Padalko Yu.A., Sivohip J.T., Pavleichik V.M.
REGIONAL ISSUES SUSTAINABLE WATER USE IN THE MALOVODE PERIODS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE URAL RIVER BASIN)
The article provides a brief analysis of the ecological-hydrological and water management aspects of low-water periods in the steppe zone using the example of the Ural River basin. The intra-annual variability of the river runoff, characteristic of the basin under study, is noted, due to the interaction of a number of factors. Based on the calculation of modular coefficients and the construction of difference-integral curves, periods of different water content were established; The low-water character of the runoff was noted in 1949–1985 and 2005–2012. At the same time, the runoff of the majority of the rivers in the Ural River basin is synchronous and in-phase. On the basis of the calculation of the coefficients of variation, the differences in the long-term variability of the runoff of individual rivers were noted, due to natural conditions, mainly — the latitudinal-zonal inhomogeneity of the basin and the relief partition. It was revealed that the minimum coefficients of variation in runoff are characteristic for the Sakmar River and its tributaries draining the mountain forest and foothill landscapes of the Southern Urals and the Urals. The natural zonality also determines the duration of zero flow for small and some average rivers of the Ural River basin. It is noted, unlike the spring-flood highs and the summer-autumn mezhdene, winter run-off minima are very asynchronous for different rivers, some coincidences most often occur in extreme (maximum and minimum) winter water years. In order to determine the possible shortage of surface runoff resources, the water stress indicator for water management sites was calculated. The data obtained indicate a lack of water resources in the upper reaches of the Ural River and the Ilek River in low-water years. The conducted researches show that in the conditions of transboundary river flow it is the shallow periods that maximally exacerbate the tension of water-users’ interests in the Ural river basin. In this regard, the actual problem in the basin is the provision of guaranteed water supply for the needs of industry, agriculture and the population.
Key words: steppe zone, river basin, low-water period, guaranteed water supply, flow regulation.
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Authors: Padalko Yu.A., Sivohip J.T., Pavleichik V.M.