Dysupova L.V. THE DIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES IN THE ORENBURG REGIONThe article contains a summary of the author's observations on the functioning of languages, especially in the Orenburg region in diachronic and synchronic aspects. The diversity of languages, prevailing in the region can be primarily explained with a complex history of colonization of the territory, with successive and sometimes simultaneous settlement of a number of different peoples, who not always shared a relative language. Language contacts of different nations led, on the one hand, to the lexical and grammatical penetration, on the other handš— the modern multilingualism. The Turkic languages in the territory of the Orenburg region are the languages of the peoples, traditionally associated with this territory. Interaction of Indo-European languages (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian) and the Turkic family (Tatar, Chuvash, Kazakh, Bashkir) continues in the modern conditions, this process certainly contributes to the enrichment of each of these languages. Linguistic map of the Orenburg region is a complex puzzle consisting of a plurality of languages, including the Turkic languagesš— such as Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh, Chuvash as the second largest group, after the Slavic languagesš— especially Russian and Ukrainian and Belarusian. Peoples of the Turkic group of the Altaic language family (the most numerous are the Tatars, Bashkirs and then Kazakhs) compose about ј of the contemporary population of the Orenburg region. Such a state of languages is formed primarily due to historical reasons, among which primarily should be noted geopolitical location of the Orenburg region, which stands on the border between two worldsš— the Slavic and the Turkic, as well as the traditional use of the Slavic and the Turkic languages in the Orenburg region as two interrelated linguistic systems with common social and geographical conditions of development of the ethnic groups who recognize their historical proximity, rooted in remote ages.Key words: linguistic geography, language situation, language interoperability, diachrony and synchrony, related and unrelated languages, the European space, the equality of languages.
Temkina V.L., Zalesskaya A.E. ALLUSIONS IN THE NOVELS THE COLLECTOR AND THE FRENCH LIEUTENANTS WOMAN BY JOHN FOWLESThe article is devoted to the precedent phenomenon analysis in the novels of John Fowles. The significance of the appeal to precedent phenomena can be explained by their usage peculiarities in the texts of different genres. Recently precedent phenomena are under study by many researchers. Precedent phenomena are used as a means of the pragmatic impact intensification. Every phenomenon has two meanings: one of them has come from the original text, and there's another one that's been created by an author. A reader has to choose whether to recognize the phenomenon and appeal to the original text or to continue reading without recognition. A text is a dialogue between the author and the reader where the second one has to work on the text, trying to decipher the author's main message. Intertextuality and precedence are related and compared in the article. Intertextuality is “the text inside of the text”, where there's a connection between different texts. It's observed with precedent texts or precedent phenomena in the research. Speaking abot precedence, this is about the notions which are quotable and known to a wide group of people and are remembered by many generations. Intertextuality is a wider notion than precedence. Analyzed intertextual inclusions are represented with allusions to precedent phenomena in the novels of John Fowles “The French Lieutenant's Woman” and “The Collector”. There are two levels of precedence. Universal precedent phenomena are represented by allusions to the biblical and Greek myths. National precedent phenomena are represented by allusions to the literary heritage of Shakespare. Precedent phenomena are a tool for John Fowles to hide a certain meaning. Allusions are the means to show characters, their personality and behavior in a more precise way.Key words: intertextuality, precedence, allusion, precedent phenomenon.
Turlova E.V. LINGUOPRAGMATIC PARAMETERS OF FUNCTIONING OF MODERN ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EDUCATIONAL DISCOURSEContemporary Russian English language teaching (ELT) materials market may be considered full of various manuals written by foreign authors as these manuals and textbooks are characterized by authentic texts, effective supplementary materials, bright illustrations, thematic glossaries, country study commentaries and references. These essential peculiarities let us make a research of English language teaching discourse from the functional point of view of the ELT small-format title texts to differentiate their lingo pragmatic status. The paper represents the research results in differentiation of lingo pragmatic parameters of English language teaching discourse functioning, pointing out its features like functionally based determination of nominative paradigm of small-format ELT title textbooksš— expressive, appellative, communicative function of impact, phatic,š— structural fusions, precedential character of IT and the Internet. Having analyzed the results of the research we can conclude that lingo pragmatic parameters of ELT discourse functioning is determined by the peculiarities of paradigm of ELT manuals.Key words: lingo pragmatic parameters, English language teaching discourse, small-format text, functional paradigm, nominative paradigm, precedent.
