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Orenburg State University october 22, 2021 RU/EN
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№ 4(204),25april2017

doi:10.25198/1814-6457-2017-204-4

Pedagogics

Karataeva T.A. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE FORMATION OF CIVIL IDENTITY OF MODERN TEENAGERSThis article focuses on the role of major social institutions in the formation of civil identity of modern students as value characteristics of their personal development in the modern information society. Special importance is given to the author of the educational system performs the function of socialization in a teenager's life, in the context of implementation of Federal state educational standards of second generation and implementation of system-active approach in the learning process. The formation of civil identity of the students acts as a state task, the solution of which rests with the main public institutions, and therefore can not be achieved in natural circumstances, in need of rational organization. Describing the family influence on the formation of civil qualities of the children, the author substantiates the idea of a significant divergence in the understanding of the main categories of the phenomenon of civic identity in adults and young people, due to the differences of their epistemological features. In assessing the impact of media on formation of civil identity of high school students should carefully consider the risk of a distorted perception of reality and imposing image of the citizen do not have a conscious basis. The author comes to the conclusion about the necessity of axiological and subjective approaches to the process of purposeful formation of civil identity of pupils in the modern school, because education as a social institution performs the state order, based on the exemplary program of subjects and standards that guides the educational activities of teachers in relation to the younger generation. It is important to recognize the importance of the interconnection of family, school, media, entourage adolescents in the development of their civilian capacities, social activity, subjective position.Key words: civic identity, social institution, subjectivity, axiological approach.
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Kiselyova Zh.I., Shlyapnikova V.V. PHYSICAL SELF-EDUCATION AND SELF-IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTHealth is the most important quality is the premise of self-realization of the younger generation and their active and long life, ability to reproduce, to educational and professional work, to social and political activism. Many people define health as a value and put it in the first place in a personal hierarchy of values, however, do not take specific action towards its conservation and enhancement. But maintaining an appropriate level of health is an important life skill of the person throughout life journey. The health of the younger generation in the process of learning is affected by many factors. But, it is subjective factors that characterize their way of life and have a direct impact on health. The state of health of the younger generation is complicated by the presence of major and southst of existing diseases. Given this, the article identifies the need to promote physical self-education and self-improvement of students with visual impairment to maintain and promote health. It is very important that each student understand the importance of physical self-education and self-improvement for your health, and for the formation of physical culture personality. The study revealed that about half of first-year students have a visual impairment, some of whom do not know their diagnosis, and therefore, the possible consequences of the disease. Those who do not know their diagnosis are not engaged in physical culture on their own, which does not allow to fully implement the process for the preservation and strengthening of health. The achievement of physical self-education and self-improvement is possible thanks to: theoretical classes on the topics of significance of physical culture for people with visual impairment; drawing up a personal plan of physical self and its implementation; keeping a diary of self-control. Performing the proposed work of the student with visual impairment develop skills of self-control, self-knowledge, introspection, self-correction, etc., and accordingly there will be a process of preserving and strengthening health. Key words: students with visual impairment, health, self-education, self-improvement, physical culture.
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Kostryukov A.V., Pavlov S.I., Semagina Y.V. GEOMETRO-GRAPHIC LANGUAGE, AS A MEANS OF CREATING COMMUNICATIVE TECHNICAL CULTURE OF STUDENTS-BACHELORSThe urgent request of the industry for the qualified engineering personnel has led to the need for a critical analysis of current system of their training. The ongoing education reform, including the university education, resulted in losing prestige the educational ranking of was lost. The transition to a multi-stage higher education has led to the need of restructuring the whole system of the higher school, its adaptation to the new conditions. This is not a simple process, and as applied to engineering disciplines it is exacerbated by the flawed restructuring of the secondary school. The authors attempt to critically evaluate the current situation and identify possible ways of adjusting training methods for undergraduate students of technical specialities. It is revealed that the most important for engineering training are the disciplines of geometric-graphic cycle. The article presents that the training of creative specialists is impossible without the development of their geometric and graphic communicative culture with the help of the geometric-graphic language and its terminology. The process of forming a geometric-graphic knowledge, abilities and skills, as the components of communicative technical culture of professionals who have special technical and semantic relations is based on the development of students's geometric-graphic thesaurus. Students develop it in the phased multi-faceted study of the geometric-graphic discipline. The formation of the communicative technical culture of engineering students-bachelors is only possible through the activation techniques for mastering practical skills of geometric-graphical language. The design of didactic materials focused on the development of students' self-organized and creative academic activities and educators' ability to stimulate students' motivated and active participation in the study process will contribute to this goal. It is also important to organize a pre-University geometric-graphic training. It will aim at filling gaps in geometric and graphic knowledge that students get or miss to get in high schools.Key words: geometro-graphic language, communicative technical culture, students-bachelors, pre-university training, drawing, engineering graphics.
