Sukhova E.A., Gorbunova O.S., Savin E.Z., Nemtseva N.V., Golovin S.E. THE SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CURRANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES TO TRACHEOMYCOSISCurrently mycotic wilting (tracheomycosis) is widespread. It caused ubiquitous significant reduction of areas which field in black currant. This resulted in negative environmental, economic and social consequences. Over the past decade in the southern Orenburg region, as in other regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine verticilliaceous wilting of black currant, which caused its death, was registered. Wilting is not found on golden and white currant (Ribes aureum, R. niveum). Redcurrant (R. rubrum) is slightly damaged, in black currant (Ribes nigrum), on the contrary, there is destruction of certain varieties up to 90 %. Based on the results of our own research, the most resistant to tracheomycoses varieties — Luchezarnaya, Yadryenaya, Globus and several other varieties the resistance of which was estimated to be 4-5 pointswere revealed. The least resistant varieties were Selechenskaya, Rusalochka, Vologda, and others. The main pathogens are presented by fungi Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Verticillium spp. Activation of fungi in the second half of vegetation (July — September) was revealed. This is due to the temperature increase against low water supply in the designated months within the Orenburg region. It was found that in the case of complex Verticillium spp. and Fusarium spp. infection wilting followed by plant death was observed. Verticillium fungi should be considered to be the most probable cause of death of black currant. Species differences in the production of tannins found in the bark in greatest numbers and perimedular zone of golden, white and red currants were revealed. The least number was found in the cambium of black currant. The problem of tracheomycotic wilting of black currant can be successfully solved by means of selection and cultivation of resistant varieties to the causative agents. The obtained results allow us to advance in the understanding of formation mechanism of infectious stability of black currant, and to identify the ways of therapy and prevention of mycotic wilting of Ribes nigrum.Key words: black currant, red, gold, wilt, pathogens, tannin compounds.
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Authors: Suhova E.A., Gorbunova O.S., Savin E.Z., Nemtseva N.V., Golovin S.E.
|Sergey Aleksandrovich |