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Padalko Yu.A., Sivohip J.T., Pavleichik V.M.
REGIONAL ISSUES SUSTAINABLE WATER USE IN THE MALOVODE PERIODS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE URAL RIVER BASIN) [№ 12 ' 2017]
The article provides a brief analysis of the ecological-hydrological and water management aspects of low-water periods in the steppe zone using the example of the Ural River basin. The intra-annual variability of the river runoff, characteristic of the basin under study, is noted, due to the interaction of a number of factors. Based on the calculation of modular coefficients and the construction of difference-integral curves, periods of different water content were established; The low-water character of the runoff was noted in 1949–1985 and 2005–2012. At the same time, the runoff of the majority of the rivers in the Ural River basin is synchronous and in-phase. On the basis of the calculation of the coefficients of variation, the differences in the long-term variability of the runoff of individual rivers were noted, due to natural conditions, mainly — the latitudinal-zonal inhomogeneity of the basin and the relief partition. It was revealed that the minimum coefficients of variation in runoff are characteristic for the Sakmar River and its tributaries draining the mountain forest and foothill landscapes of the Southern Urals and the Urals. The natural zonality also determines the duration of zero flow for small and some average rivers of the Ural River basin. It is noted, unlike the spring-flood highs and the summer-autumn mezhdene, winter run-off minima are very asynchronous for different rivers, some coincidences most often occur in extreme (maximum and minimum) winter water years. In order to determine the possible shortage of surface runoff resources, the water stress indicator for water management sites was calculated. The data obtained indicate a lack of water resources in the upper reaches of the Ural River and the Ilek River in low-water years. The conducted researches show that in the conditions of transboundary river flow it is the shallow periods that maximally exacerbate the tension of water-users’ interests in the Ural river basin. In this regard, the actual problem in the basin is the provision of guaranteed water supply for the needs of industry, agriculture and the population.

Sivohip Z.T.
SUSTAINABLE WATER USE AS A FACTOR OF HYDROECOLOGICAL SAFETY IN TRANSBOUNDARY BASIN RIVER URAL [№ 7 ' 2016]
The article analyzes the modern ecological and hydrological situation in the Ural River transboundary basin taking into account the water situation in the regions. Despite the fact that in the process of intensive economic development of river basins purchased from the key-socio-economic characteristics, the main functional categories are determined by the specificity of the natural catchment areas. At the same time, cross-border river basin is a complex spatially integrated and multifunctional system, where the eco-geographical and socio-economic processes, one way or another, are determined by the geopolitical features. In this regard, the problems to achieve sustainable water management in transboundary river basins will be complicated by a complex water management, institutional and administrative differences. Due to the specifics of the spatial structure, the transboundaryriver Ural a significant number of different business entities, which are characterized by different indicators of water supply on the background of the development of a diversified economy. In the area of direct cross-border contacts include Orenburg, West Kazakhstan and Aktobe regions and the peripheral zone to form the hy-drographic basin areas within the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Chelyabinsk region of the Russian Federation and the Atyrau region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. There is no doubt that such a structure difficult water situation and may lead to the manifestation of various dangerous hydrological situations. Obviously, the specifics of the current regional structure of water is determined by the intensity of the economic development of the catchment areas, which was carried out in stages in view of the growing economic needs of the state. In general, it should be noted that the severity of the situation with water supply sectors of the economy and the population of Russia and Kazakhstan connected with the limited water resources, unevenly-dimensionality of their distribution in the territory, significant variability in time and a high degree of contamination.

Sivokhip Z.T., Pavleychik V.M.
THE SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF FACTORS OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE RIVER DRAIN IN THE CROSS-BORDER BASIN OF THE RIVER URAL [№ 13 ' 2015]
The worldwide growing problems of water consumption makes it necessary to address them in the context of geo-political, socio-economic and environmental security of the regions. A considerable relevance of the problem priobre-melt water in water-scarce conditions and in regions with developed industrial and agricultural production. Within the Russian Federation, this combination is a characteristic of transboundary Ural River. The paper analyzes the natural conditions and human factors forming the river flow in the basin of the Ural River in terms of the development of the concept of integrated water resources management. Data on the spatial heterogeneity of the formation conditions of runoff caused by a combination of complex and vzaimouslovlennym zonal-climatic conditions, varied topography and landscape structure. Studies have revealed trends in the water regime of the rivers, expressed in the redistribution of water content on hydrological seasons, manifested in the reduction of the spring and increase the share of low flow, especially in the winter. The information about the most significant types of anthropogenic transformation of surface runoff, summarizes the parameters of the largest reservoirs. It is pointed out that the majority of dangerous hydrological situations observed in the basin of the Urals, provoked by human activities without regard to seasonal and long-term dynamics of channel processes. As an example, consider geo-ecological consequences of the construction of bridges and road embankments. The article states that the question of assessing the impact of flow regulation on a multi-year and annual transformation of the hydrological regime of watercourses Ural River basin remains controversial, and the findings of various researchers  — is not identical. Studies suggest that the transformation of the hydro-logical mode is defined as a geographical contrasts between the different parts of the river basin. Ural and anthropogenic factors. The results indicate the need for drawing up long-term forecasts in the development of water-ecological situation, but with a detailed assessment of the socio-economic and landscape-hydrological effects.

Sivokhip Z.T.
ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL SPECIFICS OF SMALL RIVERS AS AN INDICATOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE STEPPE ZONE [№ 10 ' 2015]
This article provides a brief analysis of the ecological and hydrological specifics of the small rivers of the steppe zone within the basin of the Ural River. Characterized by structural and functional features of the local river runoff, primarily observed extreme non-uniformity of the river flow in seasonal and interannual aspects. It is noted that the small D-ki are an essential component of the steppe landscape, fulfilling an important ecological role and prirodoobrazuyuschuyu. First of all, the vital importance of small rivers of the steppe geosystems associated with the formation of complexes with a high natural landscape and biological diversity. The estimation of the main factors transforming small rivers catchment areas, taking into account the nature of the impact — direct or indirect. Taking into account the specifics of hydrometeorological catchment areas of the steppe zone, the most common types of economic activity are the direct impact of water withdrawals for irrigation and accumulation of runoff (especially spring) ponds. Despite the small water surface area and small volume, ponds have a significant impact on the flow of small rivers, especially in areas of insufficient and unreliable moistening. In general, it notes that, on the basis of a high degree of transformation of the catchment areas, the study of ecological and hydrological specifics of small rivers are among the current research directions. Taking into account the above-mentioned spatial and structural and functional features of the natural systems of small rivers, it is necessary to pay attention to the difficulty of assessing the role of individual factors of transformation of catchment areas.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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© Электронное периодическое издание: ВЕСТНИК ОГУ on-line (VESTNIK OSU on-line), ISSN on-line 1814-6465
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Учредитель: Оренбургский государственный университет (ОГУ)
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