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Orenburg State University october 22, 2021   RU/EN
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№ 3 (226), 25 june 2020

doi: 10.25198/1814-6457

Pedagogics

Biryuchinskaya T.A. ABOUT RAISING AN ETHICAL ATTITUDE TO ANIMALSIn the conditions of modern society, the conflict between man and the environment is growing more and more actively. The anthropocentric view of nature dominates, according to which man is the master of nature, having unlimited power and opportunities, and the issues of ethical, humane treatment of animals and respect for their rights are not seriously considered. One of the reasons for this situation is the lack of appropriate education of the younger generation. A new discipline — bioethics-was introduced in the 3rd generation of the Federal state educational standard. It contains a significant educational potential for the formation of the younger generation of civic activity and responsibility towards the environment.
I conducted a theoretical study. The following is installed. Today’s environmental education is formal and consumer-oriented. Active sympathy, compassion, and charity are still passed off as an anachronism. Today is dominated by an anthropocentric view of the surrounding nature. This approach to education fosters cruelty and irresponsibility among young people. In my opinion, the education of an ethical attitude to animals, the formation of a biocentric worldview for future teachers at the University is of particular importance. The faculty of natural geography of the Russian state University named after S. A. Yesenin and the Department of pedagogy and management in education have a huge educational potential. The University organized and launched a social student project “Assistance to the Ryazan charity society for support of homeless animals “Best Friends”. The entire project is based solely on voluntary donations in the form of money, food, medicines, etc.for the needs of homeless animals. Social networks contribute to the development of animal volunteering. Modern young people can support animals. By engaging in zoo-volunteer activities, a person becomes kinder and wiser. He has a bare, open heart. He feels more acutely the pain and grief of the person in need of help.
Thus, today it is extremely important to teach the younger generation respect for any form of life — for animals, for the environment. A person should live according to ethical laws in the modern world on the basis that a kind, humane attitude to living beings is a moral duty of a spiritually rich, developed person.
Key words: education, anthropocentrism, biocentrism, empathy, an ethical attitude to wildlife, a master class, animal protection movement, zoo volunteers.
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Zhunusova K.S., Akhmetova K.S. COMMITMENT OF STUDENT YOUTH TO SPIRITUAL AND MORAL VALUESOrientation of student youth to the spiritual and moral values of the views of the individual and his self-development. This is ensured by the implementation of social projects in various forms of work with children and youth in the logic of analyzing the results of their joint activities to improve the surrounding reality. Orientation to the spiritual and moral values of student youth contributes to the development of an educational environment in communities, the function of which is to motivate young people to acquire knowledge on their own and stimulate orientations towards the awareness of spiritual and moral values. The purpose of our research: to identify effective conditions that ensure the orientation of student youth towards spiritual and moral values. As theoretical and methodological prerequisites for the actualization of the process of youth orientation towards spiritual and moral values, the humanistic dialogical and civilizational approaches are used; a description of these approaches is given. We have identified and implemented the pedagogical conditions for the spiritual and moral education of student youth, the result of which is the spiritual and moral values assigned by students. The following social projects were developed and implemented: “Do Good”, regional festival of co-creation “You are not alone”, festival “Day of Children's Art”. The importance of socio-cultural traditions, information and communication objects of the environment is high. Participation of students in socially significant projects is invaluable. Their civic position is manifested in them and the formation of the spiritual and moral qualities of the individual takes place.Key words: Keywords. Values. Spiritual and moral values. The youth. Social projects. Conditions.
