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Orenburg State University january 23, 2022 RU/EN
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Boldyrev A.V., Zakharova V.G.
NEURO-MENTAL STABILITY DYNAMICS OF THE PENITENTIARY OFFICERS AS THEY PROFESSIONALIZE [№ 2 ' 2019]
The activity of the Federal Penitentiary Service officers is characterized by the presence of extreme situations and intense working conditions. This includes direct contact with convicts, isolated job from society, high requirements for compliance with laws and moral standards, carrying weapons, increased responsibility. Neuro-mental stability is one of the main qualities which should be formed by all types of service among FPS officers. Availability and development of this quality helps employees to better adapt in difficult conditions, to quickly and efficiently perform tasks, to adequately respond in extreme situations. High level of neuro-mental stability is main source for preservation of physical and mental health when working in adverse conditions. We hypothesized that the level of neuro-mental stability among FPS officers should increase as they professionalize.
Testing was conducted according to the “Prognosis” method for study the dynamics of indicators of neuro-mental stability. 35employees were tested 2times within 4years. Comparison of indicators of the first and second measurements showed that an increase in the index of neuro-mental stability is observed with the repeated measurement.
Our study showed a link between the level of neuro-mental stability and the growth of experience. The adaptive potential of FPS staff increases as they professionalize, it helps to spend less effort when performing operational tasks in extreme situations, without reducing efficiency.

Eremin A.M., Zakharov P.V., Starostenkov M.D., Manakov N.A.
ON THE QUESTION ON THE STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF ACCURATE DISCRETE BREEZERS WITH QUASI-BREEZE MODEL SOLUTIONS OF A3B STEHOMETRY CRYSTAL [№ 5 ' 2018]
The method of molecular dynamics is used to perform a statistical comparison of exact discrete breathers with quasi-breather model solutions of the A3B stoichiometry crystal, using the example of Pt3Al. A phonon spectrum of this model crystal is obtained, the dependences of the root-mean-square deviation, the coefficient of variation, and the mean frequency of the model quasi-breather on the time of its existence are obtained. Also within the framework of this model, the following statistical characteristics and dependencies were calculated: a grouped statistical series of absolute and relative frequencies, a polygon of absolute and relative frequencies, a histogram of relative frequencies, an empirical distribution function, an estimate of the mathematical expectation and variance of the original sample. Analysis of statistical data allows us to conclude that in the model under consideration using the interatomic interaction potential obtained by the immersed atom (EAM) method, the quasi-breather solution differs slightly from the exact breather solution.Moving discrete breather interactions with the point defect in crystal with A3B composition taken as an example Pt3Al are studied by the method of molecular dynamics.

Bazhina N.L., Ochur K.O., Ondar E.E., Zakharova E.G., Ryabova N.N.
HUMUS OF MOUNTAIN MEADOW SOILS OF WEST TUVA [№ 12 ' 2017]
Data on the humus composition of mountain meadow soils in the western part of Tuva, occupying the lower boundaries of the highland region of the Alashsky upland of the Western Sayan, the Shapshalsky ridge of the Western Sayan and the ridge of the Western Tannu-Ola, are summarized. Methodological features of the work consisted in the selection of soil samples, which was carried out in detail by a continuous column every 5–10 cm and(or) less within the visible boundaries of the horizons, as well as in the use of the microclimatic data: average annual air temperature, average annual precipitation and the sum of temperatures above +10C, calculated for each individual section, according to the regression equations derived for Tuva territory that include interrelationship of climatic characteristics with altitude above sea level, and taking into account the influence of the exposure of the slope and the wind rose. As a result of the analysis of generalized materials, the specific features of the humus composition of mountain meadow soils are revealed, depending on the ecological conditions of their formation. They consist of different contents of total organic carbon, the amount of humic acids associated with calcium, and the proportion of mobile fulvic acids in the composition of this component. At the same time, mountain meadow soils, irrespective of local conditions of functioning, within the uniform bioclimatic boundaries, have a humus-fulvate composition of humus with very close values of the ratio Cha:Cfa, which lie in the range of 0.77–0.99, but more than 50% exceed the value of0.9, and also a relatively high proportion of humic acids, bound clay minerals of soils (fr.HAIII), which is typical for soils that are affected by the processes of freezing. This does not contradict the generally accepted understanding of the humus composition of mountain meadow soils of other regions of Russia.

