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Orenburg State University january 29, 2022 RU/EN
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Khasanova R.F., Semenova I.N., Suyundukov Ya.T., Rafikova Yu.S., Biktimerova G.Y., Ilbulova G.R., Kuzhina G.Sh., Ilyina I.V.
ECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS OF SOILS OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES OF SIBAY CITY [№ 12 ' 2017]
The state of soils affects the environment and natural resources, the level of economic and social development and public health. In this paper, the content of heavy metals in the soils of the center of the mining industry of the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Sibai, has been studied. Sibai soils contamination with heavy metals is associated with anthropogenic activity and differs in various degrees of concentration. In the soils, high concentrations of gross and mobile forms of Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cd were detected. A number of accumulations of metals have been formed over the gross content: Zn< Cu< Co< Cd< Pb< Mn< Ni<Fe, from mobile forms: Cu< Zn< Mn< Cd< Ni< Co< Pb<Fe. According to the total pollution index, the ecological status of the studied urban soils is estimated as “moderately dangerous” and “permissible”.

Semenova N.G., Tomina I.P.
INTERMEDIATE PROJECTS METHOD IN CONDITIONS OF INTEGRATED ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES APLICATION [№ 10 ' 2017]
One of the main tasks of vocational education informatization is to prepare a highly qualified, competitive specialist who is ready to carry out professional activities in the information society, including independently conducting research activities during projects execution that integrate the subject knowledge of several scientific fields. In this regard, the interdisciplinary projects method, relating to problematic tuition methods, acquires special significance in the technical university. Under the interdisciplinary projects method we mean such way of the training organization when in the process of educational (research) projects execution, students develop the skills to apply knowledge in solving educational (research) problems from other subject areas. In the context of vocational education informatization, the structure and content of the project method is changing, a new stage is “Software Implementation”, which activates the activities of both the teacher and the student. The teacher activity activization is related to the fact that he provides training to students not only in his subject area, but also in the use of electronic educational resources. The activation of students’ learning and cognitive activity is accompanied by the activity of recording their research results in an individual tasks block of an electronic portfolio or an electronic workbook, and also by developing a presentation on the research activities results. All this activates the student’s mnemonic activity, namely: the processes of understanding, memorizing, preserving and reproducing the studied material, which is fundamental for the implementation of projects that integrate the subject knowledge of several scientific fields. The use of electronic educational resources in the intersubject projects method is accompanied by the organization of a new information interaction of the educational purpose realized in the trinity: subject (teacher) — object (ESM) — subject (student). In the traditionally formed training system, the main participants in information interaction are only two: a teacher and a student. The result of organizing and conducting the learning process on the basis of the interdisciplinary projects method in the context of the integrated use of ESM is the twofold goal achievement: the professionally directed intersubject connections formation level increase and the increase the of ICT competence level.

Semenova N., Tomina I.
THE INTEGRATED USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL DIRECTED INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS [№ 7 ' 2017]
Mathematics in technical universities is the basis for the study of professional disciplines. often, however, have to face the fact that the students, having sufficient mathematical knowledge, can’t use them in solving professional problems. This is because the formation of the mathematical apparatus in the process of teaching mathematics students of technical profiles insufficiently professionally oriented. In this regard, of particular importance is the formation of interdisciplinary connections between the discipline of mathematics, and professional disciplines. Formation of professionally directed interdisciplinary connections in learning mathematics must be implemented with the help of new didactical means of education — electronic educational resources (EER), the structure and content of which are professionally oriented. Requirements for developing e-learning resources: the structure of the ESM structure didactic training cycle; computer visualization of educational material; compensation; professional orientation of content of e-learning resources, determine the structure and content of each section of electronic educational resources. The structure of e-learning resources developed by teachers that includes: setup-target; reference encyclopedias; e-notes; illustrations; explanatory; training; professional problems; test items; control. One of the successful ways of implementing the integrated use of ESM in the educational process is interdisciplinary project method, containing the following stages: organizational; research (educational); programmatic implementation of individual tasks; presentation of the results of the study. The result of the organization and conduct of the process of learning mathematics based on the proposed method of learning in the integrated use of the ESM is to achieve the twin goals: improving the level of formation of professionally oriented interdisciplinary connections; increase the level of ICT competence.