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Philological sciences

Agarkova O.A., Baymuratova U.S. ILLOCUTIONARY SPEECH ACTS IN THE TEXTS OF THE POSTCARDS OF THE “POSTCROSSING” PROJECT“Postcrossing” is a project, where a new form of verbal communication of English-language discourse was originated. We have already highlighted some linguopragmatic peculiarities of the texts of postcards of this project (the main functions, specifics of communication, the stability of the composite structure, etc.), but nevertheless this linguistic object of the theory of natural written speech continues to be understudied. The article analyzes the illocutionary speech acts functioning in the texts of the postcards of the project “Postcrossing”. the peculiarity of etiquette formulae of greeting, references, suggestions, farewell, inherent in the genre of natural written speech are examined. It is determined that the illocutionary force of requests can only be submitted by the vocational act. The greeting contains a reference to a wide range of toponyms of the different scale. The intention of the wish always expresses amiability and it is manifested in the lexical and grammatical level. The purpose of farewell as the final situation of communication is to finish the contact with the addressee. The study reveales that the neutral contact-establishing and contact-disunifying statements predominate due to the written communication between strangers. Thanks to componentized and contextual analyses the lexical representation of utterances is identified, and it is characterized by a positive connotative meaning, and is defined by a specific list of lexical units.Key words: postcrossing, postcard, speech act, formula of etiquette, compellation, wish, farewell.
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Fedoriniv A.V. LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN TRANSLATION INTO FRENCH OF THE STORY OF A.S.PUSHKIN “QUEEN OF SPADES”Strengthening of Russia on the international scene promotes the increasing interest in her life, literature. Particular interest of foreign readers is shown to works of art of classics: I.S.Turgenev, L.N.Tolstoy, F.M.Dostoyevsky, A.S.Pushkin, etc. which are translated into French not always qualitatively. In translation of the story of A.S.Pushkin “Queen of spades” from Russian into French lexical transformations come to light. The quantitative and qualitative analysis has shown that the most frequency transformations in translation are additions (19,8%), replacements (67,5%), omissions (11,6%), shifts (1,1%). The algorithm of preparation for the translation of the literary text is offered. First, acquaintance to all historical events reflected in the work of art of the author. Secondly, studying of all chronicles in which there is information, useful to the translator. Thirdly, acquaintance to customs and traditions of ethnos into which language the literary text will be translated. Fourthly, finding of the paremias presenting difficulty for the translator; selection of an equivalent by him. Fifthly, identification of realities of the authentic text, their explanation. Sixthly, use of tracks and figures of the art text. Seventhly, preservation of “language” of the writer. Eighthly, respect for adequacy and equivalence of the translation of the literary work at the lexical and syntactic levels. The reasons which have reduced translation quality are established: 1) difficulties in translation: a) realities; b) paremias; 2) distinction in a language picture of the world: les laquais— servants, but not waiters— les garçons; 3) there is no concept “middle name” of French for the official address to people; 4) omission of toponyms and proper names; 5) insufficient knowledge translator of historical events and positions; 6) the big percent of omissions in the translating language has indicated certain difficulties in translation of realities and aspiration of the translator to economy of language means that it is inherent in French. The offered variants of translation will give to the work of art more color, expressivity and adequacy. Key words: cross-cultural communication, the translation, the art text, a language picture of the world, the authentic text, the source language translating language, lexical transformations.