Simonova T.O., Kiseleva M.M., Smelysheva L.N., Zakharov E.V.
INFLUENCE OF THE STRESS ON INDICATORS OF SEX HORMONES AND LEPTIN AT STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION [№ 3 ' 2017]
In everyday life students rather often are influenced by influence of various stress factors. The examination stress is the frequent reason of emotional pressure. Adaptation of an organism at an emotional stress is provided by various power substrates. The nature of changes in a functional condition of an organism of students during examination continues to remain one of the most studied physiological problems. Studying of dynamics of a leptin in interrelation with hormones of a forward share of a pituitary body in the conditions of a stress, depending on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system are studied a little. In a research it is established that at girls in the conditions of an emotional stress vegetative correlates of a leptin don't depend on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system, at the same time the maximum values of a leptin are caused by prevalence of sympathetic influences. Besides, at emotional pressure depression of concentration of LG at girls with a vagotonia and rising of FSG in the general group, and also at girls with vago-and a normotoniya was taped. In the conditions of a stress vagotonys defined the minimum values of prolactinum, with ascending of activity of a sympathetic tonus concentration of hormone increased. Thus, influence of an emotional stress on work of genesial system is established. Responses varied depending on an initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system. In the conditions of an emotional stress in all surveyed subgroups more expressed shifts in allocation of gonadotropinums and sexual steroids became perceptible. Change of concentration of sexual gonadotropinums in the conditions of emotional pressure had multidirectional character and depended on the prevailing tonus of the autonomic nervous system.

Zaharova T.V., Snigireva O.M.
LANGUAGE SPECIFICITY OF GERMAN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES AND PRACTICAL DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING THEM INTO RUSSIAN [№ 2 ' 2017]
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine the modern society without mass media. The role of the mass media is so huge, so that they are often called as “the fourth power”. Today a newspaper performs an important function, so that it is impossible to imagine the state and social life without the periodical editions. The title is an integral part of the news-publication, because a good title substantially increases the competitiveness of a periodical edition and takes up the strongest position in the press. That's why in the first instance readers pay attention to it. The ability to understand and to translate quickly a newspaper title has a considerable importance for a translator by the work with information-descriptive materials. This ability is especially necessary in an oral translation, unseen translation, and abstracting. A translator can return to the problem of a right translation of a title after the whole article has been translated and its content has been totally comprehended. But an interpreter on the contrary doesn't have such possibility, because an interpretation usually begins with translation of a title, and in the event of an abstracted material of a periodical edition the situation becomes complicated, because a translator has to define by a title,whether the material belongs to the given theme. It's quite difficult to understand and to translate newspaper titles and moreover it demands a great skill. The article presents an analysis of certain difficulties connected with using of lexical-stylistic and grammatical means. The materials of the research are titles of such modern German newspapers as “Die Zeit”, “Die Welt”, “F.A.Z.”, “Das Handelsblatt”, “Bildzeitung” etc.

Simutova O.P., Zakharova S.V.
LANGUAGE GAME IN ORIGINL AND IN TRANSLATION (ON THE BASIS GERMAN-SPEAKING MEDIA TEXTS) [№ 2 ' 2017]
The article is devoted to the issue of reproduction of language game from German into Russian. In this article we attempt to define the basic translation techniques of language game that appears in the German-speaking media texts, in order to establish the most appropriate matching options and its transfer into the Russian language. The study of language game in media texts seem relevant today, because these texts contain a large arsenal of linguistic material that promotes the study of the translation system concepts and generalization of positive experience in the translation of theory and practice. During our research we found out that the authors of the translation of language game used various translation techniques, it is caused by several factors. So, descriptive translation is required due to the inability to pick up the translation equivalent in the target language. Moreover, the described facts that are the basis of the language game in the text often require explanation for Russian-speaking readers. Without this it is impossible to adequately understand the author's intention, and therefore the text. Generalization allows the author to preserve the full value of the translation at the level of emotional and aesthetic perception. Loan translation as a translation method applies to the language units, which do not have direct correspondence in the target language. Lexico-semantic substitution is used to transmit the lexical units that have no direct correspondence in the Russian language, but they can be inferred. Transliteration is required when it is important to observe the lexical brevity of notation, and at the same time highlight the specificity of the named concept. In our opinion the most common translation techniques of language game, in German-speaking media texts are loan and descriptive translation. It should be noted that this article is not intended to be a complete and exhaustive description of the translation methods of language game from German to Russian. This problem is multifaceted and requires more detailed study.