Lasitsa L.A. NEW YEAR'S ADDRESS OF THE HEAD OF STATE: SEMANTIC FEATURES OF THE RITUAL GENRE OF POLITICAL DISCOURSEIn modern linguistics the New Year's speech of the head of state is considered as a ritual genre of a political discourse as it possesses a number of extralinguistic, structural and semantic signs of a ritual: recurrence; ritual attributes; its own history; communicative purpose, accurate requirements to the addressee, sender and occasion; obligatory structural elements. The president of Russia V.V.šPutin and the queen of Great Britain ElizabethšII also address residents of their countries with the New Year's speech. In this work we will study such semantic features of the New Year's speeches as the communicative purpose, addressee, sender of the message. The main communicative purpose for the New Year's speech and the Christmas message is unity of the nation, respect for traditions of communication, demonstration of kind and respectful attitude for the people, summing up the events of the year, plans for the future. The queen reflects of the importance of a family, tolerance, mutual assistance, Christian concepts of good will, mutual assistance, blessing in the Christmas message through a prism of own life. The message comes to the end with a wish of Merry Christmas. The New Year's speech of the president is more formalš— he never speaks about his own life, uses a minimum of factual information, giving general characteristics of the expiring year. A fixed substantial component is the appeal to family values, a wish of the benefits and a congratulation. The addressee of the New Year's speech of the president is the whole country and each individual separately. In the Christmas message there is no explicitly expressed addressee. The Christmas message is performed from 1šperson, the author and the sender is ElizabethšII. A sender of the New Year's speech is the president V.V.šPutin, however, he uses a pronoun we, creating feeling of the participation in the big country.Key words: political discourse, ritual genre of a political discourse, president of Russia, communicative purpose, addressee, sender.
Ilyina L.E. PAREMIAS IN RUSSIAN AND FRENCH LANGUAGES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSISThe main problem of this article devoted to the comparative analysis of paremiology in Russian and French linguocultural studies is a definition of the speech units forming a subject of paremiological researches.Analyzing works of Russian and foreign linguists, studying of the description ways of paremiological units volume in Russian and French linguocultural studies, the author concludes that paremia, despite of origin antiquity, does not lose the relevance, the sphere of its use extends, and its structure continue to be replenished nowadays. The author claims that definition of a paremia has to include the detailed, etymological analysis of this term. Aparemia from Ancient Greek παροιμια: παράš— nearby, aside, and οἶμοςš— a road, a way, a footpathš— that is near the road (the road is understood in literal and figurative sense); that is common in everyday life; that is the general, national. In addition, paremia defined asarch lexeme, which allegorically transfers moral or religious manual, everyday observation, figurative comparison, but does not contain a direct conclusion. It is generic term for a number of paremiological units as well. The author includes dialogisms, slogans andcatch phrase from movies along with proverbs, sayings, parables, aphorisms and other paremias in number of paremiological units.Key words: paremia, paremiological units, paremiology, Russian and French paremiological researches, Russian and French paremiologies.
Moiseeva I.Y., Nozdrina T.G. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KEYWORDS POSITION DISTRIBUTION IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TEXTS: GENDER ASPECTThe article is devoted to a research of features of keywords (KW) position distribution in primary and secondary texts depending on gender of the author. For achievement of this aim the stating psycholinguistic experiment is carried out. The technique of the experiment is based on the technique of text studying and text perception developed by L.N.šMurzin and A.S.šStern. The position analysis of keywords distribution in primary and secondary texts is carried out for registering the intensity of organization processes and forming self-organization process. Symmetry, the principle of repetition of form and content elements which is carried out in space-time and asymmetryš— contrast of symmetry have acted as criteria of the analysis. Based on results of the comparative analysis of primary texts shaping scenarios which are reconstructed depending on KW marked by men in texts of belles-lettres and newspaper styles, the invariant feature of a primary text forming is revealed, namely,the harmonization of text intervals : Absolute beginningš— Beginningš— pre-HCb— post— HCb and the End. The distinctive feature of a primary invariant text shaping, on the basis of KW marked by women, is the high coefficient of KW distribution in a position HCb which promotes optimum perception of a text plot. The analysis of the secondary text forming process made by women has revealed the following tendencies: 1) primary influence of symmetric tendencies; 2) dense distribution of KW in the beginning of the text (Beginning, pre-HCb, post— HCb) and the End interval, which support the thematic component of the text. The main components of the secondary text structural organization of men group are the asymmetric tendencies influencing ambiguity of primary text meaning transfer this fact does the text unpredictable for the recipient. The comparative analysis of the secondary texts forming scenarios produced by men and women revealed a position of the Harmonic Center of the whole text as a position of structural harmonization.Key words: primary text, secondary text, gender, keywords, perception of the text, generation of the text, text as a system, experiment, position structure of the text, invariant.
