Vasilchenko A.A HISTORY TECHNIQUES OF KNITTING (TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF DELICATE PUHOVYAZANIA ON SOUTH URAL)The historical examples of development and application of hand artistic handicraft — knittings are examined in the article. In material some questions of origin of delicate of South Ural are affected also as the unique artistic phenomenon inseparable from history of development of technique of knitting. Technique of knitting it is a variety of textile technique in hand execution, time and place of origin of that exactly are not set. The results of archaeological excavations testify that knitting since olden times was widespread in many countries of the world. So, the earliest fromknintwears the wares found in Egypt and dated IX and X centuries of our era are considered. On the hypothesis of William Felkina, knitting was known yet in the days of Trojan war. In XV—XVI centuries, knitting actively enough spreads on Europe and grows into domestic employment and profitable handicraft. Thus, cudya on archaeological finds, it is possible to assert that the technique of knitting has a national origin and substantial community of ancient ornamentalnyih forms and handicraft receptions. It is important to mark also,thathe technique of knitting possesses originality and regional features historically, and, simultaneously, stipulates functional unity, community of technology and ornamentatsii of knits at nationalities resident in many countries of the world, and also on territory of Russia and nearby with her regions. In Russia history of origin of knitting also is not certain a temporal period. From sheep wool of the domestic spinning since olden times bound mittens, mittens, socks, knee-guards. The patterned varicoloured knitting is more studied in our country on spokes is an ancient, original type of artistic handicraft. Development and perfection of receptions of hand-knit resulted in forming of varieties of this eldest type of needlework of the — knitting on spokes, by a hook, on a "fork", on a knitting machine. The historically folded ancient ornamentalnyie forms and handicraft receptions of technique of knitting on spokes became artistically-technological basis of modern artistic handicraft of — of the delicate shawl knitting of South Ural. A question about priority influence of certain etno-kulturnyih traditions on the process of origin and development of delicate puhovyazania in this region serves as until now the article of disagreements among scientists. Suppositions speak out on the basis of the archived data and archaeological researches, that hand handicraft the — weaving and knitting of — was one of the most ancient traditional domestic employments at the tyurkoyazyichnyih people of South Ural, that knew the rational methods of menage, receptions of purveyance of yarn and of knitting downy wares. However, in spite of presence of wares from a fuzz, researchers consider that nomads — Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kirghizs et al did not have tradition of delicate puhovyazania. According to statement of scientists, an origin and development of this tradition stipulated forming of environment of the cossacks on territories of South Ural, predominance of Russians in socially-ethnic composition of population of Orenburzhya, their knowledge of traditions and techniques of woman needlework — knitting, weaving, kruzhevopleteniya. Analysing the artistically-technological features of technique of delicate puhovyazania and Orenburg delicate shawls, scientists came to the conclusion, that delicate puhovyazanie of South Ural attained the greatest development in Orenburzhe.Key words: technique of knitting, development, delicate puhovyazanie, South Ural, Orenburzhe.
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Author: Vasilchenko A.A.
|Sergey Aleksandrovich |