Zakharov P.V., Eremin A.M., Manakov N.A., Starostenkov M.D., Vdovin R.S.
COOPERATIVE ATOMIC DISPLACEMENTS NEAR INTERPHASE BOUNDARIES NI-γFE [№ 6 ' 2016]
By method of molecular dynamics studied the cooperative atomic displacements near the interface a bimetal solid-phase contact Ni-γFe. The differences in the behavior of the Ni and Fe atoms with their participation in the process of mass transfer across borders is established. Currently still a lot of unresolved issues related to the atomic structure of interfaces and mechanisms of their interaction with a variety of defects generated by, for example, by radiation exposure. In particular, special interest is the cooperative atomic displacements near the interphase boundaries and their contribution to the transport of energy and mass. It is shown that the introduction of interstitial atoms near the interface can cause a cooperative atomic displacements that lead to the climb of misfit dislocations. All cooperative atomic displacements proceeded on crowdions mechanism along the packed rows. The differences of behavior of atomic displacements on the number of interstitial atoms, and their type. The differences in the behavior of atoms, apparently, due to the high binding energy of the type Ni-γFe compared with connections type γFe-γFe, resulting in the Fe atoms are more mobile than the Ni atoms and penetrate through the interface is much more intense. Such activity of Fe atoms near the interface Ni-γFe border creates the preconditions for the consideration of such phenomena in the boundary as the basis for the creation of new materials with specific desired properties.

Zakharov P.V., Eremin A.M., Starostenkov M.D., Manakov N.A.
MOVING DISCRETE BREATHER INTERACTION WITH THE POINT DEFECT IN THE CRYSTAL WITH A3B COMPOSITION [№ 3 ' 2016]
Moving discrete breather interactions with the point defect in crystal with A3B composition taken as an example Pt3Al are studied by the method of molecular dynamics. The problem of interaction the objects of soliton with topological defects in the crystal is important for assess the prospects of the use of such solitons, as discrete breathers, in technological processes. As a point defect interstitial Al atom is, placed into the tetrahedral cavity of the crystal. To make excitation of the moving discrete breather two Al atoms were deviated from their equilibrium position on the value of 0,5–1A and 1A to the opposite sides along the densely packed directions this way the initial velocity of the discrete brearher moving through the crystal. Moving discrete breather excitation is possible along the densely packed directions: <110>, <011>, <101>, <110>. In the chosen model several atoms of the light sublattice participate in the moving discrete breather oscillations.In this case moving discrete breathers can migrate through the crystal at a considerable distance, almost without dissipation its energy. The obtained data allow us to judge about moving discrete breather influence on the point defect in the crystal due to its speed, energy and the distance to the defect. This opens up a prospect of usage such objects as analyzer of alloy purity and defect structures in the crystals with A3B composition. Moreover such objects can be used to transfer energy or information along the crystal.

Zakharov P.V., Eremin A.M., Manakov N.A., Starostenkov M.D., Markidonov A.V.
BEHAVIOR OF THE QUASI-BREATHER MODE IN PT3AL CRYSTAL WITH THE POINT DEFECTS [№ 9 ' 2015]
Nowadays the localized oscillations of the atoms or separate atomic groups are being studied in the perfect chips what makes the usage of the acquired results more difficult when studying the real crystals with the deffects. In this researh by the method of molecular dynamics we study influence of the point defects on the quasi-breather mode behavior in stoichiometry crystal A3B using Pt3Al as an example. As point defects there are divacancies, trivacancies Pt in the crystal of Pt3Al as well as interstitial atoms ofAl that are placed into the tetrahedral vacuums. The considered model is a bulk stoichiometry crystal A3B, where the atoms interact through Morse pair potential. It was found that point defects within Pt3Al alloy substantially influence on the quasi-breather mode in the case of their close arrangement. The exposure is in the high-amplitude localized oscillations destruction with the further energy dispersion through the crystal. But it's worth to remark that while high-amplitude oscillations degradation dispersion predominantly takes place intoAl sublattice where the energy stays localized because of the forbidden band availability in the phonon spectrum ofPt3Al crystal during the long period of time. Besides it's established that there is a quasi-breather mode extended stability region nearPt divacancy and trivacancy. In the event of the observing at the point defect in the form of the interstitial Alatom, that is implantated into the tetrahedral vacuum such region does not exist. The acquired results should be counted while investigating the features and qualities of the real stoichiometry crystals3.

