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Orenburg State University january 29, 2022   RU/EN
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Dedeeva S.A., Lapaeva O.F.
INNOVATION AS A MAJOR FACTOR OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION [№ 8 ' 2015]
Russian agriculture, as well as all branches of the Russian economy requires a huge investment. From the capital invested in agriculture depends not only on the development of agriculture, but also the entire agricultural sector, as well as the development of infrastructure in rural areas and of course the solution of social problems in rural areas. In agriculture, there are a number of factors that hinder the stable growth of the innovation activity. These include: reducing the production of agricultural products; weak policy of the state; the high cost of new equipment and technologies; unfavorable investment situation of agriculture. To solve the problem of increasing the efficiency of agricultural production requires its modernization. In this connection it is necessary to solve the following tasks: to ensure the growth of investment attractiveness of the agricultural sector to private investors, both Russian and foreign; increase the growth rate of technical — technological re-equipment of agricultural enterprises and organizations; to develop and introduce new technologies based on innovation. To these objectives have been implemented, it is necessary to create a favorable climate for sustainable rural development. To do this, you need to implement a set of measures including the improvement of social infrastructure, the allocation of state and regional subsidies, in order to improve the living conditions of the village, increasing employment and rural incomes due to the various activities of both agricultural and non-agricultural (crafts, rural tourism, etc.). In addition, the need to improve land and tax legislation, c. mpetent to carry out anti-monopoly policy, c. eate associations and unions of agricultural organizations, to improve the information base and access to it, to maintain soil fertility. This will ensure the growth of competitiveness of Russian agricultural products and import substitution throughout the country, as well as to increase the profitability of agricultural enterprises and organizations.

Lapaev S.P.
PRIORITIES OF INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE REGION IN THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION [№ 8 ' 2015]
An important role in the organization of import-substituting production plays an industrial complex in the region, which is a set of industrial enterprises located in the same area and work closely together. The basis of the development strategy of the industrial complex of the region are the national technology priorities. In terms of import prioritization of industrial development should be determined by the need for the production of the products in Russia, which previously came from abroad. For the development of import-substituting production should be established to work with the business community, to provide a set of incentives, provide financial assistance to such enterprises and to remove various administrative barriers. In addition, it is necessary to analyze the market of imported products in each sector of the economy with a view to establishing production in the region. It could play an active role "Corporation of the Orenburg region." It is also important to create regional institutions that contributed to the organization of import-substituting industries, such as the organization of a regional support center for import substitution (RTSPI), which will create a database of suppliers and customers. These units will assist the providers of domestic products look favorable orders, develop business plans, c. nduct technological and economic and financial expertise to organize the financing. An important area of improving the competitiveness of the regional industrial complex is to deepen industrial and trade specialization, innovation and the formation of a regional innovation system. Another important direction of development of industry — industrial clustering. In the Orenburg region develop oil and gas chemical, machine building, metallurgy, food processing clusters. The region effectively operates "Corporation of the Orenburg region", which seeks to implement the priority projects on the basis of public-private partnership.

Lapaeva M.G.
STAFFING OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES IN TERMS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION [№ 8 ' 2015]
In the terms of use of Western sanctions against Russia the priorities of the authorities of the country and regions is a substitution. Import substitution involves the development strategy and economic policy of import substitution to protect domestic consumers by substitution of imported goods of national production; the shift to knowledge intensive production. National program of import substitution should be realized in three areas: production of goods, the analogue of which is produced in the country is insufficient; the production of goods which are not produced in the country; the goods in the country to produce unprofitable or impossible, and reduce and consumption. For successful import substitution need to take care of training, effective use of human capital, especially its intellectual component. However, in the Orenburg region the last decade has seen a reduction in the number of scientists and researchers. In 2013, the number of personnel engaged in research compared to 2000, a decrease of 1.7 times, while the number of researchers decreased by 1.9 times. A positive trend is the increase in 2 times the number of universities engaged in research and development. As a result of these processes has reduced the number of granted patents for inventions and utility models. Restocking working in the field of research must occur at the expense of University graduates and postgraduate courses. Here the following should be noted: the increase in the number of employees in the universities are not accompanied by an increase in human capacity because of the decline of interest of young people in employment in the scientific field due primarily to low wages and lower academic status. Decline in the training of graduate and doctoral students. The current situation in the scientific and technical complex of the region is threatened by the exhaustion of intellectual potential, the discontinuity in science, the loss of tradition, experience, knowledge. In connection with the deployment of import substitution it is important to ensure the preservation and development of human scientific-technical complex. For this it is necessary to raise the prestige of the scientist to provide social guarantees researchers. Special attention should be paid to training of specialists in innovation management, intellectual property management, innovation and investment projects. To participate in the financing of training and retraining of personnel for innovative management of the need to attract leading enterprises of the region and the Government of the Orenburg region.

