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Orenburg State University january 29, 2022 RU/EN
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Danilenko O.V., Korneva I.N., Safonova V.Yu.
FORMATION OF A SAFE TYPE OF PERSONALITY IN LIFE SAFETY LESSONS [№ 4 ' 2020]
The process of forming a safe type of personality in the lessons of life safety, in particular the basics of countering terrorism and extremism at school, is relevant. The effective assimilation of the knowledge inherent in this section is facilitated by the method of using practical tasks in the course of studying the section. In modern Russian legislation, colossal attention is paid to the prevention of the phenomena of terrorism and extremism. This is necessary in order to convey this information to the largest possible audience, and to try to “invest” tolerance, respect, peace and kindness in the minds and hearts of the younger generation. The section of the basics of life safety — “Fundamentals of countering terrorism and extremism in the Russian Federation” is included in the curriculum in the school course of life safety in order to teach and prepare a teenager from an early age to avoid such emergencies, and if they have already happened, then have time to find the right one solution. The purpose of the study was to theoretically study, substantiate and test in practice the peculiarities of teaching the basics of countering terrorism and extremism at school and mastering this section by students, which contributes to the formation of a safe type of personality.
In accordance with the purpose and objectives of the study, we studied the textbook material on the section Fundamentals of Countering Terrorism and Extremism in the Russian Federation”, analyzed the forms and methods of work in this section. Further, a program was developed for the implementation of the proposed methodology on the example of grade 11. For this section, such forms of non-traditional lessons as Lesson-judgment, Lesson-dispute, Lesson-conference, Lesson-game (What? Where? When?) are optimal. Such forms of unconventional lessons as the Lesson-Quiz, Lesson-Conference are absolutely not suitable. In rare cases, when the teacher sees psychological maturity and readiness, it is possible to prepare a Lesson-Game, with practical training of behavior skills in the event of a terrorist attack. Thus, after our work, the following conclusions were made that the essence of the concepts of terrorism and extremism is much wider than taught at school, the material in the life safety textbook on countering terrorism and extremism is given in sufficient volume, but the ascertaining experiment showed a low level of assimilation of the material, difficulties in understanding and constructing one’s actions in the event of a terrorist attack

Safonov M.A., Shamraev A.V., Dubskyi E.V.
THE ABILITY OF TTRAMA OF TRUE POLYPORE (FOMES FOMENTARIUS FR.) TO OIL SORPTION [№ 12 ' 2017]
Oil and oil products are among the most toxic environmental pollutants. There is a wide range of substances with necesarului ability, which include mineral and organic sorbents. The use of organic sorbents are more environmentally friendly due to their genesis; as the sorbents are oil-impregnated they can be used as fuel. Search and evaluation of new organic sorbents is an actual problem of ecology. The ability of the oil sorbing by trama of basidioms of Fomes fomentarius Fr. was studied. This species is a cosmopolitan widespread in many regions of the world and occurring on dead wood and weakened trees of many genera of deciduous trees. In the experiment were used 3canisters filled with distilled water containing oil products with a concentration of 5, 10 and 15%. In each canister was dropped segments of fruiting bodies with a thickness of 1, 1.5 and 2cm were dropped. For 3, 7 and 10 day of the experiment, there was a steady absorption of oil in each of the samples. As the saturation of oil, the segments were immersed to the bottom. The saturation of oil products was uneven and depended on the thickness of the sorbent and the concentration of oil. In parallel with adsorption, there was a gradual separation of the oil to fractions in all three cans, accompanied by the formation of mycogenic protein-mat. It can be concluded that the tissue of a fruit body of polypore present effectively oil absorbtion; the fungi has a pronounced catalytic activity, which leads to the decomposition of the oil to the fractions. The most efficient thickness of the oil — sorbent was 1.5cm.

Tarasenko S.N., Safonov M.A.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF THE MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF THE LARGE GOPHER IN THE SOUTHERN URALS [№ 8 ' 2017]
The effects of climate and anthropogenic influences on the biosphere are shown in different scales. These factors largely determine the population status of plants and animals, their density, reproductive cycle and distribution of the species; the structure and biodiversity of ecosystems. One of the adaptations to environmental conditions is change of morphological parameters of living organisms, i.e. the variation of the significant parameters to improve adaptation of an organism to new environmental conditions. The object of studying the dynamics of morphological parameters was a large gopher (Spermophilus major Pallas, 1779. Long-term studies of the variation of two parameters — mass and body length showed that the trends of variation of characteristics by year were different. Correlation between average body weight and coefficient of variation of this indicator by years was not significant; between body length and coefficient of variation was noted a significant negative correlation. Analysis of trends in morphological parameters in space, i.e. comparison of mean values of indicators and their coefficients of variation with similar overall aggregate data on the morphometry of the big gopher in the region, showed that in most districts the average body mass is higher than the regional average. Probably the tendency to decrease the average body mass of individuals of the large ground squirrel in forest-steppe areas of the region can be explained by an insufficient number of potential habitats; the body length is a more stable option.

