Gamova N.A., Kulish N.V., Tomina I.P. PERSONAL INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICSMulti-level training of students, as well as the individual style of educational activity of each of them all at the same time does not allow to go to a particular level of competence (information, mathematical, foreign language, etc.). It requires a special organization of independent work, the development of its methodological support in a tiered system of higher education. Based on work practices, we believe that the individual independent work will be more effective if students will work in groups of 2-3 students, which allows the direct result of the process of knowledge sharing, creates favorable conditions for their active personal involvement in the educational process. Students thus serve as members of the mutual control and mutual motivation as a factor, creative, communicative, socio-cultural activities, providing a significant increase in the effectiveness of the cognitive activity of each participant. Independent work university students in teaching mathematics should be improved, using a personally and professionallyš— oriented approach, the score-rating system, modern information technology, etc., that will determine the student's individual route to self-employment, improve the quality of his mathematical education. The presented theoretical and practical recommendations to make the individual independent work available for analysis and projected in academic and extracurricular activities.Key words: self-supporting students' education, developmental education, opportunities of self-supporting education while studying Mathematical analysis.
Gilazieva S.R., Simonenkov V.S. TO THE QUESTION OF INDIVIDUAL NEEDS IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY In our computerized society, the share of occupations mental nature prevails over the professions associated with physical labor. As a result, people were more likely to carry diseases associated with stationary or sedentary lifestyle. In order to rectify the situation and improve modern society has conducted numerous programmes to promote the practice of physical education and sport, numerous sports and recreational facilities, increases the popularity of the sport. But most programs are designed for students. Programs to maintain health it is of the adult population is not sufficiently developed, and projected results of programs implemented under an hour do not justify expectations. In the article, questioning, pedagogical observation, and gives the theoretical analysis of the problem on the practical justification for physical activity for students and adults. The indexes of personal interest, the adoption of value attitudes of a person on a healthy lifestyle, used in the system of continuous education with the aim of improving physical education, preservation and strengthening of health. First of all, this installation on the management of the health condition, maintaining it at a high level throughout life. Thus, the results of the study showed that the presence of sports uniforms is a much larger place in the ranking of values. Many people do not associate physical activity with professional activity, i.e. do not understand the importance of physical activity for their health, classes had not yet become her personal value, and are not reflected in their way of life. The need for physical education due to the need for movement and the desire to improve one's health. The factors the motives influencing the interest in physical culture, defines the purpose of physical training and sports, sports and the frequency of participation in sports, but also a positive attitude to physical culture lessons.Key words: akmeologiya, physical activity, continuous education, physical education.
Denina O.O. CONDITIONS TO INCREASE MOTIVATION WHEN LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THE STUDENTS OF NON-LINGUISTIC AREAS OF TRAININGNurturing a positive attitude towards foreign language is one of those important issues on which largely depends the training of the future engineer. The problem of motivation when learning a foreign language the students of non-linguistic areas of training devoted work a number of scientists. This article describes the results of a study on formation of positive motivation when learning a foreign language at students of architecture and construction faculty of the Orenburg State University. The objective of the study was to identify the attitude of students to a foreign language; they understand its social significance; focus on obstacles in his study; factors influencing negative attitudes towards foreign language, etc. To do this, respondents were offered a questionnaire with questions of interest to us. Some of them are supposed to choose one of variants of answers, while others required a justification point of view. The students ' answers allowed us to make a conclusion on the problem under consideration and to determine the conditions of formation of motivation when learning a foreign language the students of non-linguistic areas of training.Key words: foreign language, non-linguistic areas of training, students motivation, autonomy, learning and cognitive activity, factor, teacher.