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Kuchurin V.V. SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS OF S.M. SOLOVYOV: HISTORICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCEA complete and objective description of the life and scientific work of the outstanding Russian historian S.M. Solovyov is impossible without solving the problem of reconstructing his pedagogical views as an expression of broader worldview positions and finding out how much these views were realized in his historical writings, textbooks and pedagogical activities. The purpose of my research is to reconstruct the scientific and pedagogical views of S.M. Solovyov. In the course of my research, I determined the initial general pedagogical foundations of the historian's views, analyzed his individual pedagogical ideas, thoughts and reasoning. Internal logical connections are established between them. The nature and characteristics of S.M. Solovyov’s pedagogical views had an influence on his research activities. As a result, it was possible to establish that S.M. Soloviev showed considerable interest in pedagogical issues and was not only a scientist-historian, but also a teacher-historian with a well thought-out pedagogical position. In his historical works, he demonstrated excellent pedagogical erudition and showed “the influence of society in its historical development on education and the influence of education on society, while not only guessing, ... but based on an accurate and detailed study of facts”.Key words: S.M. Soloviev, scientific and pedagogical views, education, training, education, development, school, pedagogical anthropology, pedagogical history
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Nikitina А.А., Kargapoltseva N.A. CONSTRUCTIVE MODEL OF INTERACTION OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS IN THE INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEMSince 2019, the National Education Project has been implemented on the territory of the Russian Federation. An integral part of the implementation of this project is the support of families with children. So within the framework of this issue, the federal project “Support for families with children” is being implemented. The main goal of the project is to create conditions for increasing the competence of students’ parents in teaching and raising children. Within the framework of the regional project, since 2019 in the Orenburg region on the basis of the state budgetary institution “Central psychological, medical and pedagogical commission of the Orenburg region”, the Consulting center “We are together” was created. At present, the already developed models are not effective enough (since the results of testing these models have not been provided), or these models cannot be implemented within educational organizations. When solving the problems of the lack of support specialists in educational organizations of the Orenburg region, we have developed a modern model of interaction between teachers and parents in the system of inclusive education. The proposed model is theoretically and scientifically grounded and promotes conscious and practical interaction between parents and teachers in the system of inclusive education. The model will be tested within the framework of a pilot project on the basis of the state budgetary institution “Central psychological, medical and pedagogical commission of the Orenburg region” by specialists of the Consulting center “We are together”. The model is also practically effective, since it can be used in the absence of support specialists in the educational organization. When specialists of the consulting center “We are together” implement it, the possibility of reaching the parental community will increase and, accordingly, the number of psychological and pedagogical services provided will increase.Key words: interaction, interaction model, parents (legal representatives), teaching staff, inclusive education, student with disabilities.
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Noskov E. A. SUBSTANTIATION OF STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE LEVELSIN ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY IN EDUCATIONThe lack of a generally accepted approach to methods for assessing the formation of students’ competences and learning outcomes, the multidirectional views on the development of pedagogical measuring materials for assessing competences, a technology for assessing educational achievements based on a competency-based approach indicate the relevance of this problem. The competence of a specialist in ensuring national security in education is understood as a combination of knowledge on the main content of ensuring national security; skills in implementing the means of ensuring national security in education; experience in the implementation of knowledge and skills in the field of basic content and implementation of means of ensuring national security. The competences that are necessary for a future specialist in ensuring national security can be divided into three levels: reproductive, local levels and the one that models professional activities. Requirements for knowledge and skills, as well as experience in professional activities with regard to the national security in education, have been developed for each level. A student who has reached the initial level knows how to formulate thoughts, interact and hold a dialogue with other subjects of the educational process, but these skills are manifested to a small extent. A student who has reached an average level is characterized by the need to obtain a future profession, learn, master new knowledge in the field of national security in education, by the ability to consciously put his/her skills into practice. A high level indicates the mastery of systemic knowledge with a personal meaning, the ability to implement the knowledge and skills gained, the use of professional experience. The level-based approach to assessing the formation of students’ competences allows determining the degree of future specialists’ readiness for professional activities in the field of national security in education.Key words: level-based approach, competence level, competences in the field of national security in education.
