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Orenburg State University september 25, 2018 RU/EN
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№ 2(214),16february2018

Pedagogics

Nezhinskaia T.A., Glazyrina E.Yu. THE SUBSTANTIATION OF APPROACHES IN EDUCATION AT THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL SPECIALIZED COMPETENCIES IN THE FIELD OF MUSICAL-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIESThe rationale for choosing of educational approaches is a fundamental moment for the process of forming professional specialized competencies of students. The formation of professional specialized competencies of bachelor students in the field of music and computer technologies was carried out based on the following educational approaches: competence, contextual, interactive, personality-oriented, individual. The realization of the competence approach is conditioned by the specifics of personality qualities formed in students for the implementation of musical and computer activities: 1) creativity and individuality; 2) a significant proportion of the use of computer interactive; 3) going beyond the standardization and diagnostics in the study of the level of the formation of professional specialized competencies. The importance of the theory and technology of contextual learning for the formation of designated competences is due to the orientation of the learning process, especially in the period of practice, to the formation of students’ readiness and ability to observe, recognize and distinguish in semantic contexts in all its manifestations— action, act, response, gesture, emotions, the system of motives, etc. An interactive approach in education is conditioned by the main sphere of application of the students of competences, namely, music and computer technologies. Performance of work in special computer programs for creating, processing and arranging music is always interactive and is based on correcting the actions based on the result (in the form of sound, text, video, etc.). The realization of the personality-oriented approach helps to build the educational process on the basis of the actualized personal meanings and values of the students, and at the expense of this, to enrich and to develop their subjective creative experience. The individual approach is conditioned by the need to take into account in the educational process a peculiar combination of individual and personal qualities of students; the level of development of inclinations, abilities, gifts, perception, thinking, memory; type of temperament, features of character; peculiarities of mentality; world outlook settings, the degree of socio-cultural activity, etc. The application of these approaches contributes to the effective implementation of the process of teaching bachelor students to the specifics of future professional activities in the field of music and computer technology.Key words: competence approach, interactive approach, theory and technology of contextual education, personality-oriented approach, individual approach, practical training, music and computer activities.
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Akhmedyanova G.F., Pishchukhin A.M. THE COMPUTER SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR THE PROCESS OF DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF THE LEARNER’S COMPETENCY LEVELDiagnostic assessment refers to a process based on methods and successive levels of competency level recognition of the learner as a whole or the development of his individual competences. Diagnostic evaluation can be interpreted as the process of recognizing the level and assessing the individual characteristics of the learner, including a purposeful study of the personality, interpretation of the results obtained and their generalization in the form of an established the presubmitter’s response. Since competence is an abstract object of management, it is impossible to directly assess its state. For the real management of the evaluation process, it is necessary to influence the material carrier of this quality— the learner with the simultaneous creation of the same conditions for all those evaluated in order to obtain an objective result. As a toolkit in the computer support system, diagnostic tests, indicative evaluation, assessment based on a diagnostic hypothesis and differential estimation are used. The results are assessed separately for indicators of erudition, creativity, motivation, initiative, autonomy. Then the integral criterion of additive, multiplicative and mixed types is used. Final assessment is left for the teacher. Due to the algorithmization, it is possible to assess competence integrally by selected components, and at the expense of computer support, store, systematize and take into account the background of the evaluation, conduct a numerical analysis of the results by many criteria. This allows the teacher to focus on the creative component of the diagnosis.Key words: diagnostic estimation, competence level, computer support system, estimation algorithm.
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Akhmetova N.A., Chatoeva Z.B. DESIGNING TESTS BASED ON STRUCTURING OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL FOR RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE The use of linguodidactic testing allows to give an urgent diagnosis of the level of knowledge and skills of students. This method is mobile, makes it possible to evaluate the communicative competence at the current level; allows to state and diagnose the level of formation of communicative competence in a short period of time; determines the level of educational achievements simultaneously in a large group of students; this method is distanced from the subjectivity and bias of teachers. Control of formation of communicative competence on condition of observance of the offered technology of designing of tests will be carried out.Key words: linguo-didactic testing, structuring, construct learning objectives, the Russian language as a foreign language, communicative competence.