Kanyukov V.N., Trubina O.M., Podoprigora R.N. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FOR NURSES IN OPHTHALMOLOGYOrenburg branch in cooperation with the regional medical college holds postgraduate certification courses of improvement and specialization for nurses and nursesš— optometrists. It includes specialization for nursesš— 216šh., improvementš— 144šh., retraining of nursesš— optometristsš— 540šh. Training is carried out at least 1štime in 5šyears. 290šnurses have been trained over the past 5šyears. The teachers are candidates of medical sciences. All lectures and seminars are held in the conference hall with modern projection equipment. Nurses get acquainted with modern equipment in diagnostic rooms and study new technologies of treatment of eye diseases in procedure and examination room. We use telecommunications technologies in the training of nurses. The control of knowledge is carried out by computer-based testing and examination. New informational technologies provide a continuous process of training for nurses in ophthalmology.Key words: ophthalmology, modernization, innovations.
Kiselyova Zh.I., Shavshayeva L.Yu., Shlyapnikova W.W. METHODOLOGY SELF-STUDY OF STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITIES WITH FITBALLActualized the problem of formation of healthy lifestyle of student youth by means of independent physical training with balance balls. Research in this area has not previously been conducted. Systematic, in accordance with gender, age, health, lifestyle, biological rhythms independent study physical education is an essential element of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of independent work (physical maintenance at a certain level, the increase achieved level or manifestation of the significant achievements) determines the mode of practice. For independent practice students recommended exercises on the fitball. The benefits of using the fitball: the capability of students with health disorders; a positive effect on all functional systems of the organism; the development of physical skills; the ability to form correct posture; development of stress tolerance. Rational organization of self-study students with the fitball will contribute to the positive dynamics of all body systems, achieving optimal health, improve physical abilities and overall health maintenance.Key words: healthy lifestyle, health, physical culture, independent occupations, fitbol.
Korovin S.S., Akimov S.A., Glazina T.A. METHODICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF SPORTS EDUCATION IN FORMATION OF PHYSICAL CULTURE OF THE PERSONALITYEducational activity of modern school rather many-sided concerning formation of the personality and her culturological characteristics. This activity is difficult in the current social and economic conditions causing the modern contingent of pupils, their physical development, a condition of material base. All this causes relevance of mastering the teacher of system of knowledge and abilities in the sphere of management of process of physical education. It is established that management process consists of the following stages: 1) data collection and processing about object of management of physical education; 2) diagnosis of its state and forecast of activity; 3) establishment of the purpose of sports and sports activity; 4) adoption of the administrative decision; 5) planning of process of physical education; 6) development of its contents; 7) the organization of sports and sports activity in formation of physical culture of the personality; 8) control of educational activity; 9) collecting and processing of results of educational activity; 10) correction of the purpose and decision. After the analysis of results of educational activity at the 9th stage, correction of the purpose at the 10th stage, the cycle of management is almost completely repeated, since 4 stages moving to a new qualitative level. Identification of stages of administrative activity of the teacher of physical culture will allow to reach an optimum level of formation of physical culture of the identity of pupils. Thus the main factor of ensuring quality of management is interaction of participants of physical education, their mutual understanding, an interconsistency and mutually interest.Key words: technique, management, physical culture, education, formation, personality.
Mikhailova E.A., Konstantinova O.D., Kshnyasev S.K., Fomin V.M., Zherebyateva O.O., Kalinina L.A., Mahalova G.O., Faizullina E.K. SOME OF THE TECHNIQUES AND THE WAYS TO ENHANCE COGNITIVE ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS MEDICAL SCHOOL Realization of fgos of new generation aimed at the inclusion of more techniques and training methods that stimulate creativity of both teachers and learners, paying particular attention to feedback. This is especially true for medical schools. In all fields of knowledge are rapidly increasing the amount of information that must be adapted to broadcast to the students and to evaluate its assimilation in a limited number of teaching hours allotted to the discipline. From this point of view, the application of programmed learning, in particular the control of mastering of knowledge, is very appropriate and justified. The use of carefully designed learning programs and algorithms with a rigid sequence of controlling influences is not in doubt. In practical sessions the teacher is able to diagnose the level of student to the lesson. Such methods allow control over certain sections of the course. The learning process of medical school is designed so that a student, mastering knowledge of the cycles of biomedical Sciences, clinical disciplines, mastering the methods and techniques of General and private medical thinking, diagnostic techniques. Therefore, the learning process aims at developing the learner qualities required of clinical thinking, the development of its activity. Targeted and tailored exposure to a teacher and textbooks, ultimately, should lead to the development and promote self-development of the student. Along with this, the deepening of knowledge, development of elements of creativity, professional and communicative skills, are best implemented when the organization of the collective work. Collective learning is characterized by the activity of all, cooperation in problem solving and collaborative discussion. In this case, each member of the team has the opportunity to act as teachers or in the role of the learner. In the practice of teacher didactic tasks discussed our directions become more specific forms and purposes: for example, to enable the student to recognize by external signs some causes of disease, to analyze data describing the condition of the patient, read X-rays, an electrocardiogram, to analyze blood, urine, feces, perform palpation, to sew up the wound, etc.Key words: methods and forms of activation of cognitive activity of students of the university.
