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Orenburg State University january 17, 2022 RU/EN
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Khasanova R.F., Semenova I.N., Suyundukov Ya.T., Rafikova Yu.S., Biktimerova G.Y., Ilbulova G.R., Kuzhina G.Sh., Ilyina I.V.
ECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS OF SOILS OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES OF SIBAY CITY [№ 12 ' 2017]
The state of soils affects the environment and natural resources, the level of economic and social development and public health. In this paper, the content of heavy metals in the soils of the center of the mining industry of the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Sibai, has been studied. Sibai soils contamination with heavy metals is associated with anthropogenic activity and differs in various degrees of concentration. In the soils, high concentrations of gross and mobile forms of Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cd were detected. A number of accumulations of metals have been formed over the gross content: Zn< Cu< Co< Cd< Pb< Mn< Ni<Fe, from mobile forms: Cu< Zn< Mn< Cd< Ni< Co< Pb<Fe. According to the total pollution index, the ecological status of the studied urban soils is estimated as “moderately dangerous” and “permissible”.

Khasanov A.N., Khabirov I.K., Asylbaev I.G., Rafikov B.V.
BIOLOGICAL METHODS OF RESTORATION OF FERTILITY OF DEGRADIATED SOILS OF THE SOUTHERN URAL FOREST-STEPPE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN [№ 11 ' 2017]
Intensive farming has led to the depletion of land resources, so the reproduction of soil fertility and the use of agroecological methods of farming systems is an important task of the present. The world community increasingly pays attention to those methods of agriculture that ensure the maximum crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Biologization of agriculture is one of the important links in the production of ecological products and the reproduction of soil fertility. The paper presents the results of a study of the effect of various elements or components of biological methods for restoring soil fertility (wheat and pea straw, manure, siderates, poultry manure, sapropel) in comparison with mineral (NPK) 60 and without mineral for crop yields and agrochemical, agrophysical, physico-chemical and biochemical properties of soils. It has been established that biological methods of farming increase the humus content by an average of 0.1–0.15%, in connection with which the fertility of the soil increases, which leads to an increase in yield by an average of 15–20%. One of the most effective method of biologization of agriculture is the application of manure 15 tons per hectare and bird droppings at doses of 40 to 60 tons per hectare, which is why the yield of agricultural crops is increased by more than 25 percent, and the humus content is increased by 0.1–0.5%. It is revealed that the application of biological farming systems increases the formation of humus and nitrogen reserves, exerts a complex effect on all factors of soil fertility, which ultimately leads to an increase in crop yields.

Yamalov S.M., Tania I.V., Hasanov G.R., Lebedev M.V.
TWO ASSOCIATION OF HERBACEOUS PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RIZA RELIC NATIONAL PARK (REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA) [№ 8 ' 2016]
Subalpine meadows communities are widespread in at an altitude of 1600–2400m above sea level in the Riza relic national park (RRNP), traditionally used as a pasture. Most of them are disturbed in a varying degree, and partially transformed to ruderal communities. So these are highly significant in nature conservation and recreation. Authors set the object to characterize two associations of meadows in RRNP. The dataset is 10releves executed by authors in the field season of 2013–2015. Participation of species in a vegetation was estimated on Braun-Blanquet scale. For processing of releves the software packages of TURBOVEG and JUICE are used. According to syntaxonomy analysis result communities were attributed to Potentillo ruprechtii-Campanuletum tridentatae association (Hyalopoetalia ponticae Onipchenko 2002, Salicetea herbaceae Br.-Bl. 1948) and Gentiano dshimilensi-Sibbaldietum semiglabrae association (Nardetalia Oberd. ex Preising 1949, Calluno-Ulicetea Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Klika et Hadač 1944). The first one combine low-herbage alpine meadows of low alpine belt. These are chacterized by significant snow accumulation in winter, short vegetation period and located on south slopes of mountains. The second one combine subalpine meadows communities on poor rocky soils (above 15% of substratum rockiness). These are located on moderatly steeep north and north-west slopes. There are rare and conservation needed species in floristic composition of association: Traunsteinera sphaerica (Red book of Russian Federation included), Potentilla ruprechtii, Cystopteris fragilis, Coeloglossum viride (Red book of Krasnodar district). Communities have high nature conservation importance because of its small distribution area in RRNP and lack of sufficient protection at the present time.

Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Ya.T., Salmanova E.F.
OPTIMIZATION OF SOIL HUMUS CONDITION STEPPE AGROECOSYSTEMS [№ 10 ' 2015]
The development of virgin land and arable use leads to a decrease of humus content in the soil, which is accompanied by the gradual destruction of valuable units and leads to the development of erosion processes, degradation of vast areas of steppe ecosystems. Restoration of disturbed steppe ecosystem is to recover as the natural vegetation and soil steppes. Perennial grasses form a large amount of organic matter and promote the formation of humus, activate vital activity of the soil microflora, provide cycling of matter, the formation of soil aggregates, and others. Thanks to a strong root system of perennial grasses also provide erosion protection of the humus layer of the flushing and blowing. The research is devoted to studying the role of perennial grasses to stabilize the soil with humus Zauralye the Republic of Bashkortostan. It was revealed that under perennial grasses, especially under the natural grass communities there is an intensive restoration of humus, which is closely correlated with the parameters of a biomass plant. Increased humus content decreasing the size of the units is accompanied by an increase in their water stability (r=0,62). Introduction to the field crop rotations sown perennial grasses allows 2–3 years to increase the humus content in the soil at 0.3–0.5%. Create Agrostep contributed to the restoration of natural vegetation and a positive balance of humus, the soil close to the virgin nature of the content and profile distribution. The most effective humification process occurs under steppes in the version with 4-kratnym disking on the background of fertilizers.

