Astapenko E.V. MOTIVATIONAL RESOURCES OF A PERSON FOR SUCCESSFUL TRAINING AND SELF-IMPROVEMENTThe article deals with issues of improving the efficiency of education. Success at school and high school, as well as self-improvement depends on several factors, the most important of which are the motivation, both external and internal, specific objectives, internal readiness for learning and self-development. Parents, teachers, and educatorsplaya very important role in the development of educational motivation of schoolchildren. The best teachers, who are able to motivate students, have specific personal and professional characteristics, among which the following can be mentioned: enthusiasm, energy, humor, leadership, compassion, kindness, selfless love for children and a profession, a positive attitude and justice. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual; it is based on a strong human desire to achieve certain goals. Targeted human activities motivate a person to act. Intrinsic motivation, aimed at intellectual development, allow a person to improve in the professional field in the near future and to learn throughout life. The author concludes that the motivational resources of the person are almost inexhaustible; they help the person to develop and cultivate all his/her life. The main components of a successful motivational training and self-improvement are the internal energy, hard work, inspiration, creativity, intuition, imagination, ability to concentrate, a sense of urgency of problems and the value of time.Key words: external and internal learning motivation, resources, personality, teacher, education, self-improvement, goals, values, energy.
Zaritskaya L.A. ABOUT CULTURAL LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE DESIGNER IN HIGH SCHOOLIn the article the author gave a detailed analysis of the formation of cultural linguistics as an independent branch of linguistics. This article from a scientific point of view describes the origins of humanitarian disciplines "Cultural linguistics", its object, subject, identified the main contradiction. Relevance of the work is engaged in cultural linguistics language, it makes it possible a systematic study the language and culture. The article shows and analyzes in detail the scientific categories such as "language", "culture" "society" and "professional linguistic development". Language is seen as a social and culturally conditioned phenomenon. Culture acts as a product of social activity of the people. Society served as a collection of people united not only the mode of production of material wealth but spiritual goods, where the language is organizing its fundamental element. Professional linguistic development is seen by the author as a combination of professional and linguistic knowledge in the disciplines of directions "Design" and "Foreign Language". So, the article is referred to as a language, culture, cultural linguistic development and professional linguistic development in teaching students a foreign language in high school. This aspect is multifaceted and multidimensional. The article answers the question why cultural linguistics has extensive research, interpretive modeling potential. The importance of this work is obvious from a position of cultural linguistic development of high school students. Key words: language, linguistics, cultural linguistics, cultural linguistic development.
Kiryakova A.V., BÅrÏeva E.A. AXIOLOGICAL ASPECTS ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPECIALISTThe system of additional professional education is considered from the point of view of process and result, the axiological development of professional competence of a specialist. The most important direction of development of professional competence is a definition perspective of value orientations. The essence of professional competence of a specialist is determined by the willingness to solve current and prospective problems and tasks. The study of the value consciousness of the expert, allows deeper to reveal the underlying mechanisms of its work and value orientations that underlie their professional competence. Value orientations are an essential component of professional consciousness of the expert, is a regulator of professional conduct specialist. The development of professional competence from the perspective of the implementation of axiological approach presented on the example of the work of the Intersectoral regional center for advanced training and professional retraining of specialists of the Orenburg state University. Based on the experience of implementation of additional professional programs, pedagogical conditions of development of professionally significant values of a specialist. In the system of additional professional education is the development of professional competence, forming the axiological basis of intellectual development and moral and spiritual formation specialist.Key words: professional competence, axiological, continuous education, professional qualifications, value, value orientation specialist.