Petunin O.V. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF VIEWS ON THE PROBLEM OF DOMESTIC TEACHERS COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE OF PERSONALITYBased on the basic requirements for educationš— to teach to learnš— its main purpose at the present stage of formation of the person becomes capable of self-knowledge. Value orientations in the personality structure of modern man focused on cognitive independence in this regard, the concept of "cognitive independence" takes on a different meaning and requires new approaches to its formation in the educational and learning process. The article is devoted to the formation of a scientific category of "cognitive independence of personality" as a scientific phenomenon. We retrospectively examines the views of Russian, Soviet and modern Russian teachers on the issue of cognitive independence of the individual. The article presents the idea of representatives of a critical and philosophical thought (V.šBelinsky, A.šHerzen, N.šDobrolyubov, N.šOgarev, N.šChernyshevsky), a group of teachers and educators (A.šBeketov, A.šGerd, K.šUshinsky) and other personalities of the XIXšcentury on the subject. The article analyzes the views on the problem of cognitive independence of teachers of the Soviet period (L.šAristova, S.šArchangelsky, J.šBabansky, L.šVilkeev, L.šVyatkin, E.šGolant, M.šDanilov and others.). As a result of this work the author has revealed that cognitive autonomy of the individual was considered an important issue almost throughout the existence of the national education and pedagogy. In the previous era of cognitive independence was seen as a significant condition for the formation of knowledge, abilities and skills of the human variety.Key words: retrospective analysis, cognitive independence, the federal state educational standards.
Prilepina A.V., Morkovina E.F., Shukhman A.E. METHODS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM CONTENT FOR IT INDUSTRYThe modernization of professional education leads to the problems of inconsistency of professional training programs at various levels, the mismatch between the skill level of graduates and needs of regional labor markets. The development of the content of educational programs for IT industry are often performed without regarding to the requirements of employers, the demand for certain competencies, the opportunities to continue education at a higher level. To solve the problem of correlation between graduate skills and professional competencies we analyzed IT professional qualifications, as well as professional standards. Model of educational content is based on a system of professional competencies. Various optimization methods are offered for selecting a subset of competencies that are optimal according to certain criteria and satisfy the given constraints. As a result, the classification of the content of all the developed competencies on four levels allows to set the appropriate levels of competencies for skill levels of specialties in IT industry. The developed methods have been successfully tested in the development of the content of training program "Software and administration of information systems" for the profession "Programmer". Testing methods showed the possibility of its widespread use for the development of training programs for the different professions of IT industry.Key words: competencies, professional standard, educational program, curriculum, optimization of educational program content, programmer.
Burdaeva T.V. COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH CONNECTIVE CLAUSES AND THEIR VARIANTS (BASED ON THE GERMAN LANGUAGE)This article aims at pointing out the complex sentences with connective clauses based on the invariant and variant approach in the contemporary German language. The author introduces an invariant, sentence models, their synonymic and prototypical variants. The usage of optimality theory items enables to reveal the optimal and agrammatical candidates of complex sentence models with connective clauses.Key words: complex sentences, connective clauses, prototypical variant, synonymic variant, optimal candidate, agrammatical candidate.
