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Orenburg State University january 29, 2022 RU/EN
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Markelova Yu.V., Baranov V.V., Vorobyov V.K., Popova E.A.
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR EVALUATING THE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS LEADERSHIP QUALITIES [№ 1 ' 2020]
Changes in the economy associated with the emergence of various types and forms of economic activity, economic freedom, stimulate a creative and innovative approach to professional activity, a professional with leadership qualities is in demand. University complexes as centers of education, science and culture of the region accumulate and transmit innovative pedagogical experience from Central universities to branches, creating a modern educational space for the multidimensional development of personal qualities of students. Analysis of scientific research in the field of sociology, psychology, and leadership pedagogy allowed us to specify a set of qualities that characterize the future leader in various areas of management-industrial, sports, tourism, and educational. The formation and development of students ‘ leadership qualities includes a multi-aspect diagnostics of leadership. Diagnostic tools are characterized by a significant variety, due to the ambiguity of the idea of a set of personal qualities needed by the leader. Integrative assessment of leadership qualities requires the use of a representation of the profile of leadership qualities. To select diagnostic methods, a critical analysis of tools for diagnosing students ‘ leadership qualities was carried out. A matrix of conformity of the diagnosed quality and the methodology used to assess its development was created. The presented tools were used to determine the main directions of work on the development of these qualities in students. A computer program for individual assessment of a student’s leadership profile has been developed, which functions through a personal account on the University’s website. Diagnostics of students from different universities allowed us to track the dynamics of changes in the development of leadership qualities of graduates, to assess the effectiveness of the proposed pedagogical measures, and differences in the mentality of young people in large and small cities.

Kulizhskiy C.P., Rodikova A.V., Popova S.V.
SOIL FORMATION IN CONTACT ZONES OF TERRITORIAL AND AQUATIC COMPLEXES OF SHIRA STEPPE [№ 12 ' 2017]
Diverse soil formation conditions in Shira Steppe of Chulym-Yenisei basin in Minusinsk intermountain trough, with their dissected relief and a substantial amount of standing lakes provide for a great topsoil diversity in the area. This fact complicates the possibilities of their use and methods of protection. Subordinate positions receive additional inflow of water and substances, additionally reinforced by erosion processes at anthropogenically modified parts of the watershed area. Another important factor is that contact zones of territorial and aquatic complexes around the lakes are subjected to the most active exodynamic processes, such as abrasion, colmatage, mire formation, salinization; types of soil chemism dynamics are observed along when cyclic changes in the soil regimes. These unique conditions cannot but reflect on the properties of lakeside soils, including — solonchaks, which mirror the environmental conditions. Soils profiles are located in landscape microzone directly adjacent to the waterfront and are represented by primary, primary stratified, as well as typical and schorre solonchaks. Objects are characterized by a predominance in the composition of chlorides and/or sulfates, in places — with the participation of soda. Easily soluble compounds are represented by halite, thenardite and astrakhanite. The presence of gypsum does not allow the solonetz process to develop in soils remote from the water area of the lake. The findings of the studies show a wide variation of basic soil parameters and properties of solonchaks, determined by a number of local soil formation factors, such as steepness and shape of surrounding slopes, exposure, wind direction, diversity of soil-forming materials, properties of the stratified material, lake size, location, etc.

Popova M.V., Kotova E.N.
ECOLOGY OF LIVING QUARTERS IN THE ASPECT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS [№ 12 ' 2017]
Allergic rhinitis is a widespread disease, which according to the decision of the World Health Organization, is an indicator of the health of the population. Researches were conducted in the period from 2013–2015, evaluated the disease of children aged 0–13 years. The development of allergic rhinitis depends on the basic parameters of the room in which the child spends most of the day. With an average air temperature of 23C and a humidity of 60%, the number of children with developed allergic rhinitis is 9%, while with air humidity below 40% and its temperature above 27C, the number of sick children grows in many times. Allergy remains one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine. According to who,' the prevalence of allergic diseases, occupying 3rd place after cardiovascular and oncological diseases during the last decade has increased and has no tendency to decrease. An important reason for this is that most of the factors' causing allergic reactions, and also non-allergenic factors contributing to development of allergies are related to our way of life, nutrition, micro-ecology of residential premises, the conditions of professional activity. The data obtained showed a direct dependence on otolaryngological diseases on such room parameters as temperature and humidity. Observance of recommended parameters for all other types of allergic rhinitis.