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Shchelokova I.D., Sapukh T.V. IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOSE READING METHOD IN INTEGRATED TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATUREIntegration, as a process and a result of unification and establishment of links between various elements and branches of knowledge, plays an important role in the modern educational process. Integration of English language and literature into a single course has a great potential for learning, as it describes the language from different sides— internal structure and grammar, vocabulary and the specifics of its use, history and culture of native speakers. Close reading method is the focus of interest in our research. Close reading is a specific method of literary analysis that implies attentive thoughtful reading of classic literature. This method allows analyzing the text's structure and gradually comprehending its meaning by examining each word, its interaction with other expressions, and the reason why the author included it in the text. Then the interpretation of a small piece extends on the whole text. The implementation of this method includes five stages: first reading and underlining specific words and images, second reading and analysis of previously written words; general interpretation; search for historical and cultural context and additional information; individual interpretations. The poem “On Welbeck, the Duke of Newcastle's House” by Richard Fleckno served as the basis of Close reading method in the present study. Close reading method helps to understand the meaning of literary work based on analysis of specific words, images, stylistic devices in addition to historical and cultural context. Students can also transfer new abilities on other pieces of information in everyday life: it helps to reveal the true meaning of political speech, newspaper article, advertisement, scientific work or document; it becomes easier for students to write literary or scientific work of their own, pass international English language proficiency tests.Key words: integration, integrated approach, methodology of teaching English, methodology of teaching foreign literature, method, “close reading”.
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Yakovluk A.N., Kataeva S.V., Polyanichko M.V. HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH METHOD OF THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GERMAN LANGUAGE IN THE PERIOD OF XII–XVIII CENTURIESComparative historical research method gives the opportunity to show the process of formation of modern grammatical systems, the formation of the vocabulary of languages.The analysis of the material reveals the following main features of the formation of the German national literary language in the period of XII–XVIII centuries. Changes in the systems of declension and conjugation. The growing use of real time (presence) in the description of past events.World-building played a significant role in the word formation of early high German language in compounding. Many older lexical items in new meanings. Due to the economic and social changes the special languages of different social groups began to shape actively, from which many words and expressions entered in the national language. Latin language had a great influence, the meaning of other languages decreased in comparison with Latin. Most significant for the development of a national German language was East-Central region of Germany, which was a kind of mixture of low German, Central and high German elements. Thus, due to this method, it is possible to schematically present the main features of the formation of German national literary language in the period from XII to XVIII centuries. Key words: German national language, grammatical form, vocabulary, composites, word formation.
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Biology

Bogoutdinov D.Z., Kastalyeva T.B., Girsova N.V. VIRAL DISEASES OF CEREAL CROPS IN SAMARA REGIONLately, the spread of viral diseases on cereals has increased in Samara oblast. Lack of opportunities for farmers to use the diagnostic tools or express-methods (test strips) as well as of trained personnel with knowledge of the most common pathogens of viral diseases complicates diagnosis and application of adequate measures for prevention of the diseases. There are mainly 8diseases of cereal crops causing by viral infections in the European Russia, including Samara region. Seven of the nine viruses described in the article have been identified in Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, using, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. They are most common and harmful. Russian winter wheat mosaic disease is caused by Winter wheat Russian mosaic cytorhabdovirus. Epidemiology is determined by the reservation of the virus in perennial plants and leafhoppers-vectors: Psammotettix striatusL. and Macrosteles laevis Rib. Stripe mosaic wheat disease caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus. Epidemiology defines by mite-vectors: Aceria tritici Schev., and Aceria tosichella Kiefer. Stripe mosaic barley disease caused by Barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus. Epidemiology defines by transmission via seeds, mainly in barley and wheat. Brome mosaic disease is caused by Brome mosic virus. Epidemiology is determined by contact transmission through insects, mites and nematodes. Soil-borne wheat mosaic disease and spindle-streak wheat mosaic disease: causal agents are Soil-borne wheat mosaic furovirus and Wheat streak mosaic bymovirus. Epidemiology depends on plasmodiophorida Polymyxa graminis Ledingham. Barley yellow dwarf disease is caused by two viruses: Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus. Epidemiology is defined by transfer with aphids, such as Rhopalosiphum padiL., Sitobium avenae Fabricius, Shizaphis graminum Rondani, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch., and others. Pseudorosette disease (zakuklivanie) of cereals is caused by Oat pseudorosette virus and unidentified phytoplasma. Epidemiology is determined by reservoir-plants of the family Poaceae and leafhopper vector Laodelphax striatellus Fall. To prevent the spread of viral diseases of cereals, it is advisable to use the integrated methods of plant protection. Key words: grain crops, viruses, carriers, epifitotiologiya.