Lebedeva E.N., Krasikov S.I., Sharapova N.V., Setko N.P., Zakharov A.A.
LIPID AND ADIPOKINE PROFILE IN WORKERS OIL REFINERY [№ 9 ' 2015]
The most important indicator of the health of society is the health of its employees. The chemical and oil refining industry production factors lead to the disruption of many metabolic processes. Thus, in those long-term employees in enterprises of petrochemical previously noted the presence of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease— an increase of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TAG and IA due to lower HDL cholesterol. It was found that the number of individuals with overweight and obesity increases in proportion to length of service in hazardous work. Based on the fact that long-term exposure to toxic substances causes oxidative stress and has obesogenic effect (increases the total weight of the fatty tissue), the aim of study was to evaluate the lipid and adipokine profile of the workers of a petrochemical enterprises in the Orenburg region. A determining the level of leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α performed by ELISA, C-reactive protein (CRP) — turbidimetric method. The study shows that the values of CRP and TNF-α were elevated, indicating that the process of inflammation. Leptin, reflecting the total amount of adipose tissue in the body was significantly higher than normal (in females 2.5times). Values adiponectin, in contrast, were extremely low, particularly in men: almost 10-fold decrease relative to normal. Thus, the individual long-term employees in enterprises of petrochemical noted the presence of both the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease— high cholesterol blood serum (the development of hypercholesterolemia) and a violation of the distribution of cholesterol between atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoprotein fractions (dyslipoproteinemia) and pro-inflammatory nature of the changes adipokine profile. The data obtained allow us to recommend the use as informative biomarkers of the toxic effects of environment factors determining pro- and antiadipokines — leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α and C-reactive protein. Studies have shown that changes in lipid metabolism in the background of overweight are closely linked to the change in indicators adipokine regulation that dictates the need for the correction of these changes.

Andreeva E.L., Zakharova V.V., Ratner A.V.
THE ROLE OF THE STATE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POLICY IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA AND ITS REGIONS [№ 4 ' 2014]
The article presents a brief historical overview of building a unified state policy in the field of science. The evolution of the term "Science and Technological Policy" is presented and main objectives of state and regional science and technology policy are reflected. The priorities of the development of science, technology and engineering in the Russian Federation are highlighted.

Shkvorchenko D.O., Zakharov V.D., Rusanovskaya A.V., Norman K.S., Belousova E.V., Kakunina S.A.
MODERN ASPECTS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF VITREOMACULAR TRACTION SYNDROME [№ 4 ' 2013]
The role of posterior vitreous hyaloid layers in vitreomacular traction syndrome was analyzed. The methods of peeling of hyaloid posterior layers of the vitreous were examined. All existing approaches of the treatment of the macular pathology by traction genesis were shown.

Zakharov D.V.
ABOUT THE SUBJECT-OBJECT APPROACH TO THE HISTORY OF NATIVE PHILOSOPHY OF THE XXCENTURY [№ 7 ' 2011]
The possibility of applying the method of subject-object paradigm of the historical and philosophical process for describing the modern period of new philosophy development in the unity of the dynamics of philosophical rationality in the twentieth century.

Zakharova E.V.
ONTOLOGICAL HUMAN DEFICIENCY [№ 7 ' 2011]
The article is devoted to the problem of deficiency in human life. Deficiency is regarded as a chronic lack of something within the boundaries of self-identification. The notion of ontological deficiency as under-determined being to the whole is introduce in this work. The possibility of correcting the ontological deficiency by bringing a person into contact with transcendence is discussed.

Lukov Val.A., Lukov V.A., Zakharov N.V.
VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN YOUTH FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE VALUE THEORY [№ 2 ' 2011]
The article refers to the value orientations as a significant side thesaurus examined patterns of changes in value orientations of students, an analysis of the concept of "value".


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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