Charyev R.R., Ismailova A.I., Mirzaev G.R. POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATER OF THE TASHKENT REGION OF THE UZBEKISTAN REPUBLIC
The article considers the possibility of conservation of surface water resources, their rational using and prevention of depletion. The cause of all available problems is identified: irrational using of common water resources, including groundwater by branches of the national economy and in irrigated agriculture. The ways and methods of solution with a view to conserving surface water resources are proposed. At present, in connection with the growth of population, the number of cities, the expansion of irrigated lands, the problem of surface water pollution is associated with demographic and economic processes. Researches of last years have shown that the hydrochemical regime of surface waters varies both under the influence of physico-geographical factors (firstly it is climatic factors) and anthropogenic factors (agriculture, irrigation facilities and industry). It allows us to conclude that there is a need for fundamental research on the identification of regularities in the hydrochemical regime of surface waters in the Tashkent region of the Uzbekistan Republic, considering the modern conditions and the database accumulated in the hydrochemistry laboratory. If several decades ago the rivers flowed predominantly in the natural waters, now in the flat territory collector-drainage water takes a significant part of their source, the size of which within Uzbekistan is significant — their total volume is 23 km3 for the year. This is water, flowing from drains and collectors from irrigated territory and falling back into rivers or into various natural deepening: lakes, cavities, ravines. Since the vast majority of water resources in the Republic of Uzbekistan — 92 %, is used for irrigation needs, and for all non-irrigation — 8 %, then the main anthropogenic impact on surface and groundwater is provided by irrigation. The mineralization of these waters varies from 2 to 10 g/m in different regions of Uzbekistan.Key words: reserve of unleavened groundwater, water intake equipments, monitoring observations, pollution of surface water.
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