Dmitrieva N.M., Porol O.A. PECULIARITIES OF VERBALIZATION OF THE CONCEPT "HOLINESS" IN THE CHURCH SLAVONIC AND OLD RUSSIAN LANGUAGES: THE ETHICAL DIMENSIONThe concept of "holiness" contains a high ethical burden, is the peak mental moral values. Verbalization of the concept, however, little studied in linguistics. The origins of the dominant ethical burden of verbalization of the concept of "holiness" lies in old Church Slavonic and old Russian languages. An appeal to the dictionaries of this period enables us to identify the ethical fullness of the concept of "holiness", formed by Christian ideology. Comparative analysis of ethical meanings, characteristic of the dominant verbalization concept in old Church Slavonic and old Russian languages (Holiness, Holy, Saint, priesthood, light) allows one to identify the ethical meaning of the fraction concept "holiness": 1) "right believer"; "dedicated"; "all-perfect; righteous; living according to the rules prescribed by the faith", "enlightened by the light of the gospel teachings", "light, clean, immaculate", "sacrament of God"; 2) "with the Holy, blameless, righteous"; "ordained"; "sacred; based on the rules of faith"; "imbued with a sacred authority, sanctifying power", "associated with the Holy, belonging to the Holy"; "Holy, divine; pure, free"; "performing the commandments of God"; 3) "what makes a clear, comprehensible world"; "what makes a joyful, happy life"; "spiritual light"; "clean, pure"; "good, kind"; "blissful"; "education (about baptism)"; "piety". Share ethical meaning of the concept "holiness", implemented in the semantics of the dominant verbalization demonstrate the importance of the mental concept and its inclusion in the ethical sphere of concepts, along with concepts: God, faith, grace, Truth (Christ), truth, truth, righteousness, justice, unity, joy, wonder, piety, honesty, chastity, etc. over the whole study period verbalizing the main concept and their derivatives are highly ethical significance and of constant positive connotation. However, among verbalisation there are a number of ethical words with "opposite" values, which stresses the importance of the concept in Russian mentality.Key words: concept, verbalization concept, ethical loading and ethical meaning of the share mentality, holiness.
Korzinina A.A. THE CRITICAL THINKING OF THE A. FETS CREATIVITY IN THE CZECH REPUBLICThe paper showcases the critical thinking of the A.šFets creativity in the Czech Republic from the end of XIXšcentury up to the present times. This issue has still not been lit in any Russian or Czech literary criticism. Interest in Fet from the Czech literature and Czech interpreters can be associated with the study and critical reflection of the poet in the Soviet and Russian literary criticism, except for the most recent period, when the domestic literary completely revised look at his work and new works devoted to religious and metaphysical component his poetry. There are no literary and critical works devoted to Fet, in the Czech Republic at the beginning of the XXIšcentury. Name of Fet covered by the Czech criticism is very modest in his life and immediately after his death: in the end of XIXšcentury, when among his contemporaries existed a very contradictory attitude towards it, data were only exploratory in nature (his name is only mentioned in the first letter of A.N.šPypin about Russian literature, dating from Decemberš3, 1858.; 1895š— Article in the volume "Scientific Otto encyclopedia";). In XXšcentury, the peak of the critical attention of Czechs to Fet came in 1960–1970-ies,š— a period when in the Soviet Union breaks interest in his work and published his complete works with article B.J.šBuchstab. During these years, there are editions of his book of poems in Czech language, and the introductory articles to them. Also in this period, for his work address the biggest Czech literary critics: Y.šGermanova, D.šJvachek, R.šParolek, I.šGonzik. Then there is a period of neglect, which lasts until today, since certain modern works in the Czech language dealing Fet not found despite a new surge Russian researchers interest in his work. At the beginning of the XXIšcentury. yet, we can talk, that A.A.šFet is present in the Czech literary consciousness, as evidenced by sporadic references to his name, which were found in the publication of the lectures on comparative linguistics by I.šPospisil and the works by O.šRihterek. However, the greatest contribution to the dissemination of information about Fet during this period belong to the Czech scientist M.šZagradka, who inš2005 put some brief information about Fet in his book on Russian literature, and inš2007š— a small introductory article about it in The Dictionary of Russianš— Czech literary relations. But even in these particulars recognized the "classical" perception of the creativity of Fet: the lyric, the predecessor of the Symbolists. Thus, A.A.šFet in the Czech critical perceptionš— Russian classical poet, the predecessor of the Symbolists, the representative of "Pure art", known for its verbless poems, love poetry and descriptions of russian nature, without the religious and metaphysical component of his poetry, as there are no critical works devoted to Fet in the czech literary at the present stage.Key words: A. Fet in the Czech perception, the critical thinking of the A.šFets creativity in the Czech Republic, the Czech criticism of A.šFet, A.N.šPypins letters, M.šZagradka.
