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Orenburg State University january 23, 2022 RU/EN
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Savin E.Z., Berezina .V., Loginchev E.K.
REPRODUCTION OF ROOTSTOCKS OF FRUIT CROPS AND GROWING OF SEEDLINGS IN THE NATIONAL PARK “BUZULUKSKY BOR” [№ 3 ' 2018]
In the conditions of the National Park “Buzuluksky Bor” the possibility of growing rootstocks and seedlings of fruit crops was studied. A characteristic feature of sandy sod-podboryh soils of boron is their low fertility. They are characterized by weak podzolization, light loamy, carbonate. Sandy soils during the snowless period are freezing deep, while a sharp decrease in the temperature of the upper horizon to critical values is observed. In these conditions, in the queen cell of clonal stocks, the freezing of the head of the bush and a decrease in the yield of the layers are noted. In the nursery on poor soils, despite a high rooting of the rootstocks, a weak development is observed, which negatively affects the yield of seedlings and their quality. Despite the negative consequences, it is possible to grow high-quality planting material by applying organic fertilizers, increasing agricultural technology and selecting the most adapted forms.

Savin E. Z., Zhamuria N.A.
DROUGHT STABILITY OF TEMPLE APPROACHES OF APPLE TREE IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTH URAL [№ 2 ' 2018]
One of the elements of plant adaptation is their drought resistance. The zone of the Southern Urals is characterized not only by low temperatures in winter, but also by dry winds at high temperatures in the summer. For the successful growth and productivity of fruit crops, it is important to identify drought-resistant species and, above all, sub-species. A group of winter-hardened clonal rootstocks was created by selective breeding, which allowed growing slaboroslyh fast-growing and productive apple plantations in the Southern Urals. In the queen cell of clonal rootstocks of the apple tree of the Botanical Garden of the OSU observations were made in the hottest period of the summer season for the state and further productivity of the uterine plants. In the laboratory, water losses and restoration of the turgor in the leaves of the subterranean forms were determined. As a result, a group of the most drought-resistant rootstocks was identified, including dwarf OM 3-4, K-2, Arm-18, and semi-dwarf forms 54-118, Ural-5, 4-3.

Savin E.Z., Zhamuria N.A.
THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF WILD SPECIES OF GENUS MALUS P.MILL IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTHERN URALS [№ 1 ' 2018]
The steppe zone of the southern Urals is characterized by harsh conditions for growing fruit crops. Wild species provide an opportunity to create varieties characterized by high resistance to various environmental factors. In Orenburzhye the Apple tree is a widely used fruit crop. However, industrial gardening is not sufficiently developed due to the harsh climatic conditions of the southern Urals and the lack of a reliable range of Apple. The objects of study were 12 species of the genus Malus, native to collection of the Botanical garden of the Orenburg state University. The collection is laid out in 2012–2014 by the original vaccination forms, derived mainly from Botanical garden of Moscow state University. Rootstock— the seedlings of M. prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh.Planting scheme 5x3m.Each type of fixed 3–5 plants. The General condition of plants was assessed visually on a 5-point scale: 5points— healthy plant, 1plant with symptoms of oppression. The drought types were determined in field and laboratory conditions. Field drought resistance was assessed on a 5-point scale: 5 points— a sign of damage by drought do not exist, 1— marked signs of drying plants. Take into consideration the damage and the shedding of leaves and fruit. The assessment was conducted in June-August. Laboratory tests were conducted in early August by the method of G.N.Eremeev. In the laboratory also determined the heat resistance by the method of F.F.Matskova. Visually on a 5-point scale assessed the intensity of fruiting (5— sporulation abundant, 0— fruiting is not available) and foliage plants (5— full foliage, 0— no foliage). As the most promising species for further study on drought resistance it is possible to allocate M.x denticulate, M.x nan-schanska, M.platicarpa, M.zumi, which in the aggregate are considered indicators marked best value. The data presented are preliminary, as studies are being conducted for the first time on young plants.