Semenova I.N., Kuzhina G.Sh., Seregina Y.Y., Yagafarova G.A., Zulkarnaev A.B., Musin Kh.G.
USE OF PLANT TEST SYSTEMS TO ASSESS THE TOXICITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS [№ 10 ' 2015]
This article is devoted to research the variability of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn) in sediments of r. Belaja on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan of Beloretsk district. The study of metals in their average content in the sediment form the following decreasing number of elements: Fe>Mn> Zn> Ni> Cu>Pb> Co> Cd. The concentration of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, Ni, Co in the sediments of the river exceeded the value of background: opper— in the 6–15times, zinc— in the 13–20times, cadmium— in the 10–13times, nickel— in the 1.5times, iron— in the 9–11times, cobalt— in the 155–185times, lead— in the 1.6times. The concentration of manganese in all soils studied watercourse was within the geochemical background. Total index of contamination ranged from 201 to 243. The evaluation of the toxicity of the river sediments were determined by bioassay using the seeds of Lepidium sativumL., Raphanus sativusL., Triticum aestivumL. Learned test systems according to the degree of sensitivity can be arranged in the following decreasing series: Lepidium sativumL.> Raphanus sativusL.> Triticum aestivumL. The greatest sensitivity to contamination had such a test responses as seed germination and seedling root length. In this paper, the connection between the content of heavy metals in bottom sediments exceeding the geochemical background, and a manifestation of the properties of the indicator: increase in the concentration of copper and nickel inhibits seed germination, root length, and seedling dry weight of the plant model. The use of these plant test systems allowed to conclude that the studied soils of r.Belaja are moderately toxic pollution degree, except for the alignment after the confluence r. Tirlyan characterized by narrow riverbed and, as a consequence, increase the speed of its flow with a predominance of the processes leaching of toxic elements from the sediments.

Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S., Mullagulova E.R.
HEAVY METALS IN HAIR OF RURAL POPULATION IN SOUTH-EASTERN BASHKORTOSTAN [№ 10 ' 2015]
The study of heavy metals in the soils of the south-east of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Abzelilovsky, Burziansky, Zianchurinsky, Zilairsky District), as well as in the hair living in this region of the population. It was revealed that the total content of copper and zinc in all studied soils do not exceed the maximum permissible concentration, with the exception of soil village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District. Exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of copper detected mobile content in soils and Zianchurinsky and Zilairsky District, mobile zinc— in the soils of the village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District. High levels of iron found in the soil of the village Malinovka Zianchurinsky District, cadmium— in the soils of the village Kananikolskoe Zilairsky District and village Abdryashevo Abzelilovsky area. In all the investigated soil samples found elevated levels of manganese, with the exception of soil Burzyansky area in which the contents of the mobile forms of the element does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration. The lead content in the soil does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration. Studies have microelement hair composition of the population of the Bashkir Trans-Urals showed that the content of a number of essential chemicals in the body does not meet the test persons optimal performance: revealed elevated levels of iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, low— copper, cobalt, chromium. This fact requires the development of scientific and practical measures to prevent imbalances of the body elements of the population and its correction.

Semenova N.G., Valiullin K.R.
INTELLIGENT ENERGY-EFFICIENT STREET LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY [№ 4 ' 2015]
Street lighting systems in modern cities are complex high power consuming facilities and development of energy-saving control systems is required for their effective work. Comparative analysis of existing methods of street lighting control, shows that in a modern city, they cannot work effectively. So, the development of intelligent control systems that simultaneously measure, analyze, and reduce power consumption, providing the flexibility in condition of uncertain data is important and relevant nowadays. Because of the many random factors, such as weather conditions, changes in the length of day light and others formalization of the power of the lighting installation relation from the ambient light is difficult. For the approximation of this function is proposed to use the neural networks, which was chose because of their efficiency in the field of approximation of continuous functions. Algorithm of intelligent street lighting control system with training based on the back propagation was developed and implemented in software. Developed control system operates in two modes: mode of training a neural network; control of a lighting system. Features of the program are: changing of the target luminance value of road surface; receiving of training sample directly in the process of lighting system control and preservation of training samples in tabular form for further processing. The program developed by the authors tested on experimentally installation consisting of five LED-lamp models of street lighting. The results of the experiments showed that the efficiency of the intellectual system of street lighting control compared with traditional amounted to 6.3 %.

Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S., Drovosekova I.V.
THE SELENIUM CONTENT IN THE HAIR OF TEENAGERS IN SIBAY [№ 10 ' 2013]
This article is devoted to the study of seleniumcontent in the hair of people living in the city of Sibai (Republic of Bashkortostan). The concentration of selenium in the hair of the population of Sibaiis below biologically acceptable level. The greatest deficiency of selenium detected in the hair of teenagers. The majority of people surveyed expressed error in the diet, regular use of vitamin and mineral supplements is common in the low percentage of cases.