Sukhanova Y.A. PROBLEMS OF TAXONOMY AND CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF HORROR-DISCOURSEThe article singles out horror discourse as possessing individual prototype properties, distinguishing it from other discourses including similar ones, like that of fear. It dwells onconstituent elements of horror discourseš— modes, chronotopos, purpose, mentality and ideology, units of discourse (both textual and multimedia). The author highlights horror discourse specific featuresš— its burgeoning within cultural tradition, its suggestive and conventional nature and its appeal for recipients.Key words: horror discourse, suspense, suggestion, frame.
Tomin V.V., Eremina N.V. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' SELF-DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE ONLINE CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFORMATION FIELDThe article deals with the process of formation of a competitive specialist during training at a university, which requires the use of various types of activities that stimulate and stipulate students' self-oriented need for personal and professional growth. Cross-cultural interaction as a productive ground for self-development of students is regarded from the viewpoint of communicative approach and competency to be achieved while mastering a foreign language. Some problems of motivation for studying are also considered (lingua-phobia, unclear educational aims) and some ways to solve them are reviewed (points evaluation system, active methods and techniques). Online-based educational tools involving international participants are reckoned positive, efficient and highly productive measures and steps to boost the level of learners' motivation and their activity. The authors highlight valuable possibilities for cross-cultural interaction among students' bearing an important significance, namely digitally executed interpersonal contacts on dialogue basis among agents of education, organized through different online platforms known as "massive open online courses". Key words: foreign language learning, personal self-development, professional competence, cross-cultural interaction, active methods, teaching techniques, distance learning, massive open online course (MOOC).
Popov V.B. POLITICAL PARTIES AND POWER IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE LEGAL FIELD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG PROVINCE)Wave of the revolution of 1905 caused by the failure to resolve the pressing issues of development of the state and society, has forced the government to embark on the path of dialogue. Freedom given by Nicholas II gave the opposition a legal matter, however, the authoritarian practices of the monarchical government, being entirely focused on the neutralization of the social forces, the lack of tradition of collaboration gave rise to mutually. The low level of political consciousness is not only the common masses, but also among intellectuals, officials, appeared in the period of the legalization of political parties: affected by the lack of democratic traditions, the General low level of education among the population, including many members of the military class. At the same time on the background of frequent offences committed by members of the leftist parties, the assassination of government officials, theft of state property, and so on, acquired monstrous proportions in the country in General and in the Urals, in particular, the region was relatively quiet. Despite this repression has fallen not only on the radical left organizations and associations, and representatives of the Constitutional-democratic party. Although compared to the very left, "cadet" opposition behaved in relation to the state loyally and quite correctly, however, all of this for the government was doubtful. Power, establishing the legal framework for the opposition, sometimes broke them, for the sake of immediate political gain, and sometimes bungling at the local level. In General, attributing all the opposition is equally unlawful tendencies, not wanting to understand all the nuances, nuances, been oppressed and was underestimated truly necessary for the country liberals. Moreover, the attitude of authorities to the parties of the opposition did not differ. It is no coincidence that brought to trial against the "cadets" as witnesses police "habit" claimed "found during a search of the documents of the social Democrats". Thus, the relationship of the parties and the authorities on the national level and in the Orenburg province in particular, both before and after the Manifesto of 17šOctober 1905, can be described as mutually hostile (except the far right) that gave rise eventually 1917.Key words: Orenburg province, opposition, political parties, left, power.