Popova V.I.
HUMANITARIAN AND CULTUROLOGICAL OPPORTUNITIES OF TRAINING OF THE MASTER (EXPERIENCE OF A SOLUTION) [№ 5 ' 2017]
Revival of a humanitarian and culturological orientation of education as resource potential of training of the master is characteristic for a modern situation in which the dehumanization of the personality, rationalism of thinking, shaking of moral guidelines is found. The aspiration to answer calls which are found in a modern educational situation, demanded judgment of humanitarian and culturological opportunities of training of the master: ensuring integrity of the educational process which is carried out in unity of a valuable and target, information and substantial, technological and reflexive and estimated component. The pedagogical concepts which are available now not fully reflect specifics of training of the master in correlation of such characteristics of the teacher as competent performance of professional functions, personal development (system of moral installations in the relation to people around and to), communicative expediency of actions. The carried-out diagnostiko-developing analysis and experience of a solution of the problem of training of the master of educational activity order other concept of training of the master as it is substantial, and technologically in a projection to subject— subject interaction of the teacher and trained. Modern education as a key to overcoming of crisis of a gumanitarnost (a valuable and target orientation) is accented; prospects of scientific and methodical providing and maintenance of educational activity with uneven-age groups of children and youth (an information and substantial component) are defined; formation of professional competence of the master as certain set of actions is comprehended (technological); the diagnostic, advising and compensatory functions of training of the master (a reflexive and estimated component) are approved. The declared logic and substantial dominants of training of the master change ideas of essence and functions of professional actions of the master in a projection to the trained. The projected actions become the most productive if there is an understanding of personal sense of education of the person (the child, the teenager, the senior school student) as the main value; stimulates judgment of the arising vital problems in unstable society.

Popova E.V.
THE NATURE OF JUDICIAL DISCOURSE [№ 6 ' 2016]
The article is devoted to consideration and analysis of legal discourse from the position of its mental essence. The study of professional discourse is currently a topical issue in linguistics. The research object of this article is the judicial discourse. The discourse represents, on the one hand, the abstract variable description of structural-semantic characteristics implemented in specific texts considering extralinguistic factors, and with another— a set of texts of one and the same sphere of communicative activity. Legal discourse is a form of existence of language that is used to express specific mentality. In the relationship of courtroom discourse— legal discourse, legal discourse can be called hieronimo, and judicial discourse— gironimo. Courtroom discourse is realized in situations of specific activities.

Popova N.B.
TYPOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SOME LANGUAGE SITUATIONS AT THE DYNAMICS OF GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS (SINGLE-COMPONENT LANGUAGE SITUATION IN ICELAND) [№ 3 ' 2016]
The paper studies the typological features of some linguistic situations, emerging as a result of geopolitical factors in the foreign and internal policy of the states. The up-to-date geopolitics notion reflects the phenomenon which in reality has existed always as a desire to expand the confines of one state at the expense of others. On a large scale, the geopolitical factors stimulate the nonlinear processes dynamics of social chaos, which are the wars and social calamities as a effect. After the chaos of social calamities becomes a search of relatively new stable state (structure) of social order. The chaos, which comes with wars, contributes to appearance different types of language situations leading to transformations of world languages. Because with the course of time the language situations define the concrete changes in usage of earlier installed language units. The language situation notion is an ambiguous phenomenon having numerous characters which, it seems, don't can receive a hierarchical classification. Though in our domestic linguistics were defined some typological differential characteristics, proper for different types and conditions of language situations realizations. The most common for many countries and peoples is a plural-component language situation in the structure of one language. However in the network of present paper weal studied non-typical single-component language situation in the structure of one language. The single-component language situation reflects any dominant idiom in the structure of one language. The idiom ("special feature, diversity" from Greek) is the language formation as a language or his variant: any dialect, koine, literary language, colloquial language, slang, professional argot. The single-component language situation is the dominance of any listed idiom. And it is an uncommon form of language situation in the structure of one language. As such example many linguists give the language situation in Iceland. The aim of this paper is the study of geopolitical factors which stipulated this type of language situation.

