size of the brain, gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, commissural structures, the hippocampus, tonsils, cerebellum, etc.) correlate with the same high diversity and sometimes bizarre manifestations intellectual activity — from pronounced forms of mental retardation to a very high, although unusual in structure of cognitive development.
Correct construction of technologies for working with such children and their effective integration into the system of socio-psychological relations, or specific adaptation to it, is impossible without taking into account the intellectual potential and a differentiated approach based on both general and individualized laws of the child’s cognitive development.
We made an attempt to compare the traditional characteristics of the intellectual activity of children with autism spectrum disorders and children of the same age with mental retardation (MA) in order to identify general and specific trends in their cognitive development. For this, the well-known Veksler test was used, which ensures the comparability of experimental data with normative data for the corresponding age group.
It was found that children with ASD statistically significantly “gain” in the performance of those mental functions that involve the use of optical-spatial gnosis and constructive praxis, but expectedly “lose” in cases that require modeling behavior in social situations and taking into account everyday experience.
Key words: autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, intelligence, structure of intelligence, autism.
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Editor-in-chief
Zhanna Anatolievna
Ermakova

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