Semenova I.N., Suyundukov Ya.T.
EVALUATION OF SIBAY SOIL TOXICITY BY AZOTOBACTER CULTURE [№ 10 ' 2013]
With the culture of Azotobacter assess the toxicity of ordinary chernozem of the Republic of Bashkortostan Sibai which are subject to influence from the mining factory. Nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter culture grows in soils analyzed in different ways, the differences observed in the growth rate, the percentage of fouling soil lumps and the diameter of the colonies. This difference may be due to different levels of heavy metals in soils of the city.

Semenova N.G., Semenov A.M., Krylov I.B.
DESIGNING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE IN DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE [№ 9 ' 2013]
There was developed the knowledge base of the intelligent tutoring system, which is allowed to carry out the automation of the process of control and adaptation management of educational and cognitive activity of a student and which is differed from systems, which were developed earlier, by the existence of the knowledge base of the entrance complex diagnostic and the developed algorithm of the fuzzy inference of the methodical knowledge base of studying of the discipline.

Tiganov A.S., Akopyan V.S., Gavrilova S.I., Semenova N.S., Fedorova Ya.B., Gurova Ye.V., Filonenko I.V.
THINNING OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS LAYER IN PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SPECTRAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY [№ 4 ' 2013]
This study included 10 patients (20 eyes) with Alzheimer's disease, 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 10 age– and sex-matched healthy controls that had no history of dementia. All the subjects underwent psychiatric examination and complete ophthalmological examination, comprising optical coherence tomography. There was a significant decrease in the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in patients with Alzheimer"s disease compared to the control group. Weak positive correlation of GCC thickness and psychiatric state was observed.

Klevtsov G.V., Valiev R.Z., Botvina L.R., Klevtsova N.A., Semenova I.P., Kashapov M.R., Fesenyuk M.V., Soldatenkov A.P.
KINETICS OF FATIGUE FRACTURE OF TITANIUM IN THE SUBMICROCRYSTALLINE STATE [№ 9 ' 2012]
It is shown that ECAP-conform, forming sub microcrystalline structure, increases the fatigue limit of titanium Grade 4, by increasing the time to fatigue crack nucleation and the slower speed of its spread, as compared to baseline. However, the exponent n in the Paris's equation more than about 2 times. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the material to stresses during operation.

Semenova I.N., Ilbulova G.R.
USE OF SOIL MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS COMPLEX IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF TECHNOGENIC CONTAMINATED AREAS [№ 12 ' 2011]
It is established that the soil of areas with developed mining industry significantly different from non-contaminated soil with heavy metals on the following parameters: the number of ammonifying, aminoautotrophic, humuscorrupting and oligotrophic microorganisms, as well as at a rate of succession and the total number of microorganisms.

Semenova I.N., Ilbulova G.R., Zulkarnaev A.B., Suyundukov Ya.T.
EFFECTS OF ZEOLITES ON ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN ORDINARY CHERNOZEM IN CASE OF LEAD CONTAMINATION [№ 12 ' 2011]
In study of enzymatic activity of soil, polluted with Pb, it was found that when the lead content was up to 10 MACs (maximum allowable concentrations), urease activity in nonfertilized soil was reduced to 50%, proteolytic activity — to 25%, and cellulolytic ctivity — to 36% from activity in uncontaminated soil. In the presence of zeolites and organic fertilizers, this effect was less pronounced.

Semenova N.L.
THE REASONS OF THE SENATORIAL AUDIT IN ORENBURG PROVINCE IN 1842–1843 [№ 4 ' 2011]
Given article is devoted to the analysis of the reasons of the Orenburg province which has lead by senator A.N.Peshchurov in 1842–1843. This audit became one of the largest checks of administrative, judicial, police establishments of province in the first half of the 19 century. The reason for its beginning became an anonymous denunciation of the civil governor I.D.Talyzin. In the research the new documents detected by the author in the funds of Russian State Historical Archive are used.

Semenova N.G., Tomina I.P.
THE MULTIMEDIA TRAINING SYSTEM IN MATHEMATICS AS A MEANS OF MOLDING OF THE PROFESSIONAL DIRECTIVITY OF THE INSTRUCTION OF THE STUDENTS OF ELECTRIC POWER SPECIALTIES [№ 9 ' 2010]
The authors substantiated the formation of the professional directivity of instruction in mathematics by means of the structured content of the created multimedia training system, and revealed the psychological and pedagogical special features of instruction in mathematics of the students of electric power specialties.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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