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Лицензия Creative Commons
Лицензия Creative Commons

Bats are fairly widespread, are an important and permanent component of many biocenoses. However, the hidden and specific way of life of bats, their morphological features, did not contribute to the full study of these animals on the territory of not only the Orenburg region, but all of Russia. Evolution of these animals proceeded along the path of adaptation to flight and development of the air habitat, which was accompanied by profound changes in their biological organization. In the second half of the XX century the inventory of the fauna of the bats of the Urals in general was completed. In the region, 12 species of bats were identified. At the present time, as a result of the use of modern technical means of detecting bats and more sophisticated devices for capturing in field research, a qualitatively high level of study of bats has been noted. It is known that animal organs can be modified depending on the lifestyle and overall load on the body, including the heart and lungs, the variability of which is not only of general biological interest, but has some significance in the disclosure of physiological processes, depending on environmental conditions.The bat’s lungs are proportional to the formation, which is caused by the need to stretch them in different directions and to varying degrees. A certain dependence on the type of breathing has the development of paired parts and depends on the locomotion of the animals. According to our data, the bat’s right lung is lobular, but it is not marked in the left lung. The right lung includes the apical, cardiac and diaphragmatic lobes and the most developed is the diaphragm, which is determined by the type of respiration of the animal. From the right lung, a small, unpaired, overactive fraction that probably is an indicator not only of the organization of the lungs, but also shows the ratio of the lungs to the heart with its large vessels, and to the diaphragm, separated from the heart by this lobe. The hard part from the inside of the anterior margin has a special bronchus. Education in the lobes of shares according to their number, shape and position is not accidental, but it is natural and inherent only in mammals.Key words: morphology, bat, Brandt’s bat, heart, lungs.


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