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Osiyanova O.M., Demina V.D. DIDACTIC POTENTIAL OF MNEMONICS IN STUDENTS’ LINGUISTIC EDUCATIONThe requirements and standards of a modern society to the sphere of linguistic education determine the higher education modernization through technological innovation. It encourages the assimilation of a large amount of vocabulary, phonetics, grammar and other aspects of the language system that are necessary for the formation of foreign language communicative competence. There is a special interest in the didactic potential of special methods and mnemonic techniques that activate the imagination and accelerate the process of memorizing lexical and grammatical material, providing an increase in the quality of students’ linguistic education. The theoretical study allowed us to determine the mnemonics as an art of memorization and set of techniques that facilitate memorization and increase memory by forming artificial associations. The term “mnemonics” is defined as special strategies that encourage memorization, storing the information and playing it back from memory. The principle of mnemonics is based on creating images and associations of new information in the human mind. Mnemonic methods are divided into five classes: linguistic, spatial, visual, verbal, and physical response methods. In educational practice different techniques are used such as the method of phonetic associations, the method of interaction of all sensations, grouping, rhyming, free associations, mnemophrases. In the course of experimental work, it was revealed that the didactic potential of mnemonics in the linguistic education of students is expressed in opportunities for its use to facilitate the purposeful memorization of lexical and grammatical material and its further application in practice. Mnemonics allow associating the meaning of a lexical unit or grammatical rule with their sound and ensure long-term memorization. Didactic potential of mnemonics in the linguistic education of students is caused by age-related features of development and functioning of memory, the degree of intellectual development of students, level of proficiency in a foreign language, the specifics of linguistic material, the conditions of learning, teacher’s competence level. The study found that there is a positive effect in the use of mnemonics and it is revealed in formation of the foreign communicative competence, raise of the personal motivation and the development of imagination.Key words: mnemonics, didactic potential, linguistic education, association, declarative memory, procedural memory.
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Platova E.D. INTERACTION EXPERIENCE AS THE BASIS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONThe problem of teaching business interaction causes steady scientific and educational interest in the context of competitiveness and mobility of specialists. The aim of the research is to prove that subject’s interaction experience is the basis of business communication. Business communication is a process of partners’ common activity on solving the problems of practical and business character. Effective business interaction has the properties of interactivity, i.e. high degree of cooperation, demonstration of subject-subject interaction. Monitoring of the students’ business communication showed close connection of the process with their interaction experience related to self-organization and self-control. In order to prove this supposition we summarized the best practices in this context and analyzed the most actual technologies of teaching business communication: critical thinking development; cooperation technologies; technologies of interactive and active learning; gaming technologies and imitative (modelling) technology. Forming the skills of critical thinking, reflexive analysis and self-analysis in pair and group common work, these technologies contribute to business communication development through formation of personal business interaction experience. Systematic controlled participation in business interaction including reflexive activity allows achieving the high degree of subject’s cooperation. Thus, the basis of successful business interaction development is interaction experience, which in its turn, can be purposefully formed in the course of subject’s multiple participation in business interaction. Key words: business communication, technology, method, business interaction experience, reflexing.
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Raschetina S.A. RESEARCH METHOD IN THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITYAbstract: The purpose of the research, implemented under the RFFI grant, is to analyze the structure of social and pedagogical activities aimed at harmonizing the child’s relationships in the immediate social environment in unstable conditions of society. It is emphasized that this type of activity was updated at the stage of the country’s entry into two opposite economic processes: market and information, which resulted in the growing processes of spontaneous socialization and value orientation of the younger generation, widely represented in the real and virtual world of the child. It is shown that in conditions of instability and rapid rates of social changes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of social and pedagogical activity change: the space of children’s problems related to socialization and value orientation expands, and the time for solving problems narrows. Under these conditions, a special role is played in the structure of social and pedagogical activity by a set of research competencies focused on analyzing, on the one hand, children’s problems, on the other hand, themselves as the carrier of a way to solve them. The article emphasizes that currently there is a methodological chaos in science, that there is a need to group existing approaches, and presents one of the possible variants of their grouping: classical (systemic), non-classical (anthropological), post-non-classical (discursive), each of which is aimed at a qualitatively peculiar analysis of the current state of society and the position of a person (child) in it. It is shown that mastering the methods presented in these approaches acts as a significant reserve of social and pedagogical activity, which allows solving problems of socialization and value orientation of children and finding ways to solve them.Key words: purposeful spontaneous socialization, value orientation, social and pedagogical activity, research method. classical (systemic) non-classical (anthropological), post-non-classical (discursive) methodological approaches.
