CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY OF RARE PAEONIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF CULTURE
One of the ways to enrich, preserve and rationally use the species diversity of floral and ornamental plants is the cultivation of introducents in collector sites. Thanks to the accumulated experience, botanical gardens are the most suitable institutions for the conservation of rare and endangered species. B research tasks included the study of biological features, decorative and economically valuable traits, as well as an assessment of the adaptation of four representatives of the genus Paeonia L. introduced into the Botanical Garden Institute of the Ufa Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, classified as rare and endangered and determining the prospects for their introduction into culture (Paeonia anomala L., P. hybrida Pall., P. mlokosewitschii Lomakin, P. tenuifolia L.). As a result of the introductory studies, it was revealed that in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Predural, P. tenuifolia blossoms first in the second decade of May, while in the five-year-old bush, up to 25 flowers are formed, of which 10–15 bloom simultaneously. The plant is highly decorative (86 points). A few days after P. tenuifolia, P. hybrida blooms (22.05 ± 2). On one plant there are 4-5 flowers, 2-4 of which bloom simultaneously. The duration of flowering is 7-8 days. Flowers are open, small, up to 6 cm in diameter, with a strong aroma. Petals are oval, even, purple, in quantity of 8 pcs. One to two days after P. hybrida, P. anomala blooms (24.05 ± 2). In an adult bush, you can count 14-16 peduncles. Each of them carries on a drooping, cupped, purple-pink flower with a specific flavor. The duration of flowering is 10-12 days. At the same time, 3-5 flowers bloom. Their diameter is 8-10 cm, the petals at the ends are damaged, obovate, in an amount of 8-9 pieces. Simultaneously with P. anomala blooms P. mlokosewitschii. On the bush you can count 6-8 peduncles. Duration of flowering — 6-7 days. At the same time, up to two small flowers bloom, up to 7 cm in diameter, with a weak aroma. Petals are broadly ovate, pale yellow, in number of 8 pcs. located in a row. When assessing the 100-point scale of decorativeness, all the peonies studied received more than 80 points, and on the 50-point scale of utility characteristics — more than 40 points, which characterizes them as promising, i.e. they are characterized by prolonged flowering; are highly productive, multi-stems, are not affected by diseases and pests. According to the scale of species adaptation, P. tenuifolia (58 points) and P. anomala (56) are promising for introduction. The remaining species (P. hybrida, P. mlokosewitschii) are classified as “medium perspective” (44-49 points). Thus, both local (P. anomala, P. hybrida) and tested inorionic species of peonies (P. mlokosewitschii, P. tenuifolia) are highly plastic adapted to climatic conditions and can grow successfully in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Predural. Promising and medium-perspective introducers are recommended for replenishment of the zonal assortment of cultivated plants in the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Key words: rare species of peony, geography, phenology, introduction, adaptation.
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Authors: Reut A.A.