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Orenburg State University january 23, 2022 RU/EN
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Aptikieva L.R.
MODERN METHODS OF WORKING WITH ADOLESCENTS WITH EATING DISORDERS [№ 2 ' 2020]
The growth of addictive behavior in the teenage environment is caused by a number of reasons (economic, political, demographic, social stability). One of the groups of addictive behavior is eating disorders of adolescents: anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The problem of eating disorders in adolescence is gaining worldwide scope because it leads to impaired health, death, which necessitates a comprehensive study of it and the search for modern, effective methods of work in this direction, which is the aim of the study.
My theoretical research allowed me to identify modern, effective methods of working with adolescents with eating disorders (group therapy, family, rational, behavioral, hypnosis); identify risk factors for eating disorders of adolescents (genetic, family, biological, age, personality, cultural, factors of stressful events); consider types of food addictions in adolescents (anorexia nervosa and bulimia).
A common symptom for adolescents with food addiction is dysmorphomania; loss of perception of hunger and satiety; low self-esteem; decrease in the circle of interests; violation or loss of social ties; the predominance of depressed, depressive mood; the appearance of obsessive thoughts on food and calories; decreased interest in the opposite sex and sexual sphere. Types of food addiction in adolescents are: anorexia nervosa and bulimia— a common concern is the control of one’s body weight, a distortion of his image, a change in nutritional value in the hierarchy of values, the formation of a stable vomiting reflex, irritability of the intestines, and nervousness. Difference: anorexia leads to severe weight loss; represents a complete rejection of food (bulimia— a constant desire to consume food); is deadly. Prevention of addiction is early prevention; effective working methods: group therapy, family, rational, behavioral, hypnosis.

Aptikieva L.R.
PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE CONSEQUENCES FOR DIFFERENT AGE CATEGORIES [№ 1 ' 2020]
An increase in the number of victims of psycho-violence, which has a traumatic effect on the personality, causing emotional stress, stress, discomfort, and depression, necessitates studying the consequences of psycho-violence for different age categories. Three categories of manifestations of psycho-violence are distinguished: verbal aggression; dominant behavior; manifestations of jealousy that affect the victim of violence in different ways. Violations developing after the experienced psycho-violence affect all levels of an individual’s functioning and lead to sustainable personality changes. Objective: to identify the consequences of psycho-violence for different age categories.
My theoretical study of the consequences of psycho-violence for different age categories made it possible to identify specific features of the consequences for different age categories. Consequences for children: sleep disturbances; hyperreactivity; impaired memory and concentration; irritability; a sharp decline in school performance; change of worldview; the emergence of many complexes; low self-esteem; maladaptation; health problems (various diseases occur); difficulty in building relationships; developmental delays (mental, emotional, speech); constant stress, fear, expectation of danger; suicidal tendency, asocial lifestyle. The consequences of psycho-violence in adults are disorders of a psychological and physical nature: sleep disturbances; nervous breakdowns; irritability; depression; anxiety; difficulty concentrating; panic conditions, heart attacks; loss of self-esteem; decreased self-esteem; violation of social relations; decrease in labor productivity.
The consequences of psycho-violence for different age categories are different, the general thing is that violations affect all levels of a person’s functioning and lead to persistent personality changes.

Aptikieva L.R.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS OF THE “RISK GROUP” AND TYPICAL ADOLESCENTS: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT [№ 3 ' 2019]
The danger of transition of asocial manifestations of adolescents into stable, recurrent actions necessitates timely preventive and corrective psychological and pedagogical assistance, the effectiveness of which is determined by taking into account the psychological characteristics of adolescents of the “risk group”. Adolescence itself (a controversial, acute period) is a source of increased risk of formation of antisocial behavior. Objective: to compare typical adolescents and adolescents of the “risk group”, to identify differences in the manifestation of personality traits.
Experimentally, we compared 30typical adolescents and 30adolescents of the “risk group” with standard interrogation techniques. It was established that adolescents of the “risk group” are distinguished by their desire for risk, a high level of aggressiveness, hostility, a high degree of severity of character accentuations, and their type. Statistically significant differences were revealed by the Student criterion in the severity of reactions. Indirect aggression, negativity, suspicion, guilt got a significance level of 0.01, resentment— a significance level of0.1.
The formation of antisocial behavior is influenced by objective factors of social risk: crisis phenomena in the family, exclusion from school, etc. and subjective— psychophysiological and psychobiological premises. The organization of effective, targeted preventive, correctional and developmental activities requires clarification of the psychological characteristics of typical adolescents and adolescents of the “risk group”.