Shatrova E.D., Lasitsa L.A. ON THE PROBLEM OF DEFINING FANFICTION GENRESEvery literary work or composition has its own genre. Genres define persistent text features such as length, theme or relation to a certain kind of literature. The system of genres that already exists in fiction cannot always be applied to the new literary movements such as fanfiction. Fanfiction is so diversified a phenomenon that the generally accepted system is not enough to classify all of its works. Therefore there is a need to create new genre classification. Fanfiction is a modern literary movement that unites amateur works based on a particular book, film, or computer game. All features represented in fiction by “genre” in fanfiction are represented by several terms at the same time: “size”, “genre”, “category”, “rating”. Genre is a group of works written on a particular topic. The term “category” represents distinct features of the text such as correspondence with the realities of original work or presence of a love line in it. Ratings system is used to evaluate the content of the text and its suitability for different age groups. The result of our research is new classification of fanfiction works. There are such genres as action, fluff, dark, angst, adventure, humor, detective genre. Categories classification is based on several features. Relation to an original work of art: prequel, sequel, POV, missing scene. Presence of a love line: gen, get, slash, RPS, RPV. Correspondence with the realities of original work: crossover, AU and work that doesn't have any discrepancies with the original and doesn't have a special term. Ratings system includes ratings from “G” (General audience) to NC-17 (No one under 17šadmitted).Key words: literary genre, fanfiction, fanfic, ficwriter, genre, category, rating.
Shcherbakova M.V. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT OF THE TEXT PERCEPTIONPsycholinguistics is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors which allow humans to acquire, use, and understand language. The first handling of psycholinguistics had largely philosophical form, due to a lack of aggregated data on the human brain functioning. Psycholinguistics studies the cognitive processes which allow composing a grammatical and meaningful sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structures, as well as the processes which help to understand spoken language and written text. The first step in speech production is the incentive, and it becomes the last step in the return processš— perception and understanding of the statement, because the purpose of the recipient is to understand the reason of the given idea. At the heart of understanding process there is an intention to decode sense of the whole message. Perception of the text is multilevel process, consisting of several stages: recognition of an external form of separate language units which are connected with a concept of the lexemes of the reader's memory; specification of subject meaning correlation of a certain word; identification and defining of denotatum that is reached due to use of encyclopedic knowledge of the recipient. Perception of the text is the process which is characterized by the structured sequence where reader passes several levels: lexical (recognition of the word), syntactic (recognition of the sentence) and semantic. The purpose of the recipient is to reveal the main message of a producer, in other words to define an incentive of statement production adequately.Key words: psycholinguistics, text, text perception.
Solodilova I.A. METONYMY: THE BOUNDARIES OF THE PHENOMENONThe article considers metonymy as a cognitive-semantic structure in its comparison with metaphor and explanation of the differences between the phenomena of language and thought in terms of the cognitive approach to language learning. Among the main differences hypothetical nature of metaphor is stated, compared to the real connection of concepts in metonymy, the semantic transfer of characteristics for metaphor and syntactic contraction of metonymy as the underpinning of their operations, limitation and limitlessness within a syntagma, and a plurality vs. the uniqueness of associative connections between the relevant concepts. Linguistic features of metaphor and metonymy are also explained on the basis of their conceptual characteristics. Metonymy is understood as a referential shift: the result of a holistic overlay of concept-source on concept-goal. In the same logic the main function of metonymy in language as a function of identification is explained. The ability to perform in language other functionsš— expressive and evaluative is recognized for individual, isolated metonymies primarily of the type “wholeš— part” that is attributed to the underlying semantic structure of this procedure of reduction of the whole to its parts. The fundamental role of metonymy in the processes of conceptualization in the early stages of language development because of the greater obviousness and ease of perception of the relationship of contiguity, rather than of relations of similarity is stated.Key words: metonymy, metaphor, concept, cognitive-semantic structure.