Krysko V.G., Tuaeva K.G. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF OSSETIAN NATIONAL CHARACTERIn our study we proceed from the generally accepted definition of national character, according to which it is historically formed stable set of psychological traits of the nation, determining the habitual manner of behavior and typical lifestyle of people, their attitude to work, to other people, to their culture.The national character intertwined the elements of consciousness, ideology, moral culture, behavior and social psychology. The attitude to the environment characterizes the focus of national consciousness of people. The features of this group of national character are such as conservatism, religion, optimism, pessimism, etc. Our study of evaluating of the national character of growing up representatives of the Ossetian ethnos, namely teenagers and young men, gave the idea of the differences in orientation to the native culture from different generations. Modern teenagers, living on the territory of Vladikavkaz, are more focused on their own culture, on knowledge and respect of national traditions, customs, on development of their native language than the Ossetian young people. Also, significant differences were found among adolescents and seniors in their assessments of personal traits of the Ossetians: the seniors suppose that the Ossetians are more hospitable than friendly. The adolescents think on the contrary. The seniors characterize the Ossetians, first of all, as patriots, courageous, brave, gentle and good people, respected their elders. The teenagers also add intelligence and honesty to kindness and courage in their representation of the Ossetian people. Also, among the seniors such qualities of the Ossetians were mentioned as pride, hardworking, integrity, dedication, generosity, hospitality, perseverance. Among the teenagers the Ossetians are considered to be supporting each other, modest and strong people. At the same time among socially unacceptable qualities of the Ossetians, the seniors named arrogance, short temper and aggressiveness. The teenagers mentioned laziness, irritability, bragging. Thus, it appears that the views of the younger generation in evaluating of the national character of a typical representative of the Ossetian ethnic group are in general similar, but there are also some significant differences.Key words: ethnopsychological investigation. forms and directions of cultural development, ethnos, culture, traditionalism, autostereotypes, national traditions, national character, differences in national psyhology of yuong ossetians.
Permiakova E.G. CONCEPTUAL TAXONOMY OF ENGLISH VERBS FOR GETTINGThe article is devoted to the study of a concept of "getting' in the English language. The category "possessivity" reflects the diversity of methods and types of possession or receipt of goods by benefactive subject and contains a concept of "receiving" which belongs to the category of dynamic models for the sequential actualization of such conceptual features as benefaction, privation, of conversion in combination with additional conceptual features. An attempt was made to build a verb taxonomic model. Verbs of receiving which have the invariant conceptual features form a superordinate level, expressed by English verbs to get and to take. The categorization is on the vertical principle, in which the conceptual features of basic level are inherited by the frame structure of a subordinate level. Vertical links are formed by the genetic connection and every element of the subordinate levels is relevant to elements of a basic and a superordinate levels. Horizontal relations are formed between the equivalent elements of the same level and they are necessary for propositionalization of frames. Basic and subordinate levels are presented by conceptual features with vertical and horizontal connections, categorizing which generates subframes. In the structure of the concept of "receiving" at a basic level, we highlight two major areas: first, the conceptual traits are genetically correlated to the features of the verb to get; second, some conceptual features are verbalized by the verb to take. Subordinate level is genetically traced back to the higher level, and it consists of the most concrete conceptual features and manifests nonrigidity of the studied taxonomy.Key words: cognitive linguistics, conceptual features, concept "getting', taxonomy, contextual analysis.
Popova N.B. TYPOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SOME LANGUAGE SITUATIONS AT THE DYNAMICS OF GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS (SINGLE-COMPONENT LANGUAGE SITUATION IN ICELAND) The paper studies the typological features of some linguistic situations, emerging as a result of geopolitical factors in the foreign and internal policy of the states. The up-to-date geopolitics notion reflects the phenomenon which in reality has existed always as a desire to expand the confines of one state at the expense of others. On a large scale, the geopolitical factors stimulate the nonlinear processes dynamics of social chaos, which are the wars and social calamities as a effect. After the chaos of social calamities becomes a search of relatively new stable state (structure) of social order. The chaos, which comes with wars, contributes to appearance different types of language situations leading to transformations of world languages. Because with the course of time the language situations define the concrete changes in usage of earlier installed language units. The language situation notion is an ambiguous phenomenon having numerous characters which, it seems, don't can receive a hierarchical classification. Though in our domestic linguistics were defined some typological differential characteristics, proper for different types and conditions of language situations realizations. The most common for many countries and peoples is a plural-component language situation in the structure of one language. However in the network of present paper weal studied non-typical single-component language situation in the structure of one language. The single-component language situation reflects any dominant idiom in the structure of one language. The idiom ("special feature, diversity" from Greek) is the language formation as a language or his variant: any dialect, koine, literary language, colloquial language, slang, professional argot. The single-component language situation is the dominance of any listed idiom. And it is an uncommon form of language situation in the structure of one language. As such example many linguists give the language situation in Iceland. The aim of this paper is the study of geopolitical factors which stipulated this type of language situation. Key words: migration, geopolitics, linguistic situation, chaos, world war, ethnic community.