Popov V.B.
POLITICAL PARTIES AND POWER IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE LEGAL FIELD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURG PROVINCE) [№ 1 ' 2016]
Wave of the revolution of 1905 caused by the failure to resolve the pressing issues of development of the state and society, has forced the government to embark on the path of dialogue. Freedom given by Nicholas II gave the opposition a legal matter, however, the authoritarian practices of the monarchical government, being entirely focused on the neutralization of the social forces, the lack of tradition of collaboration gave rise to mutually. The low level of political consciousness is not only the common masses, but also among intellectuals, officials, appeared in the period of the legalization of political parties: affected by the lack of democratic traditions, the General low level of education among the population, including many members of the military class. At the same time on the background of frequent offences committed by members of the leftist parties, the assassination of government officials, theft of state property, and so on, acquired monstrous proportions in the country in General and in the Urals, in particular, the region was relatively quiet. Despite this repression has fallen not only on the radical left organizations and associations, and representatives of the Constitutional-democratic party. Although compared to the very left, "cadet" opposition behaved in relation to the state loyally and quite correctly, however, all of this for the government was doubtful. Power, establishing the legal framework for the opposition, sometimes broke them, for the sake of immediate political gain, and sometimes bungling at the local level. In General, attributing all the opposition is equally unlawful tendencies, not wanting to understand all the nuances, nuances, been oppressed and was underestimated truly necessary for the country liberals. Moreover, the attitude of authorities to the parties of the opposition did not differ. It is no coincidence that brought to trial against the "cadets" as witnesses police "habit" claimed "found during a search of the documents of the social Democrats". Thus, the relationship of the parties and the authorities on the national level and in the Orenburg province in particular, both before and after the Manifesto of 17October 1905, can be described as mutually hostile (except the far right) that gave rise eventually 1917.

Popov V.V., Tsypin A.P.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF INCOME CUSTOMS PAYMENTS TO THE FEDERAL BUDGET IN TODAY'S ECONOMY [№ 13 ' 2015]
During the period of economic reform, a system of customs authorities, which corresponds to modern conditions of the international market. With the help of this system has considerable statistical information, which reflects the structure and dynamics of the collection of customs duties, the amount of goods transported through the customs border of the EAEC, and the mechanism of foreign trade and domestic prices, etc. Under these conditions, there is a need of economic and statistical study of the above data to identify patterns of development and implementation of forecasting the state of the phenomenon in the future. The article presents an attempt to build a dynamic model of a statistically significant number of customs payments to the federal budget in the current external economic environment of the Russian Federation. The sequence of steps of the analysis of time series. Constructed an econometric model that takes into account the structural changes in the dynamics of the analyzed a number of levels and a forecast for 2015. According to the results of the study revealed that a significant reduction in customs duties calls into question the economic viability of the continued functioning of the Orenburg customs. The estimated model of "collapse" has confirmed the hypothesis about the impact of the change of status of the Orenburg customs (from the outside to the inside) on the amount of customs duties collected.

Popova O.B.
GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF FORMATION AND SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RECREATIONAL AND TOURIST POTENTIAL OF ORENBURG REGION [№ 13 ' 2015]
Currently, it created the need for a reassessment of the recreational potential of the Russian regions on the background of import substitution of rhetoric. Geographic patterns of capacity building for tourism and recreation have been identified for a particular region, contribute to the development of recommendations for the optimization of the spatial organization of the industry. The tourist potential of the area is required to evaluate complex through a set of tourist and infrastructure capacity, natural and recreational, cultural and historical. The basis for the study is based on statistics of towns and districts of the Orenburg region. The calculated ratio of identified integrated geographic patterns of spatial differentiation of the tourism potential of the Orenburg region. Orenburg region has a relatively low level of development of the tourism industry in the east and the lack of availability of cultural and historical resources, but high values of availability of natural and recreational resources in the west. Prospects for the development of domestic tourism in the Orenburg region are differentiated by territory. The highest rates have western and central administrative regions.

Tsurova L.M., Milyudin E.S. , Zelter P.M., Kanivec N.V., Popov N.V.
NEW IN CHOOSING OF OPTIMAL SIZE ORBITAL BONE IMPLANT [№ 12 ' 2015]
In the prevention and treatment of anophthalmic syndrome is important to choose the optimal size implant for each individual patient. In our study we used CT scan of the orbits, the BMD of the eyeballs and facial radiography of the skull to calculate the optimal size of orbital bone liner, taking into consider anatomical parameters of the orbit. There are 60patients without eye pathology, separated on three group depend on method of diagnostic research. Patients aged from30 to75. Analysis results of diagnostic tests have allowed us to develop new optimal size of orbital bone implant. Bone orbital implant is bone block with cylindrical form and porous structure, which had three type sizes. Our studies show, that orbital bone implant, which optimal size have developed in diagnostic researches, help us to create good functional and cosmetic result after enucleation. We offer complex researches of orbit (CT scan of the orbits, eyes ultrasound biometry, facial skull radiography), that is optimal set of researches for calculation of type sizes bone orbital implant.

