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Solodilova I.A., Sokolova T.Yu.
EUPHEMISM IDENTIFICATION CRITERIA [№ 11 ' 2017]
Problem of identification criteria defining for some language phenomenon is a very often problem in linguistic science. It is also actual for euphemia. That’s why word’s defining as a euphemistic one is not always simple and doubtless. Despite the centuries-long history euphemisms have not clear features. Scientists point out different in volume and content features’ groups for euphemism identification. It is caused by analysis of this phenomenon in different aspects. Differences in analysis approaches are also reasons for uniformity lack in this problem solving. Substitution approach (that conditions the narrow view of euphemia) and broader interpretation of this phenomenon as a product of mediate nomination, change of estimative directivity, linguistic and pragmatic, sociolinguistic and semantic-stylistic phenomenon have together conditioned a wide range of study aspects and, as a consequence, the uniformity lack in identification criteria. Modern researches tend to necessity of the complex approach to this phenomenon study. This approach supposes interrelation of extra— and intralinguistic factors conditioning formation of euphemistic nomination in language. There are firstly social-psychological and denotative-significative factors among them. Social-psychological factors are related to learning style and reality estimation. Denotative-significative factors are connected with formation of objects’ new conceptual features in human mind and with changes in conceptual world view. The detailed analysis allows revealing the next euphemisms’ identification criteria: extralinguistic criteria — negative nature of emotions (caused by nomination object), social and cultural motivation of nominative replacement process, tendency to denotation melioration, and intralinguistic criteria — stigmatic antecedent, positive connotative semantics of euphemism, semantic reduction, and secondary nature of nomination.

Solodilova I.A.
PARTIAL EVALUATION: COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS AND PECULIARITIES OF MEANING FORMATION [№ 8 ' 2017]
The article is devoted to the evaluation in the aspect of meaning formation as a result of interaction of a set of conceptual domains that model the evaluative meaning. Evaluation is studied from the standpoint of cognitive linguistics and is described on the basis of the cognitive matrix developed by the author. Cognitive-matrix analysis makes it possible to explain the diversity of evaluative meanings, including those based on partial-evaluative predicates. The latter are contrasted with the predicates of the general evaluation as combining the evaluative and descriptive components in the semantic structure. Evaluative meanings that are formed on the basis of predicates of aesthetic, ethical and normative evaluation are subjected to detailed analysis. Evaluative meaning formation is described in such cases as a process of selection of a value attribute in the object, correlated with the stereotypical concept of beauty, ethical and other standards as conceptual spheres. The peculiarity of sensory-taste evaluations is associated with the allocation of a value attribute, regardless of the conceptual areas of the matrix, but its direct dependence on the subject’s “I”, his sensory experience. On the periphery of the partial evaluation there are lexical units which name the traits of a person’s character due to the fixation in the cultural consciousness for this or that feature with the “+” or “–” sign. Their peripheral status is due to an increase of descriptive semantics in the overall structure of the meaning; the legitimacy of their attribution to the evaluation — the status of the evaluative component as typical, permanent, implicit and not actualized solely by the context. These problems are investigated on the basis of German-language fiction.

Solodilova I.A.
METONYMY: THE BOUNDARIES OF THE PHENOMENON [№ 1 ' 2017]
The article considers metonymy as a cognitive-semantic structure in its comparison with metaphor and explanation of the differences between the phenomena of language and thought in terms of the cognitive approach to language learning. Among the main differences hypothetical nature of metaphor is stated, compared to the real connection of concepts in metonymy, the semantic transfer of characteristics for metaphor and syntactic contraction of metonymy as the underpinning of their operations, limitation and limitlessness within a syntagma, and a plurality vs. the uniqueness of associative connections between the relevant concepts. Linguistic features of metaphor and metonymy are also explained on the basis of their conceptual characteristics. Metonymy is understood as a referential shift: the result of a holistic overlay of concept-source on concept-goal. In the same logic the main function of metonymy in language as a function of identification is explained. The ability to perform in language other functions — expressive and evaluative is recognized for individual, isolated metonymies primarily of the type “whole — part” that is attributed to the underlying semantic structure of this procedure of reduction of the whole to its parts. The fundamental role of metonymy in the processes of conceptualization in the early stages of language development because of the greater obviousness and ease of perception of the relationship of contiguity, rather than of relations of similarity is stated.

Solodilova I.A., Schepelja I.V.
EVALUATIVENESS AND EMOTIVENESS IN THE WORD SEMANTIC [№ 11 ' 2015]
The article focuses on the disputable problem of correlation between objective and subjective language factors and, in particular, evaluative and emotive categories represented on the level of lexical semantics. Opinions differ due to variable understanding of evaluation and its interplay with emotional attitude expressed by a speaker. The author of the article does not follow the traditional approach on this issue that tends to unite evaluativity, emotionality/emotivity and expressivity into a single connotative block of lexical unit semantics. The given categories have to be defined on the basis of the phenomenon character and the type of information provided by these components. According to this approach evaluativity and emotivity are differentiated as originating respectively to evaluative and emotional human activity that in their turn represent independent systems. In addition pure evaluation with no emotional attitude is based on cognitive functions of human conscience thus having a rational character. Emotions refer to the mental sphere though they are closely connected with pre-, post- and metacognitive evaluative activity. The author concludes that evaluation in language as a result of interpretative conscience activity provides information concerning essential features of the object while emotionally coloured speech informs us about the speaker's emotional attitude. Following this line of reasoning, evaluativity and emotivity as semantic components of a lexical unit differ in information blocks they refer to, i.e. denotative (outlining essential features of the object) and connotative (providing extra information), respectively. Furthermore these two categories with their own semantic status are opposed to expressivity as a category referring not to the content plane but to the expression plane. The article contains a comprehensive review of various points on the issue under study and their critical analysis.