Strenadyuk G.S., Strenadyuk E.B. IMPORTANCE OF PRONOMINAL WORDS IN SUPPORTING OF TEXT UNITYThe article deals with one of the basic text theory's problems, namely an attainment of text's coherence using pronominal words. The class of words called the pronominal words is described in the present article. The group of pronouns is replenished by certain range of lexical tokens which are subjected to the process of pronominalization. The pronominal words haven't yet been the target of research from this point of view, they're only mentioned in few some theory's papers. The article authors separate the pronominal words from all the major parts of speech, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. The article investigates the pronouns which as well as the most of the words belong to so called "open classes", in other words there's a certain range of lexical tokens that can replenish the structure of the pronoun's class which undergo the process of pronominalization. As the authors have noted, the main source of pronouns class's replenishment are eurysemy words. Eurysemy is a breeding ground for the pronoun. By virtue of these words a language is capable to convey a special content in more compressed form. Thus, the pronominal words are one of the eurysemy words's evolutionary ways. The "circle of pronominal substitutions" term of pronominal word is introduced in the article, it denotes all the nominations instead of which the pronominal words act as substitutes. The given circle is rather wide as it includes all the primary nominations substituted by both individual words and word combinations. The authors have analyzed deictic, substitutive, condensing, phatic functions of pronominal words. Every pronominal word has certain function. However, the functions aren't strictly assighned to the pronominal words, in a context one and the same pronominal word can perform several functions. At this rate, the paper covers an interesting layer of lexics thanks to which text is perceived as a coherent whole. This quality of a text is achieved by means of so called eurysemy words, which take a special place in lexical body of the language. These particular words, as authors note, are an advantageous basis for pronoun which is necessary condition for text institutionalization.Key words: pronominal words, text unity, deictic, substitutive, condensing, phatic functions, text coherence, anaphoric and cataphoric pronouns, anthropomorphical and non-anthropomorhical pronouns, eurysemy words.
Sujnbayeva A.Zh., Bukharbayev M.A. INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE AS PART OF AVIATION TERMINOLOGYThe article briefly presented the concept to the international vocabulary, considered an international vocabulary of technical terms in aviation and methods of education. And also, it is the largest number of international terms in certain thematic groups aviation terminology with percentages.Key words: International vocabulary, technical terminology, lexical units, terminoelements differentiation nomenclatures abbreviation
Khudinsha E.A. THE PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH COMPOUND TERMS WORLD BUILDING (ON THE EXAMPLE OF BASIC ECONOMICAL TERMS)The word building models of some English basic compound terms in the economical terminology are examined. The structural and semantic connection between the components of the compound word is underlined. Just because the development of English is constantly improved so the words and word combinations are subjected to the different changes. The changes of the words meanings, the transition from one lexical and grammar category to another, the changes of the meanings lead to the changes of the words functions. In modern society the compound words excite great interest, they form themselves from the words foundation and they are in the definite structural and semantic relations between them. Structural and semantic relations between the components of the compound words represent the original variant of semantic and structural relations of the words in the combinations of words. The changes in the economics, the economical crises excite interest to the economical science in the whole world. To this science its own terminology is usual, in its structure the simple and compound words are used and also the terminological combinations of words, without them one can't understand the meaning of definite economical processes. The etymological analyses of the given basic economical terms expresses the diversity of compound terms borrowings in the English economical terminology, the peculiarities of compound terms word building in English are emphasized, the basic terms are the basis of them. The structural and semantic relations between the components of the compound terms in the English economical terminology allowed determining word-built structural models (Nš+šN, Prepš+šN, Prepš+šV, Aš+šN), which are typical for the examined terminology on the basic terms basis and where the words are underlined to show the definite logical loading in these models. The examination of the structural and semantic relations between the components of the compound terms on the example of some word-built models in English show that independently of its form (some of them we write together and some — with the help of hyphen), the compound terms keep its semantic form based on the basic terms. The main semantic loading in these terms comes to the second (the last element of the word) and the semantic connection between the meanings of two elements represents the subordinating semantic connection.Key words: basic term, etymology, terminology, borrowing, compound term, word building, the structural and semantic relations.