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Gamova N.A., Kulish N.V., Sikorskaya G.A. PEDAGOCICAL SUPERVISION IN LEARNING MATHEMATICSDemand for graduate degrees are growing, thus necessity for more effective educational supervision occurs. Better the supervision, better result of students. If organization of students’ studying process improves, their abilities will mount. With correction and diagnosing problems in studying it`s possible to improve students` self-awareness in education process. Main aim of educational supervision is to get information about process as whole. In the studying process pedagocical supervision was created by providing all students variety of tasks with character oriented studying. In particular, it’s provided by tests and quizzes with public access, using modern technology, including possibility of real time remote studying. Pedagogical supervision of students has improved feedback for teacher’s work on consecutive steps of educational process. With character oriented studying students got mathematical skills for tackling practical tasks. They learnt how to use mathematical language and its symbols to construct managerial models and they have learnt how to improve their methods of studying on each steps of educational process. Key words: pedagogical supervision, supervision in studying mathematics, functions of supervision.
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Grigoreva O.S., Zagitova L.R. MODERN DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AND THE FOREIGN COUNTRYThe analysis of domestic and foreign literature, research in the field of forming professional competencies, as well as educational routes for technical training in higher education institutions of Russia and abroad, helped to identify existing shortcomings in the system of modern technical education. In the course of socio-pedagogical research, the main ways to improve the quality of technical education are identified: strengthening the profile training of secondary school students; the concept of “vocational training technology” has been expanded; the tendency of formation of strategic plans of development of modern educational technologies on the basis of integration of the international and Russian programs of preparation of experts of technical profiles is formulated. The preparation of highly qualified specialists in the technical direction for modern society that meet the requirements of educational standards of the new generation is possible provided that the professional competencies of future industrial workers are updated.Key words: higher vocational education, development trends, strengthening the profile of the secondary school, the features of sustainable development of higher technical education abroad, the formation of professional competencies.
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Aptikieva L.R. BULLING AS A PREMORBID OF THE ANTISOCIAL ORIENTATION OF A TEENAGER’S PERSONALITYThe relevance of the work is determined by the fact that today the problem of bullying among adolescents is still little studied and not developed in our country. At present, the phenomenon has acquired a social, psychological character and has become an international term for psychologists, educators, and lawyers. Along with the bullshit, there are new forms of harassment, violence— cyberbullying, Internet trolling, resulting in psychological trauma victims of violence. The consequences of these types of violence can not be overestimated, it is impossible to predict the victim’s reaction to systematic harassment, oppression, discrimination (consequences may include nerves, depression, suicide, etc.). This is a special kind of violence when one person (or group) physically attacks, or threatens another, weaker person, morally and physically, (or a group of people). From an accidental fight bullying is characterized by systematic and regular repetition— this is its destructive effect on the psyche of the victim. The development of bullying, contribute to: education in the family, the installation, vaccinated since childhood, the microclimate of the educational institution. Components of bullying: violent behavior; regularity of the actions; different degrees of power in the victim and the bull, whose behavior is deliberate, deliberate. Types of bullying: direct (physical aggression) and indirect (social aggression); bullying criteria: focus, regularity, power / power inequality. Participants in the bullying: initiator, witnesses (observers), victim. Bulling is a premorbid of the antisocial orientation of the adolescent’s personality, and adolescents with an antisocial orientation were, in one way or another, direct participants in the bulling-as a victim, or initiator, according to the results of our study (100% of the subjects). We studied the concept and essence of bullying; identified causes, factors of its occurrence; made a psychological portrait of the participants; revealed the consequences of bullying as premorbid (a condition that precedes and contributes to the development of any negative process) of the asocial orientation of the adolescent’s personality.Key words: bullying, premorbid, antisocial orientation, adolescents, harassment, violence, aggression, cruelty, victim.
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Muravyeva O.A. INTERACTION OF THE TEACHER AND STUDENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONOne of the tasks of modern educational programs is the implementation of student-centered approach in the educational process, the main part of which is the pedagogical interaction of subject-subject character. The latter is studied by us in relation to its interpretation by the students of State Autonomous Vocational Educational Institution “Humanitarian and Technical College”. Identifying the correlation between the student-centered approach and the actual understanding of this process by the students will help to determine the level of implementation of the student-centered approach in the educational process in this institution. During the diagnostic assessment students were offered both direct questions revealing their attitude to interaction in this educational environment, and indirect questions establishing the position in the hierarchy of the person’s value orientations. In the first case, on the basis of the received answers, the first task of the questionnaire was formulated in the form of the list consisting of ten positions which denote possible interpretations of this concept. This allowed to rank these positions by priority as well as to consider the degree of compliance of the student-centered approach to the results of the obtained data. In the second case the task included the questions of the indirect character and served to identify the hierarchy of the students’ value orientations in relation to the concept “interaction”. The obtained results showed the existence of the student-centered approach based on the active connection between the students and the teachers. But the participants of the educational process are not ready enough to manage the educational activity independently. The results of the research proved the existence of difficulty in the implementation of the student-centered approach in the educational environment of the College. This is connected with the lack of the students’ personal interests to the sphere of getting knowledge, their motivational immaturity that happen to be serious obstacles for the student-centered approach. The analysis of the data led us to the accents that require correction of understanding of pedagogical interaction in order to improve the quality of the educational process and the development of the students personality.Key words: student-centered approach, subject-subject interaction, self-actualization, education system.