Savin E.Z., Azarov .I., Demenina L.G.
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF APPLE TREES ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION [№ 4 ' 2017]
Low-growing fruit trees on weak-growing clonal rootstocks are best suited to the requirements of intensive gardening. Vegetatively produced clonal rootstocks of apple created by V.I.Budagovsky, S.N. Stepanov, A.Veytenberg, O.K.Dyadchenko, P.K.Shuvalov allowed to grow trees with early appearance of fruit, with the limited dimensions and high productivity in Central Russia, the Volga region and the Urals. The experiment was done on middle-growth dwarf trees and high-growth trees the conditions of the Middle Volga, in Samara. The most productive trees were grown on middle-growth rootstock. Harvest exceeded by 51.8% of the trees on the high-growth rootstock and by 17.3% on dwarfs ones. The cost price on middle-growth rootstock was 8.9rubles, on dwarf 12.0rubles, in control 10.1rubles. The highest profitability of 27.3% was in the option for middle-growth rootstocks, which is 2.5times higher than in the control sample. In conditions of insufficient moisture in the Middle Volga most profitable crops were on middle-growth rootstock 57-233.

Rusanov A.M., Savin E.Z., Shebanova M.A.
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ROSACEAE JUSS FAMILY IN GARDENING OF THE CITY OF BUZULUK: BIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND ECOLOGY [№ 12 ' 2016]
Buzuluk is a major city of the Western part of the Orenburg region, its industrial, cultural, business center. As for improving the urban environment in the greening of the landscape is actively used varieties and species of the Rosaceae. The plantations were initially set to the extreme growing conditions due to the contrast in climatic conditions. Additional anthropogenic pressure from the city in the form entering the soil significant quantities of heavy metals worsens their overall condition and, as a consequence, plantations are becoming environmentally unsafe for humans.

Savin .Z., Isambetova Z.N., Isambetov N.Sh.
THE RESPONSES OF THE APPLE TREE ON CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS 54-118, 64-143 IN A YOUNG GARDEN UNDER HOT CONDITIONS IN STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTHERN URALS [№ 12 ' 2016]
Modern intensive industrial gardening is based on the early appearance of fruit dwarf rootstocks and highly adapted varieties of apple, bred in the growth zone. In the past century in the scientific institutions of the Urals and Siberia large-fruited, high winter resistant sorts of different ripening time. Also winter resistant clonals of the Apple Tree were produced which enables to lay the extensive gardens in a favorable microenvironment zone. The experiment was done in the flood plain of the Sakmara River on medium loams in arable horizon with a humus content of 4.0%. The cuttings were used pertaining to semi-dwarf forms 54-118 and medium height 64-143 forms (selected by the Department of Horticulture, Michurin State Agrarian University, V.I.Budagovsky). The scheme of planting was 5x0.5m, followed by grafting on the site. These annual plants obtained in the row were thinned leaving between plants of 2.5meters. In the sixth year after vaccination tree height reached up to 3meters, crown diameter, depending on the crown in the same range. The first fruiting was obtained at 3-4 year and commodity yield was achieved by 5-6 year. In the semi-dwarf rootstock 54-118 the yield by the sixth year was 1.5-2 times higher than on the medium height forms 64-143. The greatest yield over years of fruiting was obtained on the sorts Bashkir Emerald, Amateur, Siyanets Titovka, Beauty Altai in volumes of up to 200-260 centner/ha. Experience shows that in extreme conditions of forest-steppe zone of the Southern Urals in the gardens with the clonal rootstocks and the early appearance of fruit sorts adapted to the Urals and Siberia the industrial yield can be obtained at the 5-6th years after vaccination.

Sukhova E.A., Gorbunova O.S., Savin E.Z., Nemtseva N.V., Golovin S.E.
THE SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CURRANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES TO TRACHEOMYCOSIS [№ 7 ' 2016]
Currently mycotic wilting (tracheomycosis) is widespread. It caused ubiquitous significant reduction of areas which field in black currant. This resulted in negative environmental, economic and social consequences. Over the past decade in the southern Orenburg region, as in other regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine verticilliaceous wilting of black currant, which caused its death, was registered. Wilting is not found on golden and white currant (Ribes aureum, R.niveum). Redcurrant (R.rubrum) is slightly damaged, in black currant (Ribes nigrum), on the contrary, there is destruction of certain varieties up to 90%. Based on the results of our own research, the most resistant to tracheomycoses varieties— Luchezarnaya, Yadryenaya, Globus and several other varieties the resistance of which was estimated to be 4-5 pointswere revealed. The least resistant varieties were Selechenskaya, Rusalochka, Vologda, and others. The main pathogens are presented by fungi Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Verticillium spp. Activation of fungi in the second half of vegetation (July— September) was revealed. This is due to the temperature increase against low water supply in the designated months within the Orenburg region. It was found that in the case of complex Verticillium spp. and Fusarium spp. infection wilting followed by plant death was observed. Verticillium fungi should be considered to be the most probable cause of death of black currant. Species differences in the production of tannins found in the bark in greatest numbers and perimedular zone of golden, white and red currants were revealed. The least number was found in the cambium of black currant. The problem of tracheomycotic wilting of black currant can be successfully solved by means of selection and cultivation of resistant varieties to the causative agents. The obtained results allow us to advance in the understanding of formation mechanism of infectious stability of black currant, and to identify the ways of therapy and prevention of mycotic wilting of Ribes nigrum.