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Sikorska G.A., Dzhukashev K.R., Kryuchkova I.V. ABOUT THE PROBLEM OF IMPROVING THE MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION QUALITY AND PROPOSALS FOR ITS OVERCOMINGThe concept of the development of mathematical education in the Russian Federation has set the task — to bring Russian mathematical education to a leading position in the world; the role of mathematics is determined — the most important component of world scientific and technological progress; a direct dependence of the success of Russia of the 21st century on the level of mathematical science, mathematical education and mathematical literacy of the entire population is recorded. The article reveals the conditions of graduate competitiveness upon admission to any universities of the country; the shortcomings of the educational system of the Orenburg region are revealed; the relevance of developing the theory, concept and methodology of the process of innovative improving the quality of mathematical education of high school students is substantiated. The necessity of creating an educational center, a methodological association for the development of effective forms of achieving results, contributing to the dissemination of experience in the accumulation and transfer of best practices for the development of mathematical education of high school students, updating and transferring the best methodological experience of training teachers teaching mathematics in specialized physics and mathematics classes is substantiated. The planned project will allow updating educational programs, creating an educational product based on modern information technologies. The purpose of the educational product is the development of students' mathematical thinking, providing high school students with high-quality mathematical preparation for the exam at a profile level.Key words: mathematical education; graduate competitiveness; education system; the quality of the mathematical education of high school students; project; Education Centre; educational product; information Technology; USE in mathematics at the profile level.
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Charikova I.N. PROCESS MODEL OF FUTURE ENGINEERS EDUCATIONAL-PROJECT DEVELOPMENTThe model for the development of educational-design of future engineers is conceptually based on the understanding of the individual as a “project of himself,” implemented in the conditions of university pedagogical support for the educational process. The model describes the process directed on enriching the practical-oriented experience of future engineers, on developing the subjective nature of knowledge and mastering how to use it in rapidly changing unpredictable design situations. The purpose of the paper is to describe the structure of the model, revealing the structure and properties of the investigated development process, the content of pedagogical and organizational conditions implementation stages, methods, technologies, algorithms for the development of educational design. The author’s model of the subject-conditional analogue-object , aimed at forming global thinking among students, at creating conditions for creative self-realization and prerequisites for further self-education and self-development is presented as a result.Key words: Мodel, higher education institution, еducational projection, education, project activity,
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Gladkih V.G. TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE “GOAL TREE” AND USE IN THE METHODOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE FUTURE TEACHER OF PROFESSIONAL TRAININGThe publication is devoted to one of the most pressing problems of modern education — the problem of professional and pedagogical goal-setting. The article attempts an interdisciplinary integration of the essence of goal-setting, implemented in the specification of the philosophical, psychological and managerial components. However, the priority of the stated problem is related to the clarification of the function of the “tree of goals” method in professional and pedagogical goal-setting, in particular in the methodological activity of the future teacher of professional training. The article provides a theoretical justification for this choice and describes the technology for developing a “goal tree” on the example of preparing a work program for the discipline. The author clarified the specifics of the taxonomy of goals, their ranking, structuring and relationship in this aspect. It is important that the procedural description of the development of the “goal tree” integrates the content, technological and organizational features of the phenomenon of the “goal tree”, combined in a universal algorithm for the activity of a novice teacher to develop a work program of the discipline. The proposed material of the article as the basis provides for the organization of the process, however, it is a guideline for the development of such a document in terms of its content and subsequent use of the described technology in other types of professional and pedagogical activities.Key words: goal, hierarchy of goals, method of “goal tree”, taxonomy of goals, technology for building a “goal tree”, working program of the discipline.