Popova O.B.
INTEGRAL TOURISM CAPACITY IN ORENBURG REGION [№ 10 ' 2015]
In the administrative districts of the regions must be reevaluated known tourist resources and new research in connection with the development of domestic tourism. A comprehensive assessment of tourist-recreational potential of the territory necessary to optimize the spatial organization of the existing tourist and recreational system. Integral indicator of the tourist potential of the territory represents a combination of several components: tourism and infrastructure capacity, natural-recreational and cultural-historical. The basis for the study was the collection of statistical data on the cities and districts of the Orenburg region. Obtained integrated factor, which determines the differentiation of the level of development of tourist-recreational systems in the territory, showed uneven distribution of potential. The Orenburg region has a relatively low level of development of tourism industry, lack of cultural and historical resources, but high values of the availability of natural and recreational resources. For the formation of tourist-recreational systems at the regional level it is recommended the simultaneous creation and development of tourism and supporting infrastructure in local areas systems in the administrative districts with the highest indicators of integrated tourist and recreational potential.

Popov S.V.
BIOTOPIC PREFERENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION STRIGIFORMES ON THE BORDER OF THE TAIGA AND FOREST-STEPPE BEYOND THE URALS [№ 9 ' 2015]
One of actual problems of modern ecology is studying of bonds between species composition of communities both different ecological and space factors. The purpose of this article is studying of topical preferences and space structure of the population Strigiformes on border of taiga and the northern forest-steppe of Zauralie. For achievement of the goal, in the least changed biogeocenoses, the network of constant routes and platforms has been put. Besides, for search of rare species additional single routes outside areas of stationary researches were put. Selectivity of types concerning mosaic of vegetable cover was studied on the basis of mapping of nests and the analysis of satellite images by means of GIS. Round each nest zones with a radius of 100, 500 and 1000 meters were allocated. For each such zone amount of forests, share of the area occupied with osier-beds, fields and meadows was calculated. On the basis of comparison of structure of vegetation around nests and in accidentally chosen points within platforms, the conclusion about preference or avoiding of amount of forests, fields, osier-beds, etc. is drawn. Definition like space structure of the population was carried out due to comparison of the real and theoretically expected distribution type. Modeling of space structure of the population Strigiformes was carried out by means of method of kernel (Kernel Density Estimation) and the specialized computer OpenJump program. For Strigiformes the labile space structure of the population is characteristic. Annual reproduction of space structure of the population is not observed. The increase in number of look can lead to reduction of distances to the closest nest of the look and to emergence of nested aggregations. The choice of specific place for nest is defined by structure of mosaic of vegetable cover and is partly connected with presence of closely related look.

Sidorenko G.A., Popov V.P., Zinyukhin G.B., KhaninaT.V., Maneyeva E.Sh.
ELECTROCONTACT BAKING OF THE BISCUIT [№ 9 ' 2015]
Almost all kinds of pastries are baked by the radiation and convective way. Delaying and stopping of the pastry volume of the test preparation during baking result in the crust formation on the surface of the flour product. During traditional baking the activity of enzymes and various biologically active compounds decreases. Besides, over the high temperature the crust of the flour product accumulates the products of the fats polymerization, polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates, various oxide substances that reduces the nutrition and the biological value of the finished products. In this regard, baking ways, at which crust isn't formed, are of special interest. The influences of various parameters on the finished product quality and the process of electrocontact baking are also of interest, in particular the influence of various dosages of flour on the indicators of the biscuit quality, and also the temperature and the volume of the biscuit during baking. The change of the substances amount entering the compounding will allow to give an assessment to the prospects of this or that application for the biscuit. The traditional radiation and convective baking is characterized by the high-temperature impact on the baked preparation that leads to the decrease in nutrition and biological value of the products. Baking products by the electrocontact way it is possible to reduce the loss of the useful compounds that increases the nutrition and the biological value of the finished products. According to the researches of the technology of the biscuit making baked by the electrocontact way it was revealed that the increase in flour dosages intensifies the process of electrocontact baking for the biscuit. The increase in flour dosages leads to the increase in elasticity and the improvement of organoleptic and physical and chemical properties of the biscuit (the complex indicators increase of organoleptic and physical and chemical properties).