Khusainova L.M. OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF BASHKIR SPELLINGNew areas of language policy requires that every single language has stable spelling and pronouncing rules for the free functioning of the language in all spheres of society. In this regard, at present, not only in the scientific community, but also in society in general, there is a growing interest in the problems of Bashkir spelling, actively discussing the idea of the need to improve certain provisions of the spelling rules to reflect the new socio-cultural linguistic situation. To identify existing problems there is a need to study questions of the history of formation of the Bashkir language spelling. History of the Bashkir spell can not be considered without a tour of the problem in other related languages at certain stages. The article provides an overview of types of phonographic writing, Bashkirs used in different periods. The basic changes to the current spelling Bashkir letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, which can serve to further improve the spelling rules. The author comes to the conclusion that not all previously declared and spelling rules are applied in practice, so before modern linguists Bashkir task is to improve the spelling rules of the modern Bashkir literary language. Key words: Bashkir language, letter, writing, alphabet, spelling, spelling principles, spelling dictionaries.
Debelo P.V., Chibilev A.A., Yakovlev I.G. SOME EKOLOGO-GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF DYNAMICS OF DISTRIBUTION AND NUMBER THE EZHINYKH (INSECTIVORA, EULIPOTYPHLA, ERINACEIDAE) IN URALO-KASPIYSK THE REGIONEzhinye are the most archaic mammals that gives the grounds to consider them as especially vulnerable group. At the same time in a number of habitats they are quite usual types that testifies Ï their considerable ecological potential. According to literary data and personal materials in the region livesš3 quite well genetically, ecologically and topichesk of the hedgehogs isolated a look. Their modern distribution and number are defined by landscape and climatic features and economic development of the territory. Most negatively last affects distribution of the southern hedgehog, especially at the southern limits of his area. For a big-eared hedgehog the happening changes on the most part of the region (especially at northern limits of distribution) were favorable; they favor also to expansion of an ecological niche of a dlinnoigly look. A necessary condition of their preservation is reduction of scales of anthropogenous impact on landscapes.Key words: insectivorous, hedgehogs, area, distribution, number, risk of disappearance.
Elizareva E.N., Yanbaev Y.A., Kulagin A.Y. PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED WATERCurrently the growing flow of heavy metals from wastewater into natural water bodies assumes the character of a global environmental threat. Causing serious environmental damage, heavy metals have biological activity, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, resulting in the poisoning and death of the organism. To minimize the negative effect of heavy metals on the hydrosphere is necessary to develop new and improve existing wastewater treatment methods. The most effective, efficient and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment methods may be based on the ability of plants to accumulate toxicants. In order to select plants suitable for wastewater phytoremediation, the characteristics of the 18šplants grown in the model solutions containing heavy metals were studied. It has been shown that when added a mixture of ions (zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel and chromium), plants absorb them from the solution in smaller amounts than when added into the nutrient solution nickel or cadmium separately. At the same time the mixture of metals is more toxic to plants than individual metals. Heavy metals concentrations in the raw plant biomass were compared with the maximum permissible concentrations of metals in foods and the maximum allowable level of their content in forage. It was found that there is antagonism of metals accumulation by plants and synergism of metals toxic effect. Plant species (2švarieties of zucchini, corn and 1švarieties of cabbage) have been selected for phytoremediation of wastewater containing a mixture of heavy metals, with the possibility of further use of biomass as forage.Key words: heavy metals, toxicity, accumulation, tolerance, translocation, maximum allowable concentration.