Aptikieva L.R.
PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT OF OVERCOMING STRESSFUL SITUATIONS IN ADOLESCENCE [№ 2 ' 2019]
An increase in the number of stressful factors that have a traumatic effect on a person, causing emotional stress, a state of stress, necessitates studying the characteristics of responding to stressful situations and overcoming them in adolescents, since age itself from a psychological and pedagogical point of view is a potential source of stress (dramatic changes occur, forcing to overcome stressful situations with the help of psychological resources). Objective: to study the characteristics of stress response and the specifics of the choice of coping strategies for adolescents younger (12–13 years old) and older adolescents (16–17 years old).
My theoretical study of the psychological and pedagogical features of adolescence and the features of coping with stressful situations made it possible to identify specific features of age: personal instability; desire for “adult types” of behavior; the emergence of completely new formations, laying the foundation for conscious behavior; a teenager learns to suppress and control his impulsive actions; to defend their right to independence of choice of possible behavior. The experimental study involved 80 people of adolescence: the youngest— 40 people (12–13 years old); older— 40 (16–17 years old); students of school number 64 in Orenburg. Standard methods found that older adolescents have a slightly higher level of stress than younger adolescents. The use of coping strategies in situations of stress is characterized either by the predominance of the emotional or rational aspects. Older adolescents focus on strategic planning, prone to analyze their own experiences in situations of stress. Younger teens are less realistic, but more optimistic.
To overcome stressful situations, the choice of coping is individual. It depends on age, situational, personal, sociocultural, regulatory factors.

Aptikieva L.R.
TO THE QUESTION OF PROFILING APPLICATION DURING WORKING WITH ANTISOCIAL ADOLESCENTS [№ 2 ' 2018]
The state of juvenile delinquency in our country today can be assessed as ambiguous. Official statistics show a tendency for the decline of this social phenomenon and the relative stability of the criminal activity of adolescents, on the other hand, this decline is due to the reduction in the size of this age group as a whole— hence the decline in crime rates observed in recent years. Adolescents with antisocial behavior by age criteria are classified as juvenile delinquents (from 14 to 17 years old) who form an independent category with a special legal status and specific social and psychological traits. Working with this category involves the use of effective methods of work, one of which is the system of psychological profiling. In our study, using monographic and analytical methods of research, we examined the specific application of profiling when working with antisocial adolescents. The profiling system is of practical importance; allows to estimate reliability of the received information, proceeding from the person on a non-verbal channel. This is a systemic set of methods that are complementary and mutually checking each other, for the behavioral evaluation of a person, drawing up his psychological portrait— the profile of the person and the basic characteristics of behavior. Profiling technology is a system for preventing illegal actions by profiling (identifying non-verbal and operational diagnostics of potentially dangerous individuals). It is applicable in any sphere of activity connected with interaction of people and analysis of their behavior. At present, criminal (statistical and qualitative) and operational profiling is used; in legal proceedings— profiling judicial examination. In its arsenal, profiling uses a predominantly method of observation and questioning; which require from a specialist certain knowledge, skills, skills and ethical principles. The use of psychological profiling when working with antisocial adolescents has a number of specific features, due to age and age, personal characteristics. To compile a psychological profile of antisocial adolescents, a comprehensive method is used, which is an effective way of working to combat primary juvenile delinquency and subsequent relapse.