Hasanov R.H.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE COMPLEX INDEX EFFECTIVE OPERATION OF VEHICLES [№ 9 ' 2015]
For modern vehicles set high demands for safe, comfortable and efficient operation. However, the number of emergency situations in the operation of road transport due to poor technical condition remains at a high level. So, 15% of road accidents and 20% of cases of fires on vehicles due to technical failures of motor vehicles. One of the most effective measures to ensure serviceable condition of vehicles is the use of the system preventive maintenance and repair. Therefore, for new and improved models of vehicles need a new system of technical maintenance of vehicles. Then you need to evaluate a new system of technical maintenance of vehicles. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the new system of technical maintenance of vehicles proposed to use a composite indicator of the operational efficiency of vehicles. This indicator aims to assess road safety and other indicators of operation of vehicles and to assess the feasibility of the developed activities with a minimum expenditure of labor and time resources. The proposed integrated indicator of the efficiency of operation of the vehicle allows us to consider performance of the vehicle, diagnostics, maintenance and repair, reliability, road and environmental safety, and damage from emergencies, and to perform the calculation of the indices in the differential form by comparing the present and projected periods.

Khasanova R.F.
ECOLOGICAL CONDITION SALINE SOILS OF RANS-URALS OF THE BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLIC [№ 6 ' 2015]
Saline soils are an integral part of soil dry steppes. Salinization leads to physical degradation of land and further to remove them from agricultural use. Due to the physical properties of the salinity, the biological activity of the soil have their specificity, different from the process in non-saline soils. The aim of our study was to investigate the structural and aggregate state and cellulolytic activity of saline soils, presented in conjunction with the southern black soil, having the most widespread in the rans-Urals Republic of Bashkortostan. Results of the analysis of salt water extract of saline soils showed that the largest dry residue meadow chernozem soil belongs to slightly saline. Solonet meadow in the 0—10cm layer refers to the average salted soils in the 10—30cm layer goes into the category of strongly saline soils. Type of salinity on the anionic composition of salts in the meadow-chernozem soil sulphate, while solonets meadow— soda-sulfate. In the meadow solonets observed not only increased amounts of sodium and magnesium. Comparative analysis of structural-aggregate composition of saline soils revealed a trend: the more water-soluble salts, the less agriculturally valuable air-dry aggregates and more water-resistant aggregates. Fractional analysis of soil structures showed that for saline chernozems are characterized by high blocky. According to the scale and S.I.Dolgov P.U.Bahtin structural state of meadow chernozem saline soils rated as "good", solonets meadow — "satisfactory". One measure of the biological activity of the soil and its fertility is the cellulolytic activity of soil. On a scale O.E.Pryazhennikova intensity of cellulose destruction on meadow solonetses very weak (10), on the meadow chernozem saline soil medium (30—50%). Thus, meadow-chernozem soil composition anionic salts are sulfate salinization, solonetz meadow— soda-sulfate. Soil salinization is reflected in some of their properties: deteriorating structural condition and reduced cellulolytic activity.

Saraikin A.I., Aralbaev T.Z., Khasanov R.I.
POSITIONING OF MOBILE OBJECTS ON THE ROADWAY IN A DEFICIT OF INFORMATION [№ 4 ' 2015]
Inadequate assessment of the impact of the value driver deficit of information when choosing the trajectory and speed of the mobile object considerably increases the risk of road accidents. One of the basic principles of active safety is to use a mobile object navigation methods and tools to inform drivers when positioning the mobile object on the roadway. To implement this task, we developed a pilot version of the onboard positioning system — a prototype of the system, which includes the following functional modules: collection, registration and processing of data on the trajectory of the mobile object, select the high-speed mode and the rotation angle of mobile object in a deficit of information. A prototype airborne system was tested on potentially dangerous areas of the roadway, on the basis of which recommendations on the choice of safe passage movement of the mobile object in a deficit of information. This result demonstrates the adequacy of the data for the selection of the direction of rotation angle of the mobile object positioning system board recommended and the actions of the driver. The method developed in the form of algorithms and tools to reduce the risk of road accidents outside the settlements in terms of visual information deficit.