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Glukhovskaya M.Y. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY AND REGIONAL TERRITORY STABILITY ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG REGIONAbstract. Justification of ecosystem sustainability and its ecological stability is one of the urgent problems of our time the solution of which will allow us to develop methods of environmentally safe and harmonious development of the region. Definition of ecosystem sustainability is based on the ratio of territories under the elements of favorable and negative impacts. The heterogeneity of the influence and the ecological significance of each biotechnical element are taken into account in the determining of the stability. The assessment of these parameters is based on the landscape elements identification and their subdivision into predetermined categories in accordance with the structural distribution of the land fund. The main categories include forest, agricultural, settlements, industrial, natural conservation, stock and water lands. Their share on the territory of Orenburg region is 88.5, 5.2, 3.2, 2.1, 0.6, 0.25, 0.15% respectively. Agricultural land is divided into arable land (55.9%), fodder land (43.5%), perennial plantations (0.6%). Analysis of land distribution allowed us to define time area changes of separate categories and the degree of influence on environment sustainability and territory stability. The maximum stability value is 0.79 when the optimum is at least1. The stability coefficient is 0.36 and it is 29.5% below the minimum rate. A number of discrepancies has been identified in the relation to maximum ecological parameters: a large area of agricultural lands (88.5% with the rate for the steppe zone 60–65% and optimum 40%), a high level of plowing (more than 50% at the rate 40–45%), extremely low part of the forest fund (5.16% at the rate 10–15% and the optimum 15–20%) and a shortage of natural systems in area land composition in general (SPNT 0.19–0.64%). The obtained results indicate the violation of ecological system sustainability limit and low level territory stability. The solution of the problem is the introduction of environmental zoning system that makes possible to differentiate the approach to load reduction on the Orenburg region land fund.Key words: land fund, land fund structure, ecological sustainability, ecological stability, maximum permissible environmental loads.
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Lyashenko I.E. HISTORIOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MONOGRAPH BY K.V.PUPYREV ABOUT THE FIRST EPIDEMIC OF CHOLERA ON THE ORENBURG TERRITORY (1829–1833)The study of the process of accumulation of theoretical and empirical data about cholera is of great epistemological importance in order to restore the historical picture of the formation of scientific knowledge. In this aspect the analysis of the monograph “description of the epidemic disease called cholera, which opened in1829 with the onset of autumn in the city of Orenburg and the Orenburg District, outlining the method of treatment, a physician compiled the first branch by PupyrevK.V.” as the first source of generalized information on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cholera in the territory of the Orenburg region. The basis of the monograph began monitoring the first epidemic of cholera in the Orenburg region in the first half of the nineteenth century. The presented materials are the result of activities of doctors Orenburg to combat cholera in the period when there was no knowledge about the pathogen and the basic laws of the clinic and epidemiology of the disease. The monograph extensively presents the clinical descriptions, reasoning about the causes and paths of infection. Of particular importance in the development of scientific knowledge on this issue are generalizations, arguments, conclusions, inferences made by the author. Shows the value of the first monograph on cholera in the Orenburg region in the development of scientific knowledge in diagnosis and prevention of this disease. The monograph of K.V.Pupyrev is of great historiographical value, as the first research performed on specific empirical observations at the sick-bed during the first epidemic of cholera in the Orenburg region. Gnoseological aspect of the monograph emphasizes the unique experience of Russian medicine in the study of Asiatic cholera. The monograph of K.V.Pupyrev was more accessible to a wide range of practitioners, rather than official archives, contributing to the improvement of medical knowledge and experience in the liquidation in subsequent periods of cholera epidemics in Russia.Key words: Orenburg region, epistemology, monograph, cholera.