Belova E.B., Kolsanova R.R., Gainutdinov M.Kh., Kalinnikova T.B. SENSITIZATION OF NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY SOCIAL ISOLATION OF SOIL NEMATODES CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANSThe action of social signals on the organism is always adaptive for animals' population. Social signals can regulate population size both through decrease of fecundity and survivability of single animals and decrease of behavior resistance to stressful environment. It is known that central processes of non-specific stress-reaction of rodents involve activation of cholinergic system in their brain. Since many functions of cholinergic system and their mechanisms are highly conserved in the course of evolution, one may propose that cholinergic system of invertebrates responses to stress induced by social isolation of animals just as such of rodents. To investigate the possible influence of social signals on the cholinergic system of invertebrates experiments with free-living soil nematode C.šelegans were performed. In these experiments the sensitivity of swimming induced by mechanical stimulus to acetylcholine esterase inhibitor neostigmine and agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors levamisole and nicotine was estimated for single nematodes and for nematodes incubated in small groups (nš=š3šŸš5). It was shown that group effect alters the reaction of C.šelegans cholinergic system to stress. When nematodes were incubated in groups (nš=š3šŸš5) the resistance of their behavior to partial inhibition of acetylcholine esterase by neostigmine was higher than such of single nematodes. The sensitivity of swimming induced by mechanical stimulus to levamisole and nicotine of nematodes incubated individually was much higher than such of nematodes incubated in groups (nš=š3šŸš5). Therefore the activation of cholinergic system of C.šelegans by sensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is involved to its response to environmental stress.Key words: Caenorhabditis elegans, social isolation, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, social signals, behavior.
Zolotarev P.N. IDENTIFICATION OF SENSITIVITY OF FUNGI TO PHYTOCOMPOUNDSFrom year to year in modern pharmacology importance of the issue of search of antimycotic activity compound is growing. Firstly that is due to growing incidence of fungal skin and mucous membranes diseases. So among research in the contemporary scientific literature we can more often read about studies on antimycotic activity of phytocompounds. The work explores the sensitivity of fungi that cause injuries of human skin and mucous membranes to phytocompounds, containing phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. The material for the study is 39šstrains of fungi that cause injuries of human skin and mucous membranes (Trichophytonšspp., Microsporum canis, Candida albicans). Serial double dilutions in solid breeding substratum method applied to determine sensitivity of microbes to phytocompounds with phenylpropanoids and flavonoids as a leading group. The average values sensitivity of fungi to phytocompounds expressed in minimum-suppressive concentrations was obtained. Trichophytonšspp., Microsporum canis and Candida albicans have maximum sensitivity to the second fraction of carbon dioxide extract of cloves (IPCš= (55.68š±š13.99)šμg/ml; (83.52š±š14.01)šμg/ml and (26.68š±š7.87)šμg/ml, respectively). Fungi have multi-directional sensitivity to phytosamples, while the sensitivity of microorganisms depends both on the type of the pathogen and chemical nature of phytosamples. As a result of experiments sensitivity of microbes to phytocompounds containing phenylpropanoids and flavonoids was studied. Also it was proved that fungi that cause injuries of human skin and mucous membranes have sensitivity to phytocompounds and the sensitivity depends on a type of a microbe.Key words: fungi, sensitivity, phytocompounds.