Lapaeva M.G., Lapaev S.P.
THE FORMATION OF CLUSTER MODEL OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES MANAGEMENT IN THE REGION [№ 8 ' 2015]
Innovative economy requires the employee's initiative and creative attitude, high level of education, professional skills. In this regard, the role of universities in training. Science and education requires innovative transformation. The most important mechanism of development of the education system is a cluster approach based on the interaction of science, education and production. Production and scientific-educational cluster is one of the forms of cooperation. The structure of this cluster included the University, other educational institution of higher education, secondary schools, colleges, business incubators, industrial Park, industrial enterprise, innovation and investment funds, research centers. The University, in addition to traditional functions, performs such as innovative, entrepreneurial, career support, cluster. Production companies work together with universities on training, scientific research, provides practice base, etc. Thanks to this cooperation in the cluster is activated innovative environment, a cluster is formed innovation infrastructure. M. Porter has defined a cluster as "a form of network." It is therefore important to evaluate the clusters from this point of view, i. e. to measure its composition, number of employees, the relationships between them. It is also important to formulate a model of interaction between higher education and enterprises in the region. It appears that this form of cooperation requires intensive development. This requires the creation of regulatory framework and development programs of the cluster policy.

Lapaeva O.F., Dedeeva S.A.
THE INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ENERGY SECTOR IN TERMS OF IMPORT [№ 8 ' 2015]
Russian natural resource company focused primarily on designing the most cost-effective deposits, limiting investments in new technologies. This reduces the potential for long-term profitability, as a significant part of natural resources remains in the bowels. But in terms of Russia against Western sanctions, it is necessary to deploy high-tech and innovative sector of the economy, which will increase orders for local businesses and tax payments to the budgets of the regions. Technological innovations in the energy sector differ in their characteristics: they are used in extreme temperatures, in a remote and harsh environment, their use is characterized by high capital intensity. Purchasing new technologies abroad has resulted in a reduction in the number of experts involved in the development and implementation of new technologies, reduction of funding. But in terms of the introduction of Western sanctions, the only solution is the development of the domestic technological base. In Russia there are such companies that will be able to replace foreign companies with their products. In the development of import substitution need purposeful work between oil and gas companies and providers of innovation services, which should help the authorities of the regions. In modern conditions, when the decline began on the continental Russian oil reserves, a transition to the development of the Arctic deposits, which is impossible without innovative approaches. You need high-tech equipment and infrastructure. In addition, it is important to improve the tax legislation for companies entering the Russian shelves. In Russia the program of import substitution in critical technologies, equipment, materials and oilfield services.

Dedeeva S.A., Lapayeva O.F.
INNOVATIONS AS MAIN FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT REGION AGRICULTURE [№ 4 ' 2015]
Innovative crisis of agro-industrial complex is connected with insufficient development of the scientific and technical direction in the sphere of agriculture. Now innovative process in agro-industrial complex has three complementary directions: development of the human capital, investment into continuous development of biological resources, creation of new technologies. As measures for support of the agricultural enterprises it is offered the following: to reconstruct structure of agricultural production for the purpose of adaptation of the enterprises to universal conditions; to develop and introduce quickly paid back and resource-saving equipment, and technologies; to enter incentive measures (tax subsidies and privileges) for agro-industrial cooperations and agricultural integration; to develop leasing and to increase efficiency of use of federal credit resources; to develop a state program on training of agricultural businessmen, which not less 1,6mln., and if they learn to use competently the earth, in the Russian Federation there will be a revival of agricultural branch; to increase efficiency of federal subsidizing of agro-industrial sector through reorientation of subsidies from the level of the producer of agricultural production for the level of her consumer. As an additional method of maintenance of agro-industrial complex it is necessary to begin use of an incentivization of assets and a value added tax to fuel and other agricultural resources. All this is possible when using new administrative techniques and other innovations in the management sphere.