Cherenkova Yu.V. RUSSIA LOCUS IN LYRIC POETRY: LEXICAL ASPECTAnthropocentric orientation of modern scientific paradigm has led to an emphasis shift in language learning. In recent research language is considered not only as a system, but as part of the cognitive mechanism. Individual perception and conceptualization of reality, the subjective and objective factors to form the picture of the world are highlighted. Space is a fundamental philosophical category, so language representation of space perception within the various pictures of the world seems a standard area of concern to linguists. The poetry research is motivated by the identity of the national language means and a private code system (Yu.M.šLotman) that concentrates national cultural concepts, preserves and develops conceptual and figurative components of the basic concepts of the national picture of the world. This article studies S.šEsenin, N.šKlyuev, S.šKlychkov and P.šOreshin poetry anthropocentrically through the cognitive features. Lexical explication of the “Russia” locus, a key space concept for the Russian artistic picture of the world, is examined. The author reveals “Russia” locus gestalts traditional to Russian literature in general and to lyric poetry particularly through the gestalt text analysis. The anthropomorphous gestalts are explicated through metaphors, comparisons, epithets, lexical identification in most analyzed texts. According to the author, the proposed aspect of research provides obvious identification of the language means to represent “Russia” space category, to follow “meaning augment” process and origin of associations, to comprehend how the individual images remain in a long-term national memory.Key words: locus, gestalt, lyric poetry, Russia.
Sobchakova N.M. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONAL POTENTIAL, ETYMOLOGY AND SEMANTICS OF ENGLISH TEMPORARY UNIONSDynamic character of the language depends on its system and subsystems, which are called central and peripheral. Field theory is considered to be the best for such study. Field approach, considering units of different levels, gives possibilities to study syntagmatic and paradigmatic peculiarities of these units. In Indo-European languages the temporary field is represented by grammatical tenses in the centre of the field and temporary conjunctions in its periphery. The conjunction in such case performs the qualifying function as it shows the relations between the main sentence and the clause. English temporary conjunctions not only show the relations between the clauses, but also specify the action of the temporary clause as preceding or following that of the main sentence. Key words: language system, subsystem, centre and periphery, temporal field, lexico-grammatical means, verbal forms, temporal conjunctions, coordinative and subordinative conjunctions.
Shcherbina V.E. CHEKINIT'SYA, INSTAGRAMIT'SYA, TVITIT'SYA… NETWORK NEOLOGIZMS AS A REPLENISHMENT OF THE YOUTH SLANGThe subject of the research in this article is an Internet slang as the thematic dominant lexicon of the youth. The material of the study are the network neologisms, which represent one of the ways of updating the language; the basic models of their formation are revealed. The theoretical propositions are supported by relevant examples from Internet slang of the German-speaking users. Slang is regularly used among young people of any educational institution, or a separate, more or less closed reference group, for example, users of the Internet as a way to hide the meaning of the pronounced speech from the people around them. Youth slang is a „password” of all members of the reference group. For the purposes of self-affirmation, for the wish to look modern, “advanced”, young people start to use words and phrases that are different from the standard speech. Diverse elements of vocabulary, foreign words, professionalism are used in the course, and to name the new devices, processes, phenomena neologisms are created. A large number of neologisms appear in connection with the creation of new, not previously existing types of Internet resources, Internet posts and technologies. At the same time the Internet creates a special environment of neologisms, which are not only computer terminology associated with the Internet, but also slang form of language, formed in the process of communication of Internet users. Neologisms that are arising to designate new devices, processes and participants of these processes on the Internet, successfully operate in this environment and are used for communication in the “world wide web”, they are called “network neologisms”. Network language has evolved from fashion trends to a new style of communication and the spelling on websites, blogs and chat rooms. The proportion of neologisms in the youth slang is large enough, the proportion of neologisms— “internettsializmov”š— is huge. The most productive ways to enlarge them are the reduction, cropping, compounding, suffixes.Key words: youth slang; lexicon; neologism; methods of forming neologisms; the Internet.