Polyakov V.Yu., Revutskaya I.L. THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF THE UPPER DIAGNOSTIC HORIZONS OF URBAN ANTHROPOGENIC SOILS OF BIROBIDZHANThe influence of urbanization processes on enzymatic activity of anthropogenic modified soils to date is insufficiently studied problem. Objective: to investigate the enzymatic activity of the upper diagnostic horizons U urbik, AYur, RAT urban anthropogenic soils of Birobidzhan. It is shown that the activity of such enzymes as: catalase, invertase, urease, phosphatase decreases in the next row diagnostic top soil horizons: culturozemš— recreazemš— replantazemš— konstruktzemš— urbanozem. To the established features of urban anthropogenic soils of Birobidzhan include: alkalinity, soils are neutral and slightly alkaline (pH fromš6.6 toš7.4), compared to natural, relatively unmodified, brown forest weakly acidic (pH 5.5–6.5) and soddy-alluvial acidic (pH 4.0–5.5) soil of the city, low cation exchange capacity less than 15šmmol/100šg soil, low humus content less thanš4š%, small and moderate power diagnostic horizons. The enzymatic activity of the upper diagnostic horizons based on the catalase, invertase, urease, phosphatase characterized as low, and the degree of enrichment of poor soil enzymes. Lowest set the activity of enzymes in diagnostic upper horizon of urbik U urbanozem: catalaseš— (1.0š±š0.1)šml O2/min/1šg soil, invertaseš— (1.8š±š0.2)šmg glucose/1šg of soil for 24šhours, ureaseš— (2.0š±š0.2)šmg NH3/10šg of soil for 24šhours, phosphataseš— (0.5š±š0.1)šmg P2O5 /100šg of soil for 1šhour. The most established activity of enzymes in diagnostic upper horizon of AYur culturozem: catalaseš— (2.8š±š0.3)šml O2/min/1šg of soil, invertaseš— (8.2š±š0.7)šmg glucose/1šg of soil for 24šhours, ureaseš— (4.2š±š0.4)šmg NH3/10šg of soil for 24šhours, phosphataseš— (1.3š±š0.2)šmg P2O5 /100šg of soil for 1šhour. The main conclusion: the enzymatic activity of the upper diagnostic horizons U urbik, AYur, RAT urban anthropogenic soils of Birobidzhan on the catalase, invertase, urease, phosphatase can be characterized as low and the degree of enrichment of poor soil enzymes.Key words: activity of enzymes, soil city, soil types.
Rusinov A.P., Kucherenko M.G. HOLOGRAPHIC REGISTRATION METHOD OF NONRADIATIVE DEACTIVATION EXCITED STATE MOLECULES IN POLYMER FILM. INFLUENCE OF METAL NANOPARTICLESWhen interacting condensed matter systems with electromagnetic field it is necessary to consider the processes of nonradiative decay of electronic excitation energy of molecules. However, existing registration methods of nonradiative processes are related to methodological errors and low sensitivity measurements. In this paper, we proposed a method of improving measurement sensitivity of thermal field generated by nonradiative deactivation excited state molecules, through the use of holographic methods. In this case the temperature field initiated by spatially periodic field of pump pulse generated the holographic phase grating. Therefore diffraction signal of probe beam on single grating period increased as square of structure periods number. Some limitation of this method is relatively fast thermal relaxation of the lattice. However, in some mechanism of grid recording this limitation becomes irrelevant. So in polymer films under impact of intense radiation pumping on the polymer surface is recorded relief grating, the depth of which is proportional to temperature in polymer volume. In this case, the lifetime of relief structure is several orders of magnitude larger than thermal grating, which greatly simplifies the experimental registration of surface relief dynamics. This technique allows to experimentally measuring the nonradiative transitions efficiency depending on sample microstructure or environmental conditions. For approbation this method influence of silver nanoparticles on nonradiative transitions in polymer films is studied. It is shown that adding nanoparticles increased the amplitude of relief gratings reordered on the film surface by swelling mechanism, indicating the intensification of nonradiative deactivation processes of electronic excitation energy of dye molecules. It is found that the influence of silver nanoparticles on nonradiative processes for molecules with low quantum yield in metastable (triplet) state (rhodamineš6G) is much higher than for molecules with a large quantum yield in this state (erythrosine).Key words: nonradiative transitions, holographic method, laser swelling of polymer, relief-phase grating, silver nanoparticle.
|Sergey Aleksandrovich |