Solodilova I.A.
EVALUATION OF IRONY MEANING [№ 11 ' 2014]
Irony is studied in the aspect of meaning creation evaluating as a result of conceptual integration of two types of knowledge: literal, which is expressed in an utterance and the one it is referred to. Consequently, the author differs between two types of ironical sentences: based on textual and on discursive incoherence. Incoherence is hereby considered as a constitutive property of ironical meanings.

Solodilova I.A.
SENSE: FROM FORMAL LOGIC TO THE COGNITIVE- SEMANTIC CONCEPTION [№ 7 ' 2014]
The study of the category "sense" is based on critical attitude to the sense-interpretations by purely logical and linguistic approach. As an alternative a cognitive-and-semantic approach to the problem is suggested, which presupposes the use of sense in the aspect of thinking and understanding process. Оn the one hand the sense characteristics are discovered on its interpretation as a mental category and on the other hand as a consciousness communicative activity and understanding process product. Particular characteristics of sense are discovered as a result of comparison of this category with the category of word meaning.

Solodilova I. A.
METAPHOR: COGNITIVE BASIS OF VALUATION [№ 11 ' 2013]
The article deals with the problem of identity and analogy as the foundation of metaphor creation which is regarded with the help of cognitive metaphor theories being critically analyzed. Metaphoric identity of real objects is considered not as a really existing quality, but as a phenomenon of intentional origin which finally defines the functionality of metaphor and its evaluative character.

Solodilova I.A.
INTERTEXTUALITY AND AUTHOR'S EVALUATION IN THE LITERARY TEXT [№ 11 ' 2012]
The chapter deals with the intertextuality as a method of the author's evaluation in the literary text. Furthermore the evaluation is viewed in the cognitive-communicative aspect as a discursive category, which determined the conceptual integrity of the text. The interpretation of intertextual correlations is made by the example of two chapters of G. Grass' novel "My century" and W. Eckert' parody.

Solodilova I.A.
APPRAISAL AS A TYPE OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY AND A COMPONENT OF LEXICAL MEANING [№ 11 ' 2010]
The author regards the understanding of appraisal existed in frames of cognitive approach as a type of cognitive activity of a person and determines the place of evaluative component in the structure of lexical meaning of the world.

Solodilova I.A.
ABOUT SOME PROBLEMS OF TEXT BROOD AND PERCEPTION IN THE ASPECT OF COMMUNICATION [№ 11 ' 2005]
Actual problem of text brood and perception are regarded in this article in its attitude to composing components of communicative act such as situation, motive, and addressee. Positions of psycholinguistics and hermenevtics are researched together with traditional linguistic positions.

Solodilova I.A., Vyatchina V.E.
FRASEOLOGISM WITH MEANING "TIME" IN THE SPHERE OF LINGUISTIC-CULTURAL RESEARCHES [№ 11 ' 2005]
The factors of culture and language interference, considering different reflections in language functioning which suppose the realization of linguistic-cultural approach to the studying of fraseological units, are researched in this article. The analysis of fraseologisms with meaning "time" is the important point, on the base of which fraseologisms are joined in fraseo-semantic fields, conclusions are made, that the German and Russian cultures can be divided as monokhronic and polykhronic cultures at life rate and activity rhythm.

Solodilova I.A.
SENSE WITHIN GERMENEVTIC TEACHING [№ 4 ' 2003]
In spite of the fact that the problem of sense determination and its place in the structural text organization has old traditions, it is hard to get the one point of view of this problem (to give sense differentiation), because the sense is many-dimensional and multifold phenomenon, phenomenon not only artistic but communicative, pragmatic and psychical plans.

Solodilova I.A.
VERBAL IMAGES AS MEANS OF ACTUALIZING CONCEALED MEANINGS IN DEPICTION OF MAIN CHARACTERS IN THE NOVELS "PUPIL TURLESTS CONFUSIONS" AND "MAN WITHOUT FEATURES" BY ROBERT MUZIL. [№ 6 ' 2002]
The problem of concealed meanings and their linguistic representation in a fictional text is solved in the article on the material (basis) of the works by the XX century Austrian writer R. Muzil. The function of verbal images for actualizing concealed (not expressed directly in the text) meanings is observed. Tropes and linguistic means metaphorizing under the influence of the context are analyzed: "loneliness of the main hero in the surrounding world", theatrelike reality and the heroTs inner imparticipation in it", "spiritual anxiety, active creative component of the main heroTs personality being in constant development and perfection", in total realizing metasense or the idea of spiritual antagonism between the main hero and modern society.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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© Электронное периодическое издание: ВЕСТНИК ОГУ on-line (VESTNIK OSU on-line), ISSN on-line 1814-6465
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Учредитель: Оренбургский государственный университет (ОГУ)
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