Lapaev S.P., Gerasimenko T.I., Chmyshenko E.G., Tikhonov N.B.
MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REGION [№ 4 ' 2015]
The development of industrial infrastructure in the region requires the formation of an appropriate organizational and economic support of this process. The most important form of enhancing development of industrial infrastructure is a public-private partnership (PPP). The Russian Federation has formed a sufficient legal framework for the development of public-private partnership, operates a single entity to support the implementation of projects based on PPP — State Corporation "Bank for Development and Foreign Economic Affairs (Vnesheconombank). In the Orenburg region now PPP is used mainly for the development of social infrastructure and to a small extent — the production. From 9 infrastructure projects based on PPP in the Orenburg region, only one project is aimed at the development of geographically-oriented industrial infrastructure — reconstruction of highway Ilek — Tashla — Sobolev. At the same time in other regions of the Russian Federation has considerable experience in the use of PPPs for the development of industrial infrastructure. The leaders are the following regions: St. Petersburg, North and Far East federal districts. The most common forms of organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure are business — incubators, innovation centers, research and educational complexes and investment centers. In the Orenburg region created a significant number of organizations focused on the development of industrial infrastructure: State Non-Profit Organization "Orenburg Regional Fund for Small Business", a non-profit organization "guarantee fund for small and medium-sized enterprises of the Orenburg region" nonprofit organization "Foundation for Promotion of investments in entities Small and medium-sized enterprises in the Orenburg region "and others. However, the effectiveness of the use of the organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure in the region is insufficient. To support the development of industrial infrastructure, various financial instruments: the reduced rate of income tax exemptions on property tax, rental property, investment tax credit, and others. But their use is not sufficiently effective. In our country, the coordination of infrastructure development of the region to implement a single body — Autonomous Nonprofit Organization "Agency of strategic initiatives to promote new projects," but in the functions of this structure is not highlighted the need for accelerated development of the productive infrastructure to enhance the region's economy, which has a negative effect on handling the process. To solve the problems of production infrastructure in the regions, a network of corporate development, municipalities are formed investment sites that may become the new direction of the organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure. The problem is that all forms of organizational and economic support for the development of industrial infrastructure in the region have been used in the economy of each region and municipality.

Lapaev S.P.
TIPOLOGIZATSIYA OF THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA: THE INNOVATION APPROACH [№ 8 ' 2014]
In the article is conducted the analysis of approaches to tipologizatsii of regions, it is proposed the classification of regions taking into account the innovation.

Lapaeva M.G., Gushchinа A.A.
DIRECTIONS OF ACTION ON THE MARKET FOR HABITABLE REAL ESTATE [№ 8 ' 2014]
In the article are examined the functions of the market for real estate, the methods of control of the market for dwelling, and also the methods of action on the market for real estate: the stimulation of supply and demand.

Lapaeva M.G., Maslennikova A.Yu.
TRANSFORMATION OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: THEORY AND PATTERNS [№ 8 ' 2014]
The article presents a theoretical analysis of economic systems, the general laws of their transformation.

Lapaeva M.G., Egorychev S.A.
CLASSIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL FORMATIONS ACCORDING TO THE NECESSARY TYPE OF THE STEADY DEVELOPMENT [№ 4 ' 2014]
In the article is conducted the analysis of the developed algorithm of the classification of municipal formations on necessary of steady development, based on the example of the municipal formations of Orenburg region.

Lapaeva O.F.
TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN ELECTRICITY [№ 4 ' 2014]
The problems of power industry development , the main ones are the optimization of state regulation of tariffs , rules of market self-regulation , the organizational structure. Particular attention is paid to the current state of the electricity market in pricing, energy production costs and accelerating investment.

Lapaeva M.G., Egorychev S.A.
ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MODEL OF MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MUNICIPALITIES [№ 1 ' 2014]
The article presents the organizational-economic model of management of sustainable development of municipalities, given the characteristics of the process of management of sustainable development of municipalities, directions of their sustainable development.

Lapayev S.P.
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS: COMMON FEATURES AND FEATURES [№ 8 ' 2013]
In article the analysis of conditions of formation of national and regional innovative systems is carried out; the model of innovative system of the Orenburg region and basic provisions of the concept of its formation are offered; common features and features of national and regional innovative systems are allocated

Lapaeva M.G., Girina A.N.
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS [№ 8 ' 2013]
The article is devoted to the theoretical aspects of regional development in the modern world. We study a new view of the emerging economic environment in regional development. Analysis of theories has shown that regional development in modern conditions is dependent on the development of the industrial complex, the scientific sphere and infrastructure.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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