Inchikova J.A. THE VERBALIZATION OF THE CONCEPT OF “TIME” IN GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES IN RUSSIAN AND SPANISH LANGUAGESThis article examines the verbalization peculiarities of the concept of “time”, as one of the major ones, in Russian and Spanish grammatical categories. It provides with a comparative analysis of the theoretical basis of various scientific approaches to the understanding and study of concepts in Cognitive and Cultural Studies. The paper introduces the views of leading researchers on how to define the concept and distinguish its main features. The concept is defined as an idea or mental image corresponding to some entities that determine the application of a term or a word, and so play an important role in the use of reason or language. It should be born in mind that the concept somehow reflects the results of human activity as well as their culture. The comparative analysis of this concept in Russian and Spanish linguistic pictures of the world reveals differences in its content, and thus draw one`s attention to the peculiarities of time perception in both cultures. The analysis of lexicographical literature helps to distinguish some conceptual characteristics that refer to the core of the concept and to its peripheral parts. Moreover, this paper observes linguacultural features of such grammatical categories as “impersonality” and “antecedent”, which have a significant influence on time perception by Spanish. The author refers to the works of well-known researchers of cultural differences: Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Values Orientation Theory, Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, Hall's classification of cultures etc. to compare grammatical semantics of tenses, which are directly relevant to the verbalization of the concept of “time”, and to define the type of time orientation within both cultures. It should be mentioned that all linguistic and grammatical units are examined in conjunction with cultural peculiarities of both countries. In other words, the author tries to explore a close correlation between peculiarities of the concept verbalization and national cultural diversity. Therefore, the article focuses on the question about close relation between language, particularly, grammar and culture. Futhermore, there is an attempt to explain all these distinctions, namely peculiar time perception, by historical and cultural background and other culturally based reasons. To conclude, this research may provide with better understanding of natives' habits, traditions, peculiarities of their communicative and cultural behavior and mentality that may help to avoid any possible misunderstanding, stereotyping and, therefore, to establish more successful relationships between representatives of both cultures.Key words: concept, verbalization, grammatical categories, grammatical semantics, tenses, time orientation, peculiarities of time perception, cultures classification, linguistic picture of the world.
Pavlova A.V. STATE IN THE CONCEPTUAL SPACE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGEThe article is devoted to revealing the role of STATE as a knowledge structure in the conceptual space of modern English language. State senses having got nominative or discursive verbalization are the material of our research. As a result of conceptual-definitional analysis of lexemes state and condition we define the integral conceptual characteristic of concept STATEš— “stativity”, which being related to the objects of certain conceptual domains (MAN, NATURE, SOCIETY, SYSTEM), provide construing of the necessary state sense. Such structure is defined as cognitive matrix, it means the system interrelated cognitive contexts. The analysis of linguistic unites, taken with the method of continuous sampling from the British national corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of contemporary American English (COCA), gives us the opportunity to prove the fundamental and all-permeating nature of the knowledge structure under research. Functional openness of STATE concept, its structural and semantic relatedness with conceptual domain, inference as a result of secondary representation of knowledge about the world prove modus (interpretative) character of STATE. In language there are a lot of different ways of representation of stative senses and all of them are united in the category of linguistic stativity. To analyze it we argue to use Prototype theory and the method of prototypes (Rosch et al.) and describe the nuclear zone, the zone of close and far periphery. As central criteria of defining nuclear-periphery character of language units of stativity we can suggest the following: 1) antecedence of realization of stative function; 2) predicativity; 3) semantic relatedness with conceptual domain.Key words: state, form of linguistic cognition, conceptualization, interpretation, linguistic stativity.
Sakharova N.S., Ivanova S.G., Dmitrieva E.V. SEMANTIC IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRUCTURE “TO BE áBOUT TO” IN THE ENGLISH FICTION (DIACHRONIC ASPECT)Semantic implementation of the combination “to be about to” is considered in the diachronic aspect for the period from the XVI to the XXšcentury. The comparison of semantically similar structures “to be on the point (verge) ofš+ gerund”, “to be goingš+ infinitive” can be used to identify synonymity, stability and compatibility of these structures. Structure analysis was done on the basis of the original literary texts. The study showed that in the XVIšcentury the structure “to be aboutš+ infinitive” used in the subordinate clauses conveys the value of the nearest prospectivity. The structure frequency of “to be aboutš+ infinitive” in the èVIIIšcentury slightly increased as compared to the XVIšcentury. Structures “to be aboutš+ infinitive” and “to be on the point ofš+ gerund” have the meaning of the nearest prospectivity with the modality of unfulfilled intentions. The list of verbs, the infinitive of which is used in the structure “to be goingš+ infinitive” (not only verbs denoting action, but also process, state and movement) expanded in the XXšcentury in comparison with the èVIIIšcentury. The structure “to be going + infinitive” became more frequently used in the twentieth century as compared to the èVIIIšcentury. Significant changes took place in its semantics due to derestriction of structural and semantic limitations that existed in the èVIIIšcentury. The research revealed that the structures “to be aboutš+ infinitive” and “to be on the point ofš+ gerund” possess a certain semantic stability. The structures “to be about + infinitive”, “to be on the point (verge) ofš+ gerund” convey the meaning of future actions, the implementation of which has already begun or is expected. The structure “to be goingš+ infinitive” expresses an intention of the future action implementation. The semantic and structural possibilities of grammatical structure “to be goingš+ infinitive” have been expanded.Key words: future action, diachronic study, prospectivity, grammar structure, modality, semantic features, frequency, infinitive, gerund.