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Stamkulova Sh.A., Kargapoltseva N.A. DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE OF STUDENTS IN THE PEDAGOGICAL REALITIES OF MODERN EDUCATIONDevelopment of cognitive independence of students is one of the important problems of modern pedagogy and education. In the conditions of the social and economic changes taking place in the world, the demand for an independent, competent, creative person, who possesses the necessary information and knowledge, is able to make decisions and personally be responsible for their implementation, which significantly increases the competitiveness of a professional professional. The authors of the article, summing up the views of prominent Russian and Kazakh scientists on the stated problem, come to the conclusion that the phenomenon of cognitive independence is an integrative quality of the personality of students in higher education, which is based on intellectual abilities and competences related to the willingness and desire of future specialists for the initiative acquisition knowledge in the course of processing information for the purpose of a productive solution of professionally-oriented educational tasks s and objectives. A decisive role in this process is given to the developing capabilities of modern information tools, resources and technologies, to design forms and methods of the educational establishment of the personality as a real and effective subject of cognitive activity.Key words: cognitive independence, activity, competence, quality of personality.
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Psychology

Aptikieva L.R. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFILING APPLICATION DURING WORKING WITH ANTISOCIAL ADOLESCENTSThe state of juvenile delinquency in our country today can be assessed as ambiguous. Official statistics show a tendency for the decline of this social phenomenon and the relative stability of the criminal activity of adolescents, on the other hand, this decline is due to the reduction in the size of this age group as a whole— hence the decline in crime rates observed in recent years. Adolescents with antisocial behavior by age criteria are classified as juvenile delinquents (from 14 to 17 years old) who form an independent category with a special legal status and specific social and psychological traits. Working with this category involves the use of effective methods of work, one of which is the system of psychological profiling. In our study, using monographic and analytical methods of research, we examined the specific application of profiling when working with antisocial adolescents. The profiling system is of practical importance; allows to estimate reliability of the received information, proceeding from the person on a non-verbal channel. This is a systemic set of methods that are complementary and mutually checking each other, for the behavioral evaluation of a person, drawing up his psychological portrait— the profile of the person and the basic characteristics of behavior. Profiling technology is a system for preventing illegal actions by profiling (identifying non-verbal and operational diagnostics of potentially dangerous individuals). It is applicable in any sphere of activity connected with interaction of people and analysis of their behavior. At present, criminal (statistical and qualitative) and operational profiling is used; in legal proceedings— profiling judicial examination. In its arsenal, profiling uses a predominantly method of observation and questioning; which require from a specialist certain knowledge, skills, skills and ethical principles. The use of psychological profiling when working with antisocial adolescents has a number of specific features, due to age and age, personal characteristics. To compile a psychological profile of antisocial adolescents, a comprehensive method is used, which is an effective way of working to combat primary juvenile delinquency and subsequent relapse.Key words: profiling, profiling technology, personal profile, profiling, juvenile delinquency, antisocial orientation.
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Epanchintseva G.A., Kozlovskaya T.N. STUDENTS AS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COMMUNITYProblems of studying of students as social and psychological community are relevant and timely. Authors give the analysis of «students» as age, akmeologichesky, psychological categories in transpektivny logic. Further the main researches in psychology of a concept of student's age are described. It is noted that the student's age is time of active socialization of the personality. The personality gets accurate reference points in formation of own identity, identity, a reflection, criticality. Key words: student's age, «students», consciousness, reflection, identity, self-identity, criticality, conflictness.