Nemtseva N.V., Gorbunova O.S., Bogoutdinov D.Z., Savin E.Z., Malenkova O.V.
TO THE QUESTION OF WITHERING OF BLACKCURRANT [№ 5 ' 2016]
In certain regions of the Russian Federation and abroad mass withering of blackcurrant is observed in the last decade (Ribes nigrumL.). The area of distribution and injuriousness of a disease includes the Voronezh, Orenburg, Rostov regions, the Lower Volga and Central Volga area, regions of East Ukraine (The Kharkiv, Donetsk regions) and Northwest Kazakhstan. There is evidence that the death of R.nigrum may be caused by fungi of the genus Verticillium and Fusarium and Alternaria. In this regard, in recent years is the study of the mycological component of this culture. The aim of this work was the comparative characterization of complexes of microscopic fungi that live on trunks, roots, leaves of black currant. The results of studies in damaged plants revealed the presence of three genera of fungi— Fusarium, Alternaria, Verticillium. In addition, in some cases, discovered nematodes and spider mites, whose role is not installed. Comparing the received data with the temperature regime of the territory of the Orenburg region showed the greatest peak of microscopic fungi pathogenicity for R.nigrum in the period July— August. It is expected that wilt currant bushes initiated phytoplasma infection and subsequent contamination of fungi.The received results allow to specify the stages of the research and determine the methods of prevention and therapy of wilt blackcurrant.

Savin E.Z., Azarov O.I., Demenina L.G., Berezina T.W.
FRUITFUL TREES OF AN APPLE-TREE ON DWARFISH STOCKS ON AVERAGE THE VOLGA REGION [№ 3 ' 2016]
In materials of the publication results of studying of a condition of skilled plantings of an apple-tree of a bookmark of 1985–1986 in the conditions of Central Volga area are presented. Apple-tree grades Spartak and Antonovka on various vegetative made multiple copies stocks were objects of research. Results of supervision cover time period from1985 to2015. The assessment of survival of saplings in an orchard and states in 2015 is carried out. Safety of plantings in 2015 was the greatest on a grade Spartak on Paradizke Budagovsky, 62-397, SPS-7, 60-165, a hybrid No. 1, 18-7, 4-1 (Ural-1). On Antonovk's grade ordinary — on 18-7, 4-5, 18-8, 19-3, 4-7. Grade trees Spartak on stocks 3-17-38, 62-396— 3,8–4,3m, Antonovk's grades — on 62-396 — 3,8m were the highest. The good harvest of fruits was received in 2013 and 2014. In general for years of supervision the most big crop made on a grade Spartak on stocks of SPS-7 and the Urals-1 (4-1) 2264–1496c/hectare, is slightly 62-397, 60-165, 18-7, 18-6 less that in relation to control makes 198–248%. On Antonovk's grade ordinary in group high-yielding the sorto-podvoynykh of combinations it is possible to carry stocks 4-7, 18-8 which productivity by 2–2,5 times exceeds control. The least fruitful were on a grade Spartak on Paradizke Budagovsky, 4-5, and on Antonovk's grade ordinary — 18-6. Thus the forms which remained in a productive state to 30-year age are distinguished from dwarfish stocks.