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Rusanov A.M., Ibadullayeva S.Zh., Nurgaliyeva A.A., Usen K. ORGANIZATION OF AN ASSESSMENT ALPHA AND BETA DIVERSITIES OF NATURAL VEGETATION OF NORTHEAST PRIKASPIYDevelopment of a vegetable cover in the conditions of the seaside plain of Caspian Depression happens in the following sequence: the first settler on the slabozasolennykh sandy marches is reed, at bigger salinization— klubnekamyish, on saline soils reed and are replaced one-year svedy. If initial salinization is very considerable, then becomes pervoposelenets . In process of lowering of ground waters (0.7–0.8m are deeper) he is replaced svedy or solyanka of soda which give way further to a frankeniya, an akmamyk, a fire, a tonkonog and a petrosimoniya. In the conditions of strong initial salinization of deposits of east part of the seaside plain by the pioneer in development of the territory is . In process of depreciation in ground waters and a rassoleniye of soils it is replaced reed, light, , and further— one-year solyankas of an izlaka (akmamyk iazhrek). Subsequently one-year solyankas are forced out biyurguny, and cereals— an ice-hole. Distinctive feature of a vegetable cover of Prikaspiya is its spatial heterogeneity— complexity. From the factors defining spatial distribution of vegetation leading moistening conditions, salinity and mechanical composition of soils, and also a relief are. Results field botanical researches in the territory of the State National wildlife reserve Akzhayik are given in this article. It is provided data of results of monitoring of a vegetable cover. Monitoring of biometric indicators of plants and an assessment of structure of vegetation on monitoring platforms and experimental sites on phytomelioration is carried out. The condition of a tsenopopulyation of vegetable communities is studied. It is revealed that growth of population of plants happens on all monitoring platforms in the conditions of a close bedding and salinization of ground waters.Key words: vegetation, monitoring, relief, floristics, tsenopopulyation, botanical researches.
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Savin E.Z., Azarov .I., Demenina L.G. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF APPLE TREES ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGIONLow-growing fruit trees on weak-growing clonal rootstocks are best suited to the requirements of intensive gardening. Vegetatively produced clonal rootstocks of apple created by V.I.Budagovsky, S.N. Stepanov, A.Veytenberg, O.K.Dyadchenko, P.K.Shuvalov allowed to grow trees with early appearance of fruit, with the limited dimensions and high productivity in Central Russia, the Volga region and the Urals. The experiment was done on middle-growth dwarf trees and high-growth trees the conditions of the Middle Volga, in Samara. The most productive trees were grown on middle-growth rootstock. Harvest exceeded by 51.8% of the trees on the high-growth rootstock and by 17.3% on dwarfs ones. The cost price on middle-growth rootstock was 8.9rubles, on dwarf 12.0rubles, in control 10.1rubles. The highest profitability of 27.3% was in the option for middle-growth rootstocks, which is 2.5times higher than in the control sample. In conditions of insufficient moisture in the Middle Volga most profitable crops were on middle-growth rootstock 57-233.Key words: rootstock, cion, production cost, return on investment, profitability.
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Jurisprudence

Ivanova S.V. PROBLEMS OF IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEM OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES OF MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTION AND USE OF FAUNAIn the decision of problems of maintenance of rational use and protection of fauna the role of the government is great. The role of public administration in the protection and rational use of wildlife is determined by the importance of state bodies in the mechanism for the protection of wildlife. Thus, at present a large number of state bodies, to a greater or lesser extent, exercise powers in the field of the protection and use of wildlife. However, there is no single stable system of state bodies in this sphere. The transfer of federal authority to the level of the subjects did not bring significant results. In order to optimize the current system of government in the protection and use of wildlife, it is proposed to develop the following model for the organization of the system of public administration. In the structure of Rosprirodnadzor of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, it is expedient to set up the Department for the Protection and Use of Wildlife (Okhotdepartament). At the level of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the Territorial Departments for the Protection and Use of Wildlife (Okhotupravleniya) will be subordinate to the Okhotdepartament. In fact, it is intended to transfer powers for the protection and use of wildlife (hunting resources and non-hunting objects) from the regional administration to the Federal Service for Supervision of Nature Management and its territorial bodies. Of course, this model requires further development, but in our opinion will lead to the following positive results: a unified procedure for resolving issues on the sustainable use and conservation of wildlife will be established; funding for conservation and use of wildlife will increase.Key words: State management, objects of fauna, system of state bodies, legislation on fauna.
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Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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