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Orenburg State University january 20, 2022   RU/EN
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Kozlenko E.A., Ukenov B.S.
THE MAIN CHANGES IN THE PROPERTIES OF SOILS IN THE CHELYABINSK REGION AFTER PROLONGED ECONOMIC USE [№ 9 ' 2017]
Long-term economic use of soils becomes an important factor in changing their fertility and covers the entire process of soil formation. Depending on the duration of development and the level of crop cultivation, the soil undergoes significant changes. The study of the direction of changes in agrophysical, agrochemical, physico-chemical properties is one of the key tasks for the restoration and stabilization of soil fertility. By influencing the natural conditions of the environment, a person changes the basic properties and direction of development of soils. The processes of soil formation are associated with the natural productivity of soils, climatic conditions and anthropogenic factors. Abandoned soils — deposits are the object of research on the restoration of the basic properties of soils, since already 10 years later natural vegetation is restored and fertility is improved: the humus content is increased, the aggregate state is improved, and as a result, the basic agrophysical and agrochemical properties are improved. The article deals with the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation and fertility in the conditions of the deposit of the two most common types of soils in the Chelyabinsk region: leached chernozem and common black chernozem. Changes in the density, structure, and water permeability of soils are shown, and the regularity of the increase in the mass of vegetation in the fallow areas is established, which is related to the physiological characteristics of different communities of fallow plants. Also results of the carried out researches on definition of activity of a microflora of an arable land and a deposit are presented. Soil organisms are responsible for the decomposition of organic matter arriving with plant residues and supply plants with affordable resources. They also play an important role in the formation of stable soil aggregates, maintain the water-air balance, which is a necessary condition for the normal growth of plants. The data of the conducted field experiment gave an idea of the intensity of decomposition of plant material, which allows us to judge the state and activity of soil microflora.

Ukenov B.S.
THE IMPACT OF MAN-MADE FORESTS ON THE MESOCLIMATE ADJACENT TERRITORIES [№ 8 ' 2017]
In the 20th century, after the end of world war II, the Soviet Union adopted a number of laws aimed at restoration of the national economy and increase agricultural production. A plan was developed, whose task was to prevent dust storms and drought by planting of forest plantations and the construction of reservoirs in the southern regions of the European part of the country, he later became known as the Stalin plan for the transformation of nature. An important contribution to the theory and practice of grassland afforestation on large areas was work, which was organized by the founder of the world of soil science of V.V. Dokuchaev on the Stone steppe, located in the Voronezh oblast. Thus, the state plan for drought management was based on a fundamental scientific basis. Had to change the climate on the area of 120 million hectares. This planned planting of eight belts with a total length of 5 300 km and an area of 2.3 million hectares. The longest of the belts (1 018 km) is estirada the forest, the mountain Cherry — Caspian sea. It is timed to the Ural river three lanes on each of its sides. At the time of cessation of work on the implementation plan of this planting shelterbelts in the Orenburg region was close to completion. In modern conditions the part of the forest was lost under the influence of grazing, fires and uncontrolled deforestation. However, significant parts of it are preserved to the present time. On the fragment of forest belt bounded by coordinates SSH 57°79,318'; VD 55°51,881' was carried out meteorological observations of the main soil-climatic indicators.

Verkhoshentseva Y.P., Hardikova S.V., Ukenov B.S.
THE CHANGE OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS ROADSIDE AREAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY AND PLANTATIONS [№ 10 ' 2015]
The largest contribution to the pollution and degradation of natural ecosystems at the present stage automotive. Transport is a specific source of pollution of the natural environment, consisting of many ground-based point sources, focused on different highways. Areas of environmental pollution, generated by emissions of motor transport, characterized by high values of pollutant concentrations and distributed over a large area. The role of a single vehicle in the change of state of the roadside zone is negligible. However, when the regularity of such exposure, it is multiplied. A transport stream is converted into a permanent source of anthropogenic pollution. Anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of roadside areas leads to air pollution, the change of physico-chemical properties of soils, their compaction, contamination by pollutants, in particular heavy metals (HM), which causes an increase in their phytotoxicity, leading to deterioration of growing conditions of green spaces. Green plantings of the roadside areas to reduce the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment, improve physico-chemical properties of the soils adjacent to the roadway. The paper presents the results of research of influence of shelterbelts on properties of soils roadside areas of Orenburg region. The characteristic of some physical and chemical properties of the roadside soil, the improvement which occurs as the distance from the road surface. Their maximum values these indicators reach the forest belt and in the zone of its influence. The study of phytotoxicity of soils showed that the highest indicator is characteristic of the soils located near the road surface, as the distance from the phytotoxicity is reduced, but remains at moderate levels.

Ukenov B.S., Voropayev S.B.
INFLUENCE OF THE STATE FOREST BELT "THE MOUNTAIN CHERRY — THE CASPIAN SEA" ON SOILS OF ADJACENT TERRITORIES [№ 10 ' 2015]
One of the most important conditions of course of genetically caused pochvoobrazovatelny process is the climate, a landscape thermohydrology. Essential changes of atmospheric mesoclimate and climate of soils of the Orenburg region resulted from development of a lesomelioration at the beginning of the second half of the 20th eyelid. From the moment of landing of forest strips together with changes of the water and temperature modes of soils intensity and an orientation of other elementary soil processes, for example, quantity and quality of organic substance, physical, physical and chemical and chemical properties of the soil change. In this regard the purpose of researches was an assessment of long-term influence of the state forest belt "the mountain Cherry — the Caspian Sea" on properties of chernozems ordinary the Orenburg Cis-Urals. Research problems included identification of extent of influence of a forest belt on water and physical and chemical properties of soils of the arable land located on various removal from the lesopokryty territory. During works it is established that in process of removal from a forest belt density of soils increases at simultaneous reduction of speed of water penetration. According to dry sifting on Savvinov's method the assessment of structural and modular structure of soils on coefficient of degree of structure was made. The conclusion is drawn that the structural and modular structure of the soil worsens in process of removal from lesopokryty space. Influence of the state forest belt was reflected and in the maintenance of a humus of soils of arable sites of adjacent territories. In the soil under a forest belt the greatest number of soil organic chemistry is observed.

Rusanov A.M., Shein E.V., Milanovskiy E.Yu., Lazarev V.I., Tygai Z.N., Fomin D.S., Il'in L.I., Zinchenko S.I., Bykova G.S., Uкenov B.S.
FEATURES OF MIGRATION PROCESSES IN THE STEPPE LANDSCAPES SOIL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FOREST SHELTER BELTS [№ 6 ' 2015]
The study of the influence of forests in the steppe zone on the soil cover complexity formation is carried out by investigating the distribution of moisture and carbon organic matter and carbonates in the transect consisting of chernozems, underneath the forest shelter belts and under agricultural lands. It is primarily manifested through the formation of special hydrothermal conditions, arising under the forest belt, and entails the formation of stable soil properties such as organic carbon content.

Shorina T.S., Teslia A.V., Popov A.V.
INFLUENCE OF ROAD TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF SOILS ROADSIDE AREAS OF ORENBURG [№ 6 ' 2013]
The effects of road transport on the chemical and physical properties of soils bordering territories of Orenburg. Revealed that in most cases the indicators of soil quality match the level of an environmental emergency. Detected excess of acid-forming compounds and, consequently, reduced soil pH to 4.7.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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