April 2018, № 4 (216), pages 95-100
Chuprov A.D., Voronina A.E., Petrosyan E.A. PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE: PREVENTION OF VISUAL DETERIORATIONThe study for vision acuity state among primary school age children was carried on the base of the lyceum school No.5 in Orenburg. The study included 649 children and their parents. According to the results of the examination all school children were divided into 3 groups: group 1 – children wearing glasses or contact lenses; group 2 – children without glasses or lenses, but with uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) less than 0.8; group 3 – children without glasses or lenses and UCVA more than 0.8.
It was found out that the number of children, not wearing glasses or contact lenses, and having UCVA above 0.8, decreases from form 2 to form 4, while the number of children with an UCVA under 0.8 increases twofold. In all age groups of 9–11 years, the cause of wearing glasses or lenses in the majority was myopia (9 years – 50 %, 11 years – 77.7 %). Children who did not wear glasses or lenses with UCVA above 0.8 already in form 2 (9 years) had myopic refraction in 16.5 %. In schoolchildren with UCVA less than 0.8 who had not wear glasses or lenses, the cause of vision loss was myopia in the absolute majority of children in all groups, besides that in all forms there were children having middle and high degree myopia, who had never worn glasses.
The main factor affecting the state of view of in schoolchildren of 9 and 10 years was excessive watching TV, and in 11 years old schoolchildren – games in the phone and the tablet. A low awareness of parents about the quantity of their children visual load was revealed. Symptoms of dry eye syndrome are more pronounced in children who have glasses and lenses, parents are also not fully aware of its presence. Schoolchildren and their parents received medical report on the state of their vision, which included measures to improve and preserve vision, as well as prevention of visual impairment. They also received the results of the questionnaire, which included a comparison of visual load in children and their parents’ view on this matter.Key words: primary school age, visual state, myopic refraction, uncorrected visual acuity, visual load, dry eye syndrome.
1. Ihekaire D. E. & Anyanwu C. Learning-Related Vision Problems in School Age Children in Imo State University Primary and Secondary Schools. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 2012, 5(2), pp. 109–116.
2. Williams Et Al. Amblyopia treatment outcomes after screening before or at age 3 years: follow up from randomized trial. BMJ, 2002, 324(7353), pp. 15–49.
3. Donohue S. P., Johnson T. M., Leonard-Martin T. C. Screening for amblyogenic factors using a volunteer lay network and the MTI photoscreener. Ophthalmol, 2000, 107:1637–44.
4. Vision in Preschoolers Study Group. Comparison of preschool vision screening tests as administered by licensed eye care professionals in the vision in preschoolers study. Ophthalmol, 2004, 111:(4)637–650.
5. Rukovodstvo po diagnostike i profilaktike shkol'no-obuslovlennyh zabolevanij, ozdorovleniyu detej v obrazovatel'nyh uchrezhdeniyah (pod redakciej chl.-korr. RAMN, professora Kuchmy V. R. i d.m.n. Hramcova P. I.) [Guidance on the diagnostics and prevention of school-related diseases, health improvement of children in educational. Edited by Kuchma V. R., Khramtsov P.I.]. Moscow, Izd-vo NTsZD, 2012, 181 p. (in Russian)
6. Baranov A. A., Kuchma V. R., Sukharev L. M. et al. Ocenka sostoyaniya zdorov'ya detej. Novye podhody k profilakticheskoj i ozdorovitel'noj rabote v obrazovatel'nyh uchrezhdeniyah. Rukovodstvo dlya vrachej [Assessment of the health of children. New approaches to preventive and health work in educational institutions. A guide for doctors]. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media, 2008, 432 p. (in Russian)
7. Kuchma V. R., Sukhareva L. M., Stepanova M. I. Gigienicheskie problemy shkol'nyh innovacij [Hygienic problems of school innovations]. — Moscow, Nauchnyy tsentr zdorov'ya detey RAMN, 2009, 240 p. (in Russian)
8. Morfofunkcional'nye pokazateli zdorovogo rebenka. Posobie dlya vrachej [Morphofunctional indices of a healthy child. Manual for doctors]. Moscow, GU NTSZD RAMN, 2008, 52 p. (in Russian)
9. Sukharev A. G. Obrazovatel'naya sreda i zdorov'e uchashchihsya. Nauchno-metodicheskoe posobie [The educational environment and health of students. Scientific and methodical manual]. Moscow, MIOO, 2009, 256 p. (in Russian)
10. Avetisov E. S. Preduprezhdenie blizorukosti u detej [Prevention of myopia in children]. Moscow, Meditsina, 1996, 186 p. (in Russian)
11. Ermakov V. P. CHto i kak vidyat deti ot rozhdeniya do 10 let s sohranennym i narushennym zreniem. Diagnostika, razvitie i trenirovka zreniya [What and how children see from birth to 10 years with preserved and impaired vision. Diagnostics, development and training of vision]. Moscow, Gumanitar.izd. tsentr VLADOS, 2015, 143 p. (in Russian)
12. Rapoport I. K., Tsameryan A. P. Diagnostics, prevention and rehabilitation of students with refractive disorders and eye diseases. Shkola zdorov'ya [School of Health]. 2012, no 1, pp. 41–51. (in Russian)
13. Libman E. S., Ryazanov D. P., Kaleeva E. V. Disability due to visual impairment in Russia. V Rossijskij obshchenacional'nyj oftal'mologicheskij forum: sb. nauch. trudov nauch.-prakt. konf. s mezhdunar. uchastiem [V Russian National Ophthalmological Forum: Sat. sci. works nauch.-practical. Conf. with intern. participation]. Moscow, 2012, vol. 2, pp. 797–798. (in Russian)
14. Mirskaya N. B., Sinyakina A. D., Kolomenskaya A. N. Prophylaxis and correction of disorders and diseases of the organ of vision in modern schoolchildren. Voprosy sovremennoy pediatrii [Questions of modern pediatrics]. 2014, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 44–50. (in Russian)
15. Zhukova E. A., Tsirkin V.I . Two trends in the age-related dynamics of visual acuity of boys and girls during secondary school. Sensornyye sistemy [Sensory systems]. 2008, no. 3, pp. 241–247. (in Russian)
16. Vasilyeva N. N. Visual acuity of preschool and primary school children. EHlektronnyj nauchno-obrazovatel'nyj vestnik «Zdorov'e i obrazovanie v XXI veke» [Electronic scientific and educational bulletin «Health and Education in the XXI century»]. 2011, no. 4, vol 13, pp. 163–164. (in Russian)
About this article
Authors: Chuprov A.D., Voronina A.E., Petrosyan E.A.