Popov V.B.
THE INTRODUCTION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE INSTITUTE ZEMSTVO CHIEFS IN THE PROVINCE OF ORENBURG [№ 7 ' 2015]
The article offers an analysis of the law on County chiefs from 12July 1889, provides assessment of its substantive provisions. The contents of this article suggests that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited". Institute of Zemstvo chiefs was to strengthen authoritative supervision of the peasants, to reduce the intensity of social contradictions in the village, to centralize and organize the activities of bodies of local self-government. Summary. Institute of Zemstvo chiefs, as a special type of local government was introduced in the process of reforms of AlexanderIII and was an important stage in the formation of governance structures at the local level. The reason for the establishment of the Zemstvo chiefs was the need to restore order in the village, which led to a diversity of projects to streamline peasant life.Almost all of them boiled down to the need to establish administrative control over the peasant population. Nobility is fascinated by the new law, as evidenced addresses directed to Alexander III noble collections of various provinces of Russia. No wonder, because it was a return to this bar still influence and was a means for economic advancement at the expense of public service. The class interests of the nobility and the public interest of the government at this stage was identical.In the Orenburg province originally Cossack territory Institute of Zemstvo district chiefs was not introduced, but 19February 1894, after a lengthy discussion, the Main Department of the Cossack troops ordered to extend the validity of the law on County chiefs and military lands. In Ufa province division into areas demanded a quick solution to the issue of the subdivision Bashkir same. The law of 1890 was recognized as "the Zemstvo case is a matter of state, and provincial agencies— state and subdued them in court against the rules established for the conduct of Affairs of state institutions.Analyzing legislative acts, it should be noted that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited".Analyzing legislative acts, it should be noted that the law on County chiefs was not exclusively aristocratic and "limited".It should also be noted that the extension of power and control activities of township officers and clerks, village chiefs, was really caused by the need.Compared with the draft law was amended primarily editorial in nature. Despite the establishment of educational qualification, the law provided for the possibility of appointment to the position of the Zemstvo of the head, and persons who did not have secondary education.A local Department of the Ministry of internal Affairs, 1291 Fund RGIA, contains information, according to which we can conclude that the number of persons held the position of Zemstvo head and had higher and secondary education, no less than those who graduated only colleges that shows quite a high level of education among these officials.The law of 1889 was designed to create institutions that vozvrashalsya nobility significant share of its former estate, the police authorities. Undoubtedly, the law on County chiefs had serious shortcomings and was far from ideal.Two decades of the post-reform development has revealed a number of negative moments in the life of the Russian village. This weakness officials of rural self-government and insufficient activity of the volost courts, as well as the increase in rural crime. Thus the elements of administrative control that carried the law, were important. It should also be noted that the very form of guardianship is quite consistent with traditional installations peasant paternalism. Thus, the introduction of guardianship over village self-government consistent with the objective needs of the Russian village of the late XIX— early XXcenturies.

Popova O.V.
TRANSFORMATION OF ETHNO-CULTURAL OLD BELIEVER COMMUNITIES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES [№ 7 ' 2015]
For a long time the Old Believers or settlers, different in the place of output, formed several local ethnic and cultural groups. Settling of Old Believers abroad (in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, Western Prichudie, Turkey, China, USA, Bolivia, Uruguay) took place stepwise. The study of basic space-temporal parameters of the settlement of the Old Believers allowed to trace the specifics of formation and transformation of the Old Believer communities. Historical and geographical periodization resettlement process coincides with the main ranges of the Old Believers. The main periods, which are related to the settlement of individual regions and countries: I"European" (end XVII— early XVIIIcenturies.), II"Asia-Turkey" (the end of XVIII— XIXcenturies.), III"American-Australian (first half of XXcentury), IV"American" (mid XX century.). Various factors (economic, social, political, cultural, and others) significantly affected the process of ethno-cultural systems transformation. In different regions of the Old Believers have acquired regional specificity of natural resources, specialization, features of life. The local Old Believer communities in various degrees have been transformed. Cohabitation and close contact with other surrounding cultures are reflected in the Old Believers' House (in construction equipment, appearance and in the interiors). The activities of the Old Believer population have been significantly changed. A part of the population works in the industrial enterprises, farms, private firms. Extensive development has received such a traditional industry production, fisheries, that undergone significant changes in the labor supply, gear, vehicles. Gone is the traditional seasonal work. Hereditary builders either moved to cities and became regular workers, or work on rural buildings in their area. The traditional occupation— horticulture— is developed mainly on farms. Noticeable changes have occurred in the home and family rituals. Relationships in the family have been democratized, and this process is still going on. At marriages religious and ethnic affiliation is rarely taken into account. Rituals related to birth and death are more stable and conservative among Old Believers. Such traditional features as strong family ties are held (including children who have left for the city and relatives), as well as mutual economic families.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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