Savin E.Z., Azarov O.I., Demenina L.G., Berezina T.W. FRUITFUL TREES OF AN APPLE-TREE ON DWARFISH STOCKS ON AVERAGE THE VOLGA REGIONIn materials of the publication results of studying of a condition of skilled plantings of an apple-tree of a bookmark of 1985–1986 in the conditions of Central Volga area are presented. Apple-tree grades Spartak and Antonovka on various vegetative made multiple copies stocks were objects of research. Results of supervision cover time period fromš1985 toš2015. The assessment of survival of saplings in an orchard and states in 2015 is carried out. Safety of plantings in 2015 was the greatest on a grade Spartak on Paradizke Budagovsky, 62-397, SPS-7, 60-165, a hybrid No. 1, 18-7, 4-1 (Ural-1). On Antonovk's grade ordinary — on 18-7, 4-5, 18-8, 19-3, 4-7. Grade trees Spartak on stocks 3-17-38, 62-396š— 3,8–4,3šm, Antonovk's grades — on 62-396 — 3,8m were the highest. The good harvest of fruits was received in 2013 and 2014. In general for years of supervision the most big crop made on a grade Spartak on stocks of SPS-7 and the Urals-1 (4-1) 2264–1496šc/hectare, is slightly 62-397, 60-165, 18-7, 18-6 less that in relation to control makes 198–248š%. On Antonovk's grade ordinary in group high-yielding the sorto-podvoynykh of combinations it is possible to carry stocks 4-7, 18-8 which productivity by 2–2,5 times exceeds control. The least fruitful were on a grade Spartak on Paradizke Budagovsky, 4-5, and on Antonovk's grade ordinary — 18-6. Thus the forms which remained in a productive state to 30-year age are distinguished from dwarfish stocks.Key words: skilled orchard, grade, dwarfish clonal stocks, survival, safety, productivity.
Tarasova T.F., Petrishchev V.P., Stepanov A.S., Davigora A.V., Kean N.O., Grivko E.V. MATERIALS FOR THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF REGIONAL NATURE RESERVES IN THE TERRITORY GUBERLIN MOUNTAINSFor the territory of Russia is characterized by intense, in some regions the acute ecological situation. Orenburg region refers to the industrial development of regions of Russia. The geographical position of the region and climate have a significant impact on the environment of the region and its biodiversity. Guberlinskoy mountains and Karagai-Guberlinskoy Gorge are natural objects of the Orenburg region, stand out in terms of landscape and biological diversity. They are distinguished by high saturation of unique geological objects, such as mica schistš— the oldest in the region geological formation, limestone reefs, dikes volcanic rocks, intrusive massifs. Within Guberlin mountains noted 7šspecies of plants and 9šspecies of animals listed in the Red Book of the Orenburg region and the Russian Federation. Karagai-Guberlinskoy Gorge is a habitat for species of plantsš6 and 7šspecies with this status. In addition to the environmental value of land reserves for future perspective in the use of tourism potential and has a fairly high capacity tourism. Scientific activity reserves the educational component is assumed to be in the form of increased research and in attracting school summer camps and bases of University practices in the reserve. Creating a regional landscape and biological reserves "Guberlinskoy Mountain" and "Karagay-Guberlinskoy Gorge" is a significant contribution to the stabilization of the ecological situation in the industrialized East Orenburg. This will increase the area of a regional network of protected areas is almost twoš— to 280š000šha, amounting to 2.3š% of the area of the Orenburg region. Key words: natural environment, landscape and ecological balance, ecological optimization, evaluation of the environmental situation, the demographic capacity Environment Facility and the coefficient of natural protected areas, ecological framework in the region.
Kharisova E.Z. GENDER PECULIARITIES OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF 17–20 YEAR OLD TENNIS PLAYERConsidered Esteck system possible System Complex (Multiscan Wellness-Oxi). Identified gender-specific body composition and physical development of tennis players of 17–20 years. In larger body mass in girls tend to have higher body length, wider waist and hips, with a higher body length and large in terms of the waist will be accompanied by wider hips. With wider waist will occur not only larger hips, but also large fat mass and lower amounts of water. The increase in body mass index will be accompanied by an increase in fat-free mass, extracellular water and intracellular water decrease. By reducing thefat masswillexperience increasedtotal watermass, and muscle, which will alsocontribute tothe totalamount of water.As well, the percentage increase inextracellularwaterwillbe accompanied by adecrease in the percentageof intracellular water. In boyswith increasingbody weightincreasewill be observedwaist circumference, body mass index, fat-free mass, fat mass, decreased total watermass, and muscle, decrease whichwill causea reduction inthe totalamount of water. Increased waist circumference in the volume will be accompanied by an increase in BMI and fat-free mass, the higher the rate of which will be observed at longer tall boys. The increase in body mass index will increase fat mass, as well as to reduce the total water mass, and muscle. The increase in fat mass will provoke a decrease in the total amount of water and muscle mass. As well as reduction of extracellular water will increase the intracellular water.Key words: gender-specific, physical development, body composition, tennis 17–20 years.