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Dremina I.A., Dolinina I.G. TEACHERS PROFESSIONALISM ASSESSMENTIN THE PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS EDUCATION CULTURE FORMATIONIn a dynamically changing world, there is undoubtedly a demand for a teacher who is able to competently solve the operational and strategic tasks of modern education of students. More and more in demand is a professional teacher who knows the technologies of personal growth, who is able to manage professional development. The study found that the process of forming a culture of lifelong education for teachers is based on the formation and development of their professionalism. The aim of the study is to develop methods for assessing the professionalism of a teacher as an important indicator of the formation of a culture of lifelong education in the implementation of the national federal project “Teacher of the Future”. By the concept of “formation of a teacher's lifelong education culture” and its integral component “professionalism”, we mean the process of developing a teacher's professional competence in solving specific pedagogical problems through determining the content, forms and methods of teaching, which is manifested in the individual's ability to assess the dynamics of the level of professionalism. It was revealed that a common feature in the semantics of the concepts of “professional competence” and “professionalism” of teachers is their dynamic nature of development. In the course of the theoretical study, it was revealed that there are various approaches to determining the levels of teacher professionalism, the analysis of which is presented in the article. On the basis of the theory of the tiered approach, it is established that the structure of the components of professionalism of all the considered approaches contains the possibilities and mechanisms of transition from one level to another. The methodological basis for the development of professionalism is determined by the law of philosophy of systems development, which provides for successive levels of development: emergence, formation, maturity, transformation. Substantive indicators of the levels of professionalism from the standpoint of the components of the culture of lifelong education of teachers are: management of personal professional development, methodological competence in the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard of general education, technological effectiveness of professional activity, dissemination of pedagogical experience, innovativeness of professional activity. Based on the analysis of scientific research and the Unified State Requirements for the Qualification of Employees, the relationship between the levels of professionalism and professional competence of a teacher was established: recognition (beginner), reproduction (student), productivity (professional), creativity (skill). The methodological constructor developed by us allows the teacher to determine, in accordance with the level of professionalism, the form of raising the level of qualifications in the process of continuous education. The highlighted components and criteria of the phenomenon under study allow us to further investigate the process of forming a culture of lifelong education for a teacher and achieve positive dynamics in the formation of a professional teacher.Key words: professionalism levels, teachers professional competence, teachers continuous education culture formation
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Mel TESTING AS A TOOL OF MOODLE OPEN — SOURCE-LEARNING PLATFORMThe modern job market sets obligatory requirements for specialists — fluency in the use of digital technologies in professional activities. Today, the use of digital technologies in teaching students in higher education is a requirement of the Federal State Educational Standard. Despite the many forms of organization of the educational process using digital technologies, the main issue remains the form of task control, ensuring the quality of student training and the competitiveness of future graduates in the job market. In this article, we consider the organization of control of the assimilation of material using the virtual learning environment Moodle. During the work we revealed the functions of digital technologies, determined the basic principles and forms of students` knowledge control in the electronic environment, as well as the conditions necessary for the successful development of questions complex. Special attention was paid to testing. We have developed a complex of questions and tasks for testing on the Moodle platform. After testing, we concluded, using digital technologies in education, tests are the most affordable and effective tool for controlling, which gives an opportunity to evaluate and analyze the knowledge level.Key words: control of learning outcomes, digital educational technologies, Moodle, testing.
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Ustichew O.G. ACTIVITIES OF THE MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION DEPARTMENT TO PREPARE OFFICERS-TEACHERS FOR TEACHING ACTIVITIESThe activity of the chair of Military University is determined by the relevant requirements established by the University and based on the regulatory provisions of the Ministry of Defense (profile Ministry) and the Ministry of Education and Science. The chair is a part of the system of a Military University, a kind of strategic unit of its development. The relevance of the appeal to the issues of chair activity organization on training teaching officers with the purpose of preparing them for pedagogical activity is connected with increase of requirements to teaching staff qualification, changes in quality criteria of educational process and with growing role of chairs in the strategic development of Military Universities. The research presented in the article is aimed at determining a set of conditions that ensure the readiness of teaching officers for pedagogical activity. Based on the theoretical analysis of scientific literature, the author characterizes the value-semantic context of interaction between the teachers of the chair, assesses the possibilities of web technologies in organizing the information space of the chair, emphasizes the importance of the personality and authority of the head of the chair, who plans, organizes and controls the activities of teachers. The author believes that the space of the chair is a spectrum of various professional and social relations that have significant potential for personal and professional development of teachers. Teaching officers who have the necessary level of military skills and professionally important qualities, including knowledge of the basics of research activities, are the key to the successful functioning of the chair. The author suggests a content-functional model of the chair’s activity that is fundamental for organizing training of teaching officers to improve their pedagogical activities. This training regards the following areas: joint goal-setting, creating conditions, developing and using new training technologies.Key words: higher military education, military university, the chair of military university, teaching officer, teaching activity, teaching staff training, in-house training.
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Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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