Kalinin S.S. THE LINGUISTIC-CULTURAL TRANSFER OF THE WOMEN' IMAGE FROM THE HEATHEN CULTURE TO THE CHRISTIAN CULTURE (ON THE BASIS OF EDDAIC EPIC POETRY AND “NIBELUNGENLIED”)The article deals with the cultural transfer process of the women' image. This image is borrowed from the pagan culture to the Christian culture. The research of the cultural transfer is very actually today, because now the processes of the intercultural interaction and communication are active. They are the research object of the linguistics as well as the other sciences. The cultures contacts between each other actively, they interacts. S.šTer-Minasova calls these processes as “war and piece of the languages and cultures”. The element of the cultural transfer process is image. The images of the one culture (for example, the Germanic pagan culture) are borrowed and carried over the other culture. The semantics of these images are changed, they are rethought in the other culture (for example, in the Christian culture). Some attributes disappear and weakenš— this is so called semiotic weakening of the image. The bases of the research are the written artifacts of the Germanic languages of XII–XIIIšc.: The Poetic Edda and Nibelungenlied. The poems of the Poetic Edda come from the ancient times as the oral folk art although they were written in the Middle Ages. They are the source of images and plots for Nibelungenlied but these poems were rethought and transformed in the Christian courtesy culture. For example, the characters of Nibelungenlied go to the church, believe in God. This is a new element in the archaic Germanic pagan culture. This main conclusion of the research is about the semantics changing of the transferred images, about the semiotic weakening of some attributes.Key words: cultural transfer, image, Middle High German language, Old Norse language, Germanic mythology, Middle-Ages culture.
Matyash S.A. ON FUNCTIONS OF ENJAMBEMENTS IN N. KARAMZIN'S POETRYEnjambements in N. Karamzin's poetry until recently were not a subject of research neither in Russian nor in foreign prosody. The study of Karamzin's enjambements was initiated in anniversary year 2016 by the author of this article, who determined the frequency (2š%), and described the structure of enjambements in Karamzin's poetry. Based on the conclusion that Karamzin's enjambements appear only in one third of the total of his poems and within this selection do not follow any regular pattern, the author in the given article puts forward the following thesis: Karamzin's use enjambements is deliberate despite the low total frequency index. The author also poses the question of the function of enjambements. In the article both general and specific functions of enjambements are considered. Within the scope of general functions there is analyzed the frequency of three types of enjambements: with expressive, figurative, or mixed expressive-figurative functions (depending on the lexical content of part of the phrase that is carried over and/or left by). The statistics shows predomination of enjambements with expressive functions and high index of enjambement with mixed expressiveš— figurative functions, which complements the characteristic of Karamzin-sentimentalist's poetical style. Within the scope of specific functions there are analysed compositional functions of enjambements: marking with enjambements important parts of the text, refrains, and endings of poems written in various genres. Karamzin's findings were used by Zhukovskiy and Pushkin. It is concluded at the end that Karamzin realised the figurative-expressive capacities, mastered this rhythmic-syntactical technique, and by this paved the way for other poets.Key words: N. Karamzin, versification, poetic syntax, enjambement, functions of enjambement.
Mirkina J.Z. MYTHOPOETIC SPACE OF M. FRISCH NOVEL “HOMO FABER”This article is devoted to considering the issue of the space model, depicted in the novel “Homo Faber” by a famous writer of the 20th century Max Frisch. The analysis of the model indicates several types of space relevant to nature, culture or civilization. They are: the New World, the Old World and Third World countries. It is important to note that the Old World is associated with the mythopoetic type of space characterized by a number of sacral objects and its connection with mythology. From the very beginning of the text the first mythological allusionš— a printing machine is exposed. Max Frisch takes it along to a journey and calls it “Hermes-Baby”. In one respect this name is the brand of a Swiss manufacturer, at the same time it belongs to an ancient Greek god, Hermes, who is remarkable for his eloquence (the character of the novel keeps a diary) and support for travelers (Valter Faber travels a lot for work). The idea of revenge is realized in ancient Greek goddesses the Erinyes. Valter Faber adores the sculpture “Kopf einer schlafenden Erinnye” in the National Museum and believes that due to light optical illusion the goddess would liven u p. Later in the text of the novel a snake (snakes are Erinyes's hair) will play a lead role in the main character's fate: Sabet dies of a basal skull fracture caused by falling after a bite from a snake. The novel veils the ancient Greek Oedipus myth: both characters are intimate with the nearest relations with no awareness of it. Having been conscious of that fact the main character like Oedipus is about to poke his eyes out. To summarize, mythologization is a kind of artistical device, which creates mythopoetic space of the novel. Ancient Greek mythology enables Max Frisch to apply to innumerous analogies and parallels, which is reflected in the poetic of the novel.Key words: mythopoetic, mythologization, allusion, culture.