Schepin A.S., Peshkov S.A., Peshkova T.V. LIFETIME SINGLET OXYGEN IN THE COLLISIONAL COMPLEX O2-CO2One of the most promising emerging in our time method to eliminate malignant tumors is photodynamic therapy. We study the mechanism that explains the increase in the lifetime of singlet oxygen in living organisms when administered by photodynamic therapy using a computer simulation. The methods of self-consistent field (SCF/ROHF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) held conformational analysis to determine the geometrical characteristics of the oxygen complexes with carbon dioxide and identify among them the most stable structure with minimum energy. Multi-configurationally method CASSCF (14, 11) designed the electronic terms of the complex 1,3[O2-CO2]. The method of spin-orbit interaction (SOC) calculated moments of forbidden transitions a1Δgš— X3∑g–, b1∑g+š— a1Δg, Einstein coefficients (transition probabilities), as well as the lifetime of singlet oxygen (a1Δg, b1∑g+) by complexing with oxygen molecules of carbon dioxide molecule. Identify the most stable structure of the complex [O2-CO2]š— II, having chiseled C2v group symmetry. It was revealed that the ground and the excited state of oxygen in complex 1,3[O2-CO2] O2(X3∑g– + CO2(A1∑g+), O2(a1Δg; a'1Δ'g) + CO2(A1∑g+), O2(b1∑g+) + CO2(A1∑g+) are low stability, as they have low energy dissociation. The possibility of manifestation forbidden transitions induced moment's a1Δgš— X3∑g–, b1∑g+š— a1Δg in the O2 molecule by the action of carbon dioxide a collision molecules that virtually do not appear in a separate O2 molecule. The calculated value of the lifetime of singlet oxygen in collision complexes 1,3[O2-CO2] describes the possibility of the formation of complexes of oxygen with carbon dioxide, and other low molecular weight compounds having a membrane transport in the tissues of a living organism in their low-intensity laser irradiation, whereby, increases the lifetime of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δg, b1∑g+).Key words: singlet oxygen, excited state, the collision complexes, carbon dioxide.
Zakharov P.V., Eremin A.M., Starostenkov M.D., Manakov N.A. MOVING DISCRETE BREATHER INTERACTION WITH THE POINT DEFECT IN THE CRYSTAL WITH A3B COMPOSITIONMoving discrete breather interactions with the point defect in crystal with A3B composition taken as an example Pt3Al are studied by the method of molecular dynamics. The problem of interaction the objects of soliton with topological defects in the crystal is important for assess the prospects of the use of such solitons, as discrete breathers, in technological processes. As a point defect interstitial Al atom is, placed into the tetrahedral cavity of the crystal. To make excitation of the moving discrete breather two Al atoms were deviated from their equilibrium position on the value of 0,5–1šA and 1šA to the opposite sides along the densely packed directions this way the initial velocity of the discrete brearher moving through the crystal. Moving discrete breather excitation is possible along the densely packed directions: <110>, <011>, <101>, <110>. In the chosen model several atoms of the light sublattice participate in the moving discrete breather oscillations.In this case moving discrete breathers can migrate through the crystal at a considerable distance, almost without dissipation its energy. The obtained data allow us to judge about moving discrete breather influence on the point defect in the crystal due to its speed, energy and the distance to the defect. This opens up a prospect of usage such objects as analyzer of alloy purity and defect structures in the crystals with A3B composition. Moreover such objects can be used to transfer energy or information along the crystal.Key words: discrete breathers, quasi-breather, point defects, molecular dynamics.