Aptikieva L.R.
BULLING AS A PREMORBID OF THE ANTISOCIAL ORIENTATION OF A TEENAGER’S PERSONALITY [№ 2 ' 2018]
The relevance of the work is determined by the fact that today the problem of bullying among adolescents is still little studied and not developed in our country. At present, the phenomenon has acquired a social, psychological character and has become an international term for psychologists, educators, and lawyers. Along with the bullshit, there are new forms of harassment, violence— cyberbullying, Internet trolling, resulting in psychological trauma victims of violence. The consequences of these types of violence can not be overestimated, it is impossible to predict the victim’s reaction to systematic harassment, oppression, discrimination (consequences may include nerves, depression, suicide, etc.). This is a special kind of violence when one person (or group) physically attacks, or threatens another, weaker person, morally and physically, (or a group of people). From an accidental fight bullying is characterized by systematic and regular repetition— this is its destructive effect on the psyche of the victim. The development of bullying, contribute to: education in the family, the installation, vaccinated since childhood, the microclimate of the educational institution. Components of bullying: violent behavior; regularity of the actions; different degrees of power in the victim and the bull, whose behavior is deliberate, deliberate. Types of bullying: direct (physical aggression) and indirect (social aggression); bullying criteria: focus, regularity, power / power inequality. Participants in the bullying: initiator, witnesses (observers), victim. Bulling is a premorbid of the antisocial orientation of the adolescent’s personality, and adolescents with an antisocial orientation were, in one way or another, direct participants in the bulling-as a victim, or initiator, according to the results of our study (100% of the subjects). We studied the concept and essence of bullying; identified causes, factors of its occurrence; made a psychological portrait of the participants; revealed the consequences of bullying as premorbid (a condition that precedes and contributes to the development of any negative process) of the asocial orientation of the adolescent’s personality.

Zubova L.V., Aptikieva L.R.
ON THE ISSUE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE MANIFESTATION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ORENBURG REGION) [№ 1 ' 2018]
The urgency of the work is determined by the fact that the current state of juvenile delinquency in Russia can be assessed as ambiguous, since, on the one hand, official statistics show a fairly stable trend of recession and relative stability in the manifestation of criminal activity among minors in recent years and a decrease in their number in the colonies. On the other hand, this decline is largely due to demographic trends and a reduction in the size of this age group as a whole. The dominant factors of juvenile delinquency still retain their significance (violations of the process of socialization, adaptation due to the dysfunctionality of educational and family institutions, low effectiveness of preventive work at the family level, deterioration of the social and economic situation) and are potential risk factors for the dynamics of juvenile delinquency . Juvenile offenders (from 14 to 17 years of age) form an independent category with a special legal status and specific social and psychological traits. At the present time, the problems connected with the high level of latency of juvenile delinquency, which requires caution in official statistics, adolescents’ offenses against them, the increase in the proportion of juvenile female offenders, and the growing number of group crimes within groups different degrees of organization. The above facts require strengthening work on the development of institutes for the prevention of juvenile delinquency at the level of the family, school, local communities, creating channels of social mobility for adolescents who are outside the institution of the family or in any difficult life situation. In our study, using monographic and analytical methods of research, we examined gender differences in the manifestation of antisocial orientation in minors in the example of the Orenburg region. In pursuing this goal, we studied the differences between boys and girls in committing crimes; analyzed the statistical data of juvenile delinquency in Russia as a whole, and, in the Orenburg region, in particular; revealed gender differences in the manifestation of an aggressive orientation (selection: 160 people of the advanced teenage age, 14–17 years, pupils of general educational schools No.64, No.30 of Orenburg). In boys, aggression manifests itself more openly, rigidly, roughly, is less operated and controllable; the prevailing types: physical aggression (dominates at 80%); irritation and negativism (dominates at 65% and 55%— respectively). In girls, verbal aggression predominates (it is significantly expressed at 80%), indirect (75%), suspiciousness (65%) prevails.

Aptikieva L.R., Bursakova M.S.
THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FAMILY IN ADOLESCENTS RESIDING IN SHELTER [№ 11 ' 2015]
The problem of child abandonment is to increase the number of children-orphans in the actual presence of the parents. Distribution of orphans in our country due to: the instability of social institutions in crisis and regional conflicts, the devaluation of a number of moral values; the loss of familiar cultural attitudes and orientations. The mechanism of family deprivation manifests in insufficient satisfaction of basic, basic mental needs of the child (in love, affection, unconditional acceptance) for a long time and a serious degree. This leads to a distortion of the process of assimilation of social roles, norms, family traditions; difficulties in adapting to society; problems in creating and maintaining their own family, the upbringing of their children. The special features of education in the orphanage are: lack of communication with significant adults; the absence of the adoption; collective methods of education with insufficient delegation of personal responsibility, which leads to a violation of the child's interaction with the social environment. Key features of older adolescents are that: personality dominates the other functional systems; age is a period of the most intense and optimal development (emphasis not only on the features of physical and sexual maturation, but also, above all, on the development of rules of life, values, at the turn of the leading forms of activity, social status and level of socialization as a whole); is the formation of ideas about his future family, awareness of relationships, roles, functions, family, responsibility for their future children. The results of an experimental study of the image, perceptions of family and psychological characteristics of adolescents-orphans and teenagers who are brought up in families suggests differences in the perception of the family, family values, awareness of the role, functions, tasks, family, respect for the opposite sex.