Provatorova O.N “SAKHALIN ISLAND” ANTON CHEKHOVš— “THOUGHT OF ARTISTS AND MAN ON HIS TIME” This article establishes the connection between the naturalistic tendencies in the book, AP Chekhov's “The Island of Sakhalin” with its nature and objectives of the essay the authorš— to display the time. Selecting an object of scientific and artistic research, essay-genre works and, most importantly, the book task, not only led to the selection, measure and form of use of the material identified the narrator's position, the narrative tone, but also forced the author to resort to objective manner of narration, and protokolizm, faktografizm ( fotografizm), naturalistic details in the descriptions, scenes and portraits of charactersš— all that we call naturalistic tendencies. At the time of the trip Chekhov has developed his own ideal of complete, absolute freedom, and therefore his interest in people living in conditions of absolute lack of freedom, condemned to a life of suffering, clear. Even before the trip Chekhov wrote about the people whose livesš— uninterrupted quiet suffering that can only end in death. Theme meaningless life and the theme of human suffering is very important to Chekhov. The “Island of Sakhalin” these topics many times reinforced. Chekhov depicts reality with facts. a huge number of “protocols” can be found in the text. Protokolizm and faktografizmš— a techniques that uses Chekhov to readers heard, seen, realized the full horror of what is happening on the convict island, through the “Protocols” and the reality of the facts to see a different reality, a different picture of the modern worldš— life, suffering, life, hard labor. The space of “Sakhalin Island”, in spite of the actual huge area, bounded, closely, it “strangles” suppress man, and he seeks to break out of it. For the image space in which people “suffocating” and can not exist, Chekhov uses naturalistic colorsš— color, sound and smell. Naturalistic help paint Chekhov play in the book “Island Sakhalin” ways of life, suffering and life of hard labor, the human author in the modern world.Key words: Chekhov, Sakhalin, document, naturalistic tendencies, naturalistic colors, color, sound, smell.
Pykhtina Yu.G. THE VIRTUAL SPACE IN THE LITERATURE: TYPOLOGY, STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONCatching typological study of artistic pro-Russian space in the literature, we have previously identified and described the social-ing, psychological and virtual models as a base, used as a basis to create unique mixed models. Literature provides us with numerous examples of overlapping and interpenetration of field, the combination of which depends on the principle of building a plot, and genre, and problem-thematic and ideological content of the text. Since the analysis of products with a complex spatial structure, the identification of semantic types and features re-Khodnev types of space in a literary text has not yet been the subject of a special study, this work is relevant and promising. Of particular interest to us are the ways to transform reality in the texts that are experiencing the intersection of the real and virtual spatial models. The analysis revealed a number of works that the transition to an imaginary reality is often carried out by means of language (mainly metaphor and metonymy), resulting in the outside world appears to the reader in a deformed, distorted, transformed a fantasy author. Dvoemiriya situation also created the characters dive into the gaming reality that the entire gripping members, closes them in a different, built on the rules of the game field. The principal feature of the latest literature is the simulation of the so-called cyberspace, imitating reality with the help of the latest computer technology. In the course of our research we have been identified as mixed-governmental functions of spatial models, among themš— the creation of a special fantastic aura, transmitting a distorted, warped worldview of the author; characters characterization, consciously or unconsciously, leaving in the “otherness” (eg, a game); the organization of the plot, genre and ideological foundations of a literary text. Proposed in this paper a typology of virtual spaceš— just one of the possible products of the analysis of the ways in which structure there is the combination of (the intersection and interpenetration) real and virtual, in the long termš— study other forms of another realityš— mythological, oneiric, looking-glass, transpersonal.Key words: art space, spatial model, the virtual space, an imaginary reality game reality, cybernetic reality.