Savinova T.N.
RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF OFFICERS OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY AND COSSACK ARMY IN THE TERRITORY OF THE ORENBURG REGION [№ 13 ' 2015]
Development of science in the Orenburg region has the features. Since the beginning of development and settling of edge, that is the first third of the XVIIIcentury, scientific and research work was conducted according to the decision and under supervision of military authorities. Military topographers became the first researchers of edge. Further officers of the Russian army and Cossack army conducted natural and geographical, statistical, historical researches. So far the contribution of officers of active armed forces, teachers of military educational institutions, medical officers to science and culture of edge was investigated fragmentary that caused the necessity of carrying out special research. During work on the project the main areas of work of military researchers are defined: drawing up cards and descriptions of the territory; surnames of military researchers of the Orenburg region are found; scientific works of officers of the Orenburg garrison and Orenburg Cossack army are found; activity of officers in scientific and military scientific organizations of Orenburg is investigated; scientific community unknown documents on scientific activity of officers, medical officers and teachers of military educational institutions of the city from archives and libraries of Moscow, St. Petersburg and Orenburg are submitted earlier. According to the received results it is possible to note that need of identification and preservation of scientific heritage of officers of the Russian army and the Cossack army formed as a result of their research activity in the territory of the Orenburg region is caused by an absence problem as general history of formation and development of regional science now, and its private components — the list or a database of works and materials of military researchers, their biographic data.

Berezina T.V., Savin E.Z.
FEATURES GROWTH FRUIT CROPS IN THE BASIN OF URAL AND SAKMAR IN THE ORENBURG AND SAKMARSKY DISTRICT [№ 6 ' 2015]
Fruit crops are an integral part of the steppe and forest steppe regions. The first garden and parkland appeared in the region with the arrival of the first settlers here in the first half of the XVIII century. Most of introduced fruit crops quite successfully acclimatized in the territory of the Orenburg region. A significant impact on the safety and crop species have a microenvironment in which grow fruit and berry plants. In the basins of the Urals and in the Orenburg Sakmara and Sakmara areas were examined 19 areas of fruit plantations. At each site work was carried out as follows:  to consider the factors of the geographical environment, represented by the surveyed area (micro-relief, climate, availability of garden protection plants, the presence of a water source, soil cover);  to determine the species composition of plants and their cultural value class;  establish a link between the yield class plants and growing conditions;  to draw a conclusion about the suitability or fitness of each of the sites studied under fruit crops. According to the results of this work are set optimal conditions for the functioning of garden systems— a land located on the slopes of the south-east, north-eastern and eastern and northern areas reduces the likelihood of solar-frost burns, protected from cold winds by forests, mitigating actions northerly winds from the winter withers, with the close proximity of water sources, which mitigate the negative effect of low temperatures in winter and spring.

Azarov O.I., Savin E.Z., Demenina L.G.
THE BEST CLONAL APPLE-TREE ROOTSTOCKS OF THE VOLGA-URAL REGION [№ 1 ' 2015]
The paper summarizes more than 30 years of research on the vegetative apple rootstocks that have been bred in the breed shed, the nursery, and in the garden in the Middle Volga and Southern Urals regions. The final evaluation of rootstock variety combinations has been given in the garden of the Middle Volga. The best form were half-dwarf rootstocks 64-143, Ural-5.

Berezina T.V., Savin E.Z.
FEATURES OF GROWTH OF FRUIT CROPS IN THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF GARDENING OF ZAURALYE [№ 6 ' 2014]
In this article soil and climatic microconditions and the conditions of a microrelief promoting safety and high efficiency of fruit plantings in a foothill zone of gardening of Zauralye are considered. Optimum conditions develop on the sites protected from adverse climatic conditions by forest plantings, settling down on slopes, excepting the southern and southwest directions and with a close arrangement of water sources.

Savina A.M.
INTERSTATE COOPERATION ON TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT [№ 4 ' 2014]
This article identifies the key aspects of transboundary water management with the purpose of their protection and rational use. The principle of "reasonable and equitable utilization" is using as the fundamental norm of the legal regime of transboundary water management. It is proposed to use the concept of an integrated (or integrated) water resources management of the adjacent States, and the organization of interstate system of monitoring of transboundary water bodies.

Berezina T.V., Savin E.Z.
FEATURES OF GROWTH OF FRUIT CROPS ENTRE RIOS OF SAMARA AND BUZULUK [№ 1 ' 2014]
In this article soil and climatic microconditions and the conditions of a microrelief promoting safety and high efficiency of fruit plantings in a forest-steppe zone of Cisural area are considered. Optimum conditions develop on the sites protected from adverse climatic conditions by forest plantings, settling down on slopes, excepting the southern and southwest directions and with a close arrangement of water sources.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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