Aptikiyeva L.R., Aptikiyev A.Kh., Bursakova M.S.
THE FORMATION OF THE IMAGE AND REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY OF THE TEENAGERS WHO ARE IN SHELTER [№ 7 ' 2015]
The urgency of the problem of forming a positive image of the family in adolescents living under the shelter is in stock formed a distorted image representations of the family, leading to the "secondary" orphan— to replenish orphanages, boarding schools, shelters children from families of former pupils of these educational institutions. Finding adolescent children in the shelter lead to serious psychological difficulties plan: the emergence of social exclusion; autocratic care of the shelter; abandonment, neglect, vagrancy adolescent prevention which are currently not developed sufficiently (insufficiently developed psycho-pedagogical methods of effective assistance). The emergence of latent social orphan hood due to: a) a sharp deterioration in the material situation of the family; b) decline in its morals; c) removing the many moral prohibitions; d) increase of psycho-emotional overload parents; d) the change in attitudes towards children. At risk are: orphans; social orphans; hidden social orphans. An effective system of work to create a positive image of the family is: 1) on the list of competent diagnostic tool for the study of the image representation of the family: a) the method of study, analysis of the documentation; b) the survey method (interview, talking about a family on the proposed topics, personality questionnaires ["Parental behavior and attitude of teenagers to them"— ADOR, E.Shafer, "an emotional relationship in the family" E.Bene— E.Antoni]); c) projective methods of personality study ("Interpersonal relationships of the child" R.Zhil; "Family Drawing" R.Burns and S.Kaufman; "incomplete sentences" Sachs-Levy collage); d) methods of analysis of experimental data (qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of research, tabular and graphic display of data, comparative analysis, the use of t— t-test, correlation analysis); 2) the development of correctional and development program that forms: a) ideas about family roles, functions, tasks of the family; b) psychological basis of a healthy relationship, men and women; adequate representation of the opposite sex; c) develop the skills of constructive communication and interaction; d) reducing aggression and hostility; d) prepare for responsible parenthood; Planning the future of family life.

Aptikieva L.R., Aptikiev A.H., Bursakova M.S.
THE ORGANIZATION OF PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL WORK WITH YOUNG PEOPLE WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED VIOLENCE [№ 9 ' 2014]
n the basis of theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature considers the problem of helping children who have experienced violence, considered eclectic, multi-modal model of counseling as the most effective when working with these children, victims of violence identified problems in the cognitive, affective and behavioral terms. Recommendations for counseling abused children, a program of workshops on working with these children.

Aptikiyeva L.R., Aptikiyev A.Kh., Bursakova M.S.
THE FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD [№ 7 ' 2014]
References: n the basis of theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature devoted to the problem of formation of the child under the influence of the family, its features, such as, the specific relationships of its members. We consider the concept of the family, its functions, types, the concept of "parenting" approach to family education (psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanistic). The conditions and performance safely and dysfunctional family and their impact on the development of the child.

Aptikieva L.R., Bursakova M.S.
DIAGNOSIS CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY ORIENTATION TEENAGER [№ 2 ' 2014]
Article based on a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature devoted to the problem of crime diagnostic orientation of the individual adolescent, the notion of orientation of the individual adolescent crime in the aspect of its components (crime set of qualities, antisocial motives), the complex of diagnostic tools for the detection of crime focus.

Aptikieva L.R., Aptikiev .H., Bursakova .S.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON OF CRIME ORIENTATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE PERSONALITY OF THE TEENAGER WITH DEVIATING BEHAVIOR [№ 9 ' 2013]
The notion of orientation of the individual teenager with deviating behavior. Found a substantial basis crime orientation of the individual teenager (criminogenic complex personality and asocial motives behind the tendency teen choice to illegal means and ways to meet their needs). Proposed options, which determine the content of the criminogenic orientation of the individual teenager (traits, attitudes towards the future and social relations).

Malikova V.A., Aptikieva L.R., Aptikiev A.H.
AXIOLOGICAL FACTOR AT THE PROCESS OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION [№ 2 ' 2011]
The concept of violence and cruel treatment of children is investigated. Characteristics victimhood persons are considered. The psihologo-pedagogical conditions promoting formation of ability to resist to violence are offered.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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