Yakovleva T.B. ANTHOLOGY OF WORKS BY THE WINNERS OF THE LITERARY PRIZE. P. I. RYCHKOV (2006-2015) AS A REFLECTION OF THE LITERARY LIFE OF THE ORENBURG REGIONThe article attempts to present the book “Chicks nest Rychkova” as a reflection of the literary life of the Orenburg region. The anthology was prepared for the tenth anniversary of the presentation of the literary prize named after P.I.šRychkova. These are the best products Orenburg authors who in different years received the highest rating of the jury of the literary contest. The work celebrates not only the diversity of works, but the complexity of the issues and depth of ideological intention, and the nature of the conflict, stylistic identity and continuation of traditions of Russian classical literature. All of this is a new way to rethink the concept of “regional literature” is an epic boundaries cease to exist when we rise to the universal problems. Key words: image of the author, the problems of poetics, the specificity of the images, the poetic system, the General cultural context.
Zhaplova T.M., Kraynova A.G. THE IRONIC INTERPRETATION OF IDYLLIC MOTIFS IN THE PLAYS BY I.S. TURGENEVAmbiguity of the concept of irony in the European and Russian culture has always been a wide field of philosophical, psychological, literary interpretation, the copyright interpretations of ambiguous and controversial phenomena of reality, built on the reality of conflict and communication elements of romantic thought, surviving in the human mind. Considering the functional specificity of irony, realized in a literary text, as well as its objectives and the role exerted by the impact on the reader, the researchers measured their importance for the implementation of an ironic approach, used by Russian writers, representatives of various literary movements. The authors applied to the analysis of works of aesthetic mastermind sentimentalism latešXVIIIš— early XIXšcentury. N.M.šKaramzin and representative realism of the second half of the XIX century I.S.šTurgenev. Identified parallel possible to establish the fact of mock-ironic rethinking existing in N.M.šKaramzin and “karamzinians” idyllic canon in light of manor life. In the article on pieces material I.S.šTurgenev's “Breakfast at the leader” and “Month in the Country”, dedicated to the social and ethical issues and property noble circle deals with the problems of value in separating the positions of heroes, to discredit the romantic ideals of the democratization of the younger generation of sentiment. On the basis of the ironic subtext introduced by I.S.šTurgenev's novels “Smoke” and “Fathers and Sons”, the authors identify the pairing of romantic irony and ironic attitude of the writer to the lost national complexion of Russia, the area of love and friendly feelings. This aspect of the analysis reveals the basic conflict between the opposites of social reality and idyllic picture of the elusive family home dispensation emotionally depressed I.S.šTurgenev capabilities smile, irony and caricature. During the analysis of the ideological and artistic features of the continuity between the NM have been identified N.M.šKaramzin and I.S.šTurgenev, associated with a certain proximity of their worldview and individual aspects of creativity.Key words: irony, parody, the dichotomy of peace, conflict, biedermeier, laughter, drama, play, N.M.šKaramzin, I.S.šTurgenev.
Zhaplova T.M., Tolkachev D.V. GENRE OF IDYLL IN A CREATION OF N.M. KARAMZIN AND K.R.In literary criticism, there are various approaches to the analysis of genre features sentimental idyll, the words in a mobile form, capable of reacting with the prosaic and poetic genres. By studying the types and specifics of the idyllic chronotope in Russian prose and poetry, the scientists reveal the relationship of the ideological and aesthetic positions inherent in the idyllic genre, with features of historical circumstances, a literary movement, creative method and spiritual principles of the era. Promising consideration idyll as rolling evolving genre, involving the presence of lyrical prose and structural properties, allows you to discover the similarities and differences in the work of writers, to draw a parallel between the essential elements in their works in the context of the literary movement and time. In the article on the example of prose and poetry, N.M.šKaramzin, the poet K.R. (Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov) considered genre features idyll corresponding theoretical justification sentimentalism XVIIIš— early XIXšcentury and realism of latešXIXš— early XXšcentury. This aspect of the analysis reveals signs of an idyllic landscape in the genres of elegies, letters and stories, which are characterized in the system of leitmotifs, symbols and images, and closer to understanding the beauty categories and “sensual ideal” in the development of the authors of love, nature, philosophical topics in a variety of artistic material in prose and poetry. The analysis covered such components idyllic chronotope as a natural beginning of human unity with the elements, family love, life, close to nature, to achieve harmony, synthesis of reality and dream, picked their sentimental orientation, are equally relevant to the conflict in dramatic romantic prose N.M.šKaramzin and lyrical background in realistic works in poetry K.R. According to the authors, in idyllic panoramic paintings and natural landscapes shown interest to writers of human psychology, the problem of the relationship of internal and external to the character of the hero through a connection with nature.Key words: idyll, sentimentalism, realism, landscape, N.M. Karamzin, K.R.