Savin E.Z., Zhamuria N.A.
THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF WILD SPECIES OF GENUS MALUS P. MILL IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTHERN URALS
The steppe zone of the southern Urals is characterized by harsh conditions for growing fruit crops. Wild species provide an opportunity to create varieties characterized by high resistance to various environmental factors. In Orenburzhye the Apple tree is a widely used fruit crop. However, industrial gardening is not sufficiently developed due to the harsh climatic conditions of the southern Urals and the lack of a reliable range of Apple. The objects of study were 12 species of the genus Malus, native to collection of the Botanical garden of the Orenburg state University. The collection is laid out in 2012–2014 by the original vaccination forms, derived mainly from Botanical garden of Moscow state University. Rootstock — the seedlings of M. prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh.Planting scheme 5x3 m.Each type of fixed 3–5 plants. The General condition of plants was assessed visually on a 5-point scale: 5 points — healthy plant, 1 plant with symptoms of oppression. The drought types were determined in field and laboratory conditions. Field drought resistance was assessed on a 5-point scale: 5 points — a sign of damage by drought do not exist, 1 — marked signs of drying plants. Take into consideration the damage and the shedding of leaves and fruit. The assessment was conducted in June-August. Laboratory tests were conducted in early August by the method of G.N. Eremeev. In the laboratory also determined the heat resistance by the method of F.F. Matskova. Visually on a 5-point scale assessed the intensity of fruiting (5 — sporulation abundant, 0 — fruiting is not available) and foliage plants (5 — full foliage, 0 — no foliage). As the most promising species for further study on drought resistance it is possible to allocate M.x denticulate, M.x nan-schanska, M. platicarpa, M. zumi, which in the aggregate are considered indicators marked best value. The data presented are preliminary, as studies are being conducted for the first time on young plants.
Key words: apple tree, drought resistance, heat resistance, adaptation.
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Authors: Savin E.Z., Zhamuria N.A.