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Zubova L.V., Kirienko A.A. TO THE QUESTION OF INTERRELATION OF MEANINGFUL ORIENTATIONS AND AGGRESSION OF TEENAGERSThe main contents of article are devoted to studying of interrelation the of orientations and aggression of teenagers. The assumption that the specifics of manifestations of aggression are connected with contents of orientations of the personality has acted as a hypothesis. In the course of the empirical research the general selection of teenagers was divided into three subgroups according to the level of expressiveness of aggression (high, low, normal) and, using techniques of “SZhO” (D.A. Leontyev), Bass-Darki’s questionnaire and the techniques “Hand-test” (Z. Piotrovski and E. Wagner) were defined psychological portraits of groups of teenagers, the characteristic and the contents of orientations of teenagers, specifics of aggressive behavior of the personality were described, correlation communications between orientations and aggression were analyzed. It is established that the constructibility in communication with others, goodwill, avoiding of collisions and conflict situations is peculiar to teenagers with the low and normal level of expressiveness of aggression. Manifestation of aggression is possible only in especially significant situations, in other cases the verbal form of aggression is used. At the same time, they show great interest to events the lives, have specific goals and intentions, are convinced of the ability to influence the course of vital events. But there is a doubt in a possibility of their full implementation. It is revealed that teenagers with the high level of aggression are characterized by directivity, the aspiration to control others and to give them tough instructions. It is peculiar to doubt ability to realize the purposes, they less other groups are satisfied with life owing to its low emotional saturation. Manifestation of aggression is not only an admissible, but also desirable form of behavior which main characteristics are physical aggression, indirect and verbal, suspicion and irritability. Allows to claim the data received in a research that decrease in intelligence and emotional saturation of life can provoke the personality to application of aggressive forms of behavior by her.Key words: meaningful orientations, aggression, aggression of the personality, teenagers.
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Karabushchenko N.B., Stefanishina M.V. PECULIARITIES OF OVERCOMING STRESS BY STUDENTS-PSYCHOLOGISTSThe ability to receive and process information, the willingness to apply the acquired skills in practice, the ability to quickly adapt to a changing social situation are the conditions for a person’s successful life. However, not every person is capable of withstanding serious loads that’s why he/she can be in need of qualified psychological help. Therefore, the preparation of practical psychologists should be under serious attention. In this regard, the study of the stress-resistance of the students-psychologists’ personality acquires a special urgency, emphasizing the importance of developing their skills of owning themselves in difficult situations, the readiness to control other people emotions, and the resolution of conflict contradictions. The study was conducted on the basis of a comparison of two samples of 1 and 4-year students-psychologists of RUDN-University (Peoples Friendship University of Russia). The results revealed interesting facts: undergraduates’ level of stress is higher than that of freshmen, which is largely due to the emergence of a new social situation, defined as the choice of a further life trajectory (education, employment, and change of marital status). The use of coping strategies in problem situations has specific features in different age periods: “Strategic planning”, the comprehension of concrete steps for solving the tasks posed— characterizes four-year students; support of an authoritative adult, emotional contacts with peers are important for first-year students. The collectivist orientation, the willingness to control one’s own emotions and understand the feelings of other people characterizes the students of the first courses. Senior students are focused on individual goals, becoming less sensitive to understanding the experience of others. Thus, students of the first and fourth courses differ in ways of responding to stressful situations. The former students are more emotional and optimistic, the latter students are rational, they maturely assess their capabilities and plans for the future.Key words: stress, coping, behavior, personality, students, overstrain, communication, strategies, life difficulties, difficult situations.
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Sabirova R.Sh., Umurkulova M.M. PROFESSIONAL MOTIFICATION OF THE POLICEMAN AS A DETERMINANT OF COPYING BEHAVIORThe issue of coping behavior as behavior aimed at coping with stressors in professional activities is one of the least developed topics in legal psychology when studying the psychological characteristics of the activities of employees working in the human rights field. Interest in this problem is due, first of all, to the complexity and intensity of the professional service of employees of human rights bodies. Long-term functioning in difficult extreme conditions is often the cause of stress reactions that contribute to depletion of the person's adaptive capabilities. Intensive emotional tension, work in the conditions of time deficit, high social and personal responsibility for the decisions made, incidents arising in the performance of official tasks, give the work of police officers a stressful character. Therefore, issues related to functioning under stressful conditions and adaptation to them acquire special acuity in the field of legal psychology. When faced with emergencies, the policeman is forced to make extraordinary decisions to cope with the threat or challenge, loss or damage. If the requirements of the situation exceed the resources of the individual, it undertakes cognitive and behavioral efforts to overcome the problem that has arisen. At the same time, efforts can be successful, or they may not give the desired result. One of the factors that play a significant role in choosing a strategy of behavior in business situations is professional motivation. The content of the motives, their orientation and intensity, structure and specificity affect the success of mastering the profession, the effectiveness of performing activities, as well as the choice of a particular strategy of behavior in stressful situations. To identify the nature of the relationship between coping behavior and the professional motivation of the staff, 59 law enforcement officers of the city of Karaganda were subjected to the investigation. Methodological tools consisted of the questionnaire of N. Endler, D. Parker «Coping behavior in stressful situations» and the questionnaire «Professional motives», developed by SF Leah for law enforcement officers. The analysis and interpretation of the results of the research lead to the conclusion that the nature of the professional motivation and the level of its formation significantly influence the success of the employee's behavior under stress. The more professional and cognitive motives are formed, the more successful coping. The hypothesis that the predominance of positive labor motives in the motivational complex aimed at increasing the professional competence and personal development of the subject of labor determines the formation of effective strategies for coping behavior has been confirmed.Key words: stress, professional stress, coping behavior, coping strategies, professional motivation, adaptation.