Khasanov I.Kh.
IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS OF DIAGNOSING OF CARS BODIES [№ 4 ' 2015]
In work the results of researches directed on increase of efficiency of operation of cars on the basis of improvement of diagnosing of bodies by methods of nondestructive control are presented. The offered adapted control methods of technical condition of bodies of cars allow at the modern hi-tech level to reveal the latent defects without dismantling of elements of a body with the minimum labor expenses. The developed technique of identification of bodies of cars regarding their participation in road accidents will allow to find the hidden, earlier held body repair events, to reveal the most loaded sites of a body and to receive full information on a condition of a body ("body history") for the purpose of timely definition and elimination of the defects influencing safety of vehicles and also to improve quality of the provided services in maintenance, diagnosing and repair at the motor transportation and autoserving enterprises. Economic effect of actions for improvement of control methods of technical condition of bodies of cars will allow to increase profit of the enterprises of a motor transportation complex and to broaden spheres of their financial professional activity. It is expedient to use the proposed solutions taking into account carrying out additional specifications of advanced techniques for definition of technical condition of frames and cabins of vehicles of domestic and foreign production. Realization of results of scientific researches at the service enterprises, points of technical inspection will allow to increase quality of the provided services in diagnosing of cars, in autoexpert bureaus — to make a flashback of bodies, and in insurance companies — most effectively to carry out an assessment and insurance of vehicles.

Hasanov R.H., Balovnev S.V.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE INDICATOR EVALUATION OF VEHICLE SAFETY [№ 4 ' 2015]
The paper presents results of research aimed at ensuring the safety of the transport complex and one of its elements — vehicles. The article is devoted to analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of road transport over other modes of transport. According to the data of the Transport ministry of the Russian Federation, the contribution of road transport in freight transportation is 75–77 %, in passengers transportation (excluding private cars) — 53–55 %. Any vehicle has such important advantages as mobility, ability to deliver passengers and cargo "from door to door" and "just in time". However, road transport and its infrastructure continue to take the leading role in harmful effects on human health, the environment and the natural world as a result of activity. It is therefore necessary to develop new principles of international policy to ensure comprehensive safety of the transport complex. The safety of the transport complex is divided into following types: road safety; ecological safety of transport activity; transportation safety in emergency situations; labour safety on vehicles and transport infrastructure; anti-terrorist security of transport infrastructure and vehicles. The article considers the problem of accidents due to technical malfunctions of vehicles. One of the directions in the solution to this problem is the analysis of the causes and consequences of emergency situations in vehicles. Therefore, the research aim was to evaluate the safety of vehicles. A factor of safety of vehicles will be an integrated measure of damages in case of emergency. This indicator takes into account the cause and time of occurrence of each type of accidents in vehicles.

Aralbaev T.Z., Saraikin A.I., Khasanov R.I.
ON-BOARD SYSTEM OF DIGITIZATION MECHANICAL TRAJECTORY OF VEHICLE ON THE BASES OF SATELLITE NAVIGATION [№ 10 ' 2014]
The paper presents the organization and architecture of the on-board system of digitization mechanical trajectory of vehicle on the bases of satellite navigation, and also its technical variant — the prototype system. The authors have developed recommendations of choosing a safe path of the vehicle in conditions a deficit of information.

Golovanov V.S., Khasanov R.H.
DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETER OF CAR ELECTRICAL ELEMENT [№ 10 ' 2014]
The paper assesses the impact of the role of the technical condition of electrical equipment for safe operation of the vehicle. Modern methods of diagnosing the technical condition of the vehicle's electrical. A hypothesis about the dependence of the values of the heating elements from the failure of electrical systems and validated diagnostic parameter characterizing it.

Golovanov Yu.V., Khasanov I.Kh.
THERMOVISION CONTROL METHOD OF THE CAR BODY TECHNICAL CONDITION [№ 10 ' 2014]
In work results of research of parameters changing of technical cars bodies condition in operation on the basis of adaptation of a thermovision method of nondestructive control in relation to cars bodies are presented at their diagnosing.

Khasanov R.H., Sidorin E.S., Kovrikov I.T.
JUSTIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE FREQUENCY OF CARS ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT ELEMENTS [№ 10 ' 2014]
In article the problem of decrease in refusals of elements of electric equipment of cars is solved. The method of determination of frequency of maintenance of elements of electric equipment of cars on the basis of the developed mathematical model of potential of working capacity is reasonable.

Suyundukov Ya.T., Khasanova R.F., Salmanova E.F.
PHYTOMELIORATIVE WAY OF REMEDIATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES OF STEPPE ECOSYSTEMS [№ 6 ' 2014]
Influence of sown perennial herbs and herbs from among of natural communities on agrophysical properties of Chernozems of Trans-Ural of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB) is studied. Effective phytomeliorants for restoration of Chernozems in a North-South gradient are revealed. Restoration of the degraded soils' properties of agroecosystems of Trans-Ural of the RB under the agrosteppes created by the Dzybov method is investigated. Various options are considered and the most effective combinations of soil handling for agrosteppes are identified.

Khasanova G.R., Yamalov S.M.
THE EXPERIENCE OF SEGETAL VEGETATION COMMUNITIES CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF SOUTH URAL [№ 5 ' 2013]
The cluster analysis of vegetation communities segetal Southern Urals (Bashkortostan), using the program TWINSPAN was carried out. Identified three leading factors differentiating communities — a zone-climatic factor, factor of the time (change of farming) and agrocenotic factor.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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