Galperina A.R. EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF FILAMENTOUS CYANOBACTERIA
The researched problem is relevant, since at present, heavy metals are the most widespread pollutants of soil and water environment. Cyanobacteria are promising objects for use in cleaning environmental objects from ions of heavy metals, since the ability to accumulate many elements and transform them into non-toxic form. It is made assessment of influence of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and silver) on some morphological and physiological parameters of filamentous cyanobacteria. While higher concentrations of heavy metals affect the size, morphology, and ultrastructure of cells and physiological and biochemical characteristics of cyanobacteria. In experimental research revealed that the studied cyanobacteria are sensitive to the toxic effects of heavy metals. It is noted that the severity of the toxic effect decreases from cadmium to lead. It is shown that in the presence of heavy metals, cyanobacteria grow mainly on the surface of agar and undergo morphological changes: the emergence of atypical large cells (up to 4 μm — 2 μm), and cells with uneven edges; the formation of clusters of trichomes and disintegration of trichomes into fragments and individual cells. Noted adaptation of cyanobacteria to ions of lead. Revealed that low concentrations of lead ions stimulate the growth of biomass of cyanobacteria up to two times compared to control. It is found that all the tested concentrations of lead have a strong effect on the photosynthetic system of filamentous cyanobacteria, resulting in the decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll a and carotenoids with increasing content of lead in the environment.Key words: heavy metals, cyanobacteria, photosynthetic pigments.
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