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Chaikovskaya I.., Arguneev E.P. THE POSSIBILITY OF METAPHORICAL ASSOCIATIVE CARDS WORK WITH THE RESOURCE AREA OF THE CLIENT (FOR EXAMPLE, THE SET OF «MY LIFE SCRIPT»)Associative metaphoric cards are an indispensable tool of the psychologist in practice. They are actively used in various fields of psychologists: counseling, training, correctional work. The uniqueness and versatility of such maps due to the fact that they are based on a metaphor that represents a psychotherapeutic impact and is aimed at the unconscious client. The authors of the article developed a set of associative metaphorical maps “My life scenario” for the purpose of scientific and practical justification of their use in work with the client’s personal resource. The set consists of 50 cards, which are divided into two groups (trees images and abstract images) and verbal material, which includes: quotes from the art works of classical literature and the author’s statements. In order to test the system of work with the kit, we organized a focus group (20 people, 30–40 year old). Thus, as a result of the practical application of associative metaphorical maps, we selected the control material of the kit. Then suggested to them that include the system of psychological work, the stimulus questions. The scientific-theoretical and practical significance of the use of associative metaphorical maps is justified by the projective abilities of human consciousness. The projective method of psychology allows to reveal regularities of actualization of choice of a background or a figure in the image by the person. According to Gestalt psychology, the figure highlighted from the background is relevant to the client. At the same time, the figure represents the projection of its state, experience, position and attitude.Key words: metaphor, projection, life scenario, metaphorical maps, personal resource.
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Biological sciences

Kuksanov V.F., Koveshnikov E.A. IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILIZATION OF OIL WELLS DEVELOPMENT WASTEModern technologies of wells development after overhaul are aimed at resuming the inflow of reservoir fluid, restoration of throughput and stability of the normal operating mode of the well. Activities are carried out after completion of drilling, or during secondary opening and repair, when the well is filled with a muffling liquid and other liquids, and materials used during drilling and repair that imped the movement of formation fluid into the well. Closed technologies are very rare for the Russian oil and gas industry, and existing methods are not always efficient, so the question of finding rational ways of recycling wastes is still acute. The purpose of this study is to consider the possibility of introducing changes into the process of waste utilization generated during the overhaul of gas wells located on the territory of the Orenburg gas condensate field. The authors proposed two variants for upgrading the scheme for liquid waste pumping. In the first variant, pump exhausts, instead of direct discharge into the air, are sent to the degassing line of the separating unit, thus creating a closed scheme for pumping the material to be utilized. In the second case, a separate degassing line is mounted, which is directed to the horizontal flare unit straightly from the tanker. The improvement proposed by the authors makes it possible to reduce the level of air pollution with hydrogen sulphide on the territory of the working area of the repaired wells to the norms not exceeding MPC. Key words: waste utilization, gas well repair, reservoir fluid, wells development, stationary plants, vacuum pump, air pollution, system modernization.
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Savin E. Z., Zhamuria N.A. DROUGHT STABILITY OF TEMPLE APPROACHES OF APPLE TREE IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTH URALOne of the elements of plant adaptation is their drought resistance. The zone of the Southern Urals is characterized not only by low temperatures in winter, but also by dry winds at high temperatures in the summer. For the successful growth and productivity of fruit crops, it is important to identify drought-resistant species and, above all, sub-species. A group of winter-hardened clonal rootstocks was created by selective breeding, which allowed growing slaboroslyh fast-growing and productive apple plantations in the Southern Urals. In the queen cell of clonal rootstocks of the apple tree of the Botanical Garden of the OSU observations were made in the hottest period of the summer season for the state and further productivity of the uterine plants. In the laboratory, water losses and restoration of the turgor in the leaves of the subterranean forms were determined. As a result, a group of the most drought-resistant rootstocks was identified, including dwarf OM 3-4, K-2, Arm-18, and semi-dwarf forms 54-118, Ural-5, 4-3.Key words: clonal stock, wilting, turgor, adaptation, drought resistance, productivity.
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Editor-in-chief
Zhanna Anatolievna
Ermakova

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