Shilovskikh O.V., Safonova O.V.
PHACOEMULSIFICATION OF UVEAL CATARACT WITH SYNECHIOTOMY, POSTERIOR CAPSULORHEXIS, PARTIAL VITRECTOMY AND ORIGINAL METHOD OF IOL IMPLANTATION: REMOTE RESULTS [№ 12 ' 2015]
Cataract is a frequent complication of chronic uveitis. There are literary data concerning the results of surgery in this pathology. Lensectomy, extracapsular extraction, phacoemulsification with or without intraocular lens implantation as well as partial or subtotal vitrectomy have been described. Postoperatively, complications influencing visual outcome such as pupil occlusion, iris bombee, secondary cataract often develop. Working out new methods of surgery minimizing complications frequency is actual. The paper presents the experience of surgery in 111eyes of 83patients with uveal cataract. The operations were performed using authors' method including ultrasound cataract phacoemulsification with preliminary synechiotomy, posterior capsulorhexis, partial vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation. Haptics of the intraocular lens were placed into the capsular bag and optic part was placed behind the posterior capsulorhexis. No intraoperative complications were observed. Visual acuity in 1–2 days after surgery was: above 0.5— in 43.2% of cases, 0.2–0.5— in 34.2%, below 0.2— in 22.6%. Most significant increase of visual acuity after the operation was observed in patients with preoperative visual acuity above0.5 and below0.2. Complications included local posterior synechiae without iris bombee in 2 eyes (1.8%), increase of intraocular pressure— 7.2%, uveitis recurrencies— 17%, deposits on IOL— 11.4%, pre-existing macular edema— 40%, macular edema in 1— 6months after surgery— 5.4%. Subtotal vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal was performed in 9eyes (8.1%). The developed method of uveal cataract surgery is safe, provides good anatomic results and a significant increase of visual acuity. Cases with low postoperative visual acuity are associated with pre-existing macular edema. Epiretinal membrane is a risk factor for cystoids macular edema progression after phacoemulsification of uveal cataract and is an indication for vitrectomy.

Safonov M.A.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN BIODIVERSITY OF WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGI OF THE ORENBURG REGION [№ 10 ' 2015]
The hydrographic network has a large impact on the natural features of the regions, participating in the formation of the relief, soil and vegetation cover. Especially great is the influence of permanent watercourses on the biota of the steppe zone. In this case, floodplain habitats become havens for many mesophilic species. A large part of the Orenburg region is located within the steppe zone and the river network of the region also affects the micro- and mesoclimate, and also forms specific complexes of biota within the floodplains of various sizes, and also in adjacent areas. Especially brightly it is at the expense of growth in floodplains forests, which are intrazonal for the steppe zone. One of the most important essential components of the biota of floodplain forest are wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi. The article presents data on the species composition of wood-destroying fungi biota of floodplain forests of the Orenburg region, accumulated as a result of generalization of many years of field research data. The list of species includes 125species from 69genera of the division Basidiomycota. The results of systematic and ecological analysis of studied mycobiota are given. Marked the highest frequency of occurrence in floodplain habitats of Phellinus igniarius, Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius. Marked species, penetrating floodplain habitats to the North and South of the main boundaries of the area. That is accessible conclusion of the substantial contribution of floodplain habitats in a diversity of wood-destroying fungi biota of the region, especially in the steppe zone of the Orenburg region.

Safonov M.A., Cherdintsev A.A., Malenkova A.S.
WOOD-DESTROYING BASIDIOMYCETOUS FUNGI OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF KUMERTAU (BASHKORTOSTAN) [№ 10 ' 2015]
The problems of reforestation and afforestation are important for many regions of Russia, especially with developed agriculture. Thus on the foreground the problem of creating sustainable spaces that moth would for a long time to perform its functions. The problem of artificial plantations is of particular importance in regions with relatively low forest cover, including in the South Ural. One of the conditions for the stable existence of artificial forest ecosystems— the study of the contribution of all components in their formation. In this respect, one of the most important components of forest ecosystems are wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi. The article discusses the results of a study of wood-destroying basidiomycetous fungi conducted in Year 2012–2015 in artificial plantations in the vicinity of Kumertau (Bashkortostan) at the dumps of Kumertau lignite mine and plantings on Uralskaya mountain. The result of research is check-list including 101species of fungi belonging to 58genera. The greatest number of species were found at the pine timber. Mainly observed species of fungi live on dead wood and only 4species— on growing trees. Complexes of species in plantations on industrial dumps differ significantly from the other complexes in species richness and composition. The article provides an annotated list of species that are new to this region of Bashkortostan and the Orenburg region, the places of their findings and characteristics of the substrate are given.

Safonov M.A., Malenkova A.S., Shamraev A.V., Bulgakov E.A.
DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC WOOD-DESTROYING BASIDIOMYCETES OF THE SOUTHERN PREURALS [№ 9 ' 2014]
Southern Preurals features a low percentage of forest that defines a focus on forests in the region. One of the factors that determine the dynamics of forest stands are phytopathogenic basidial fungi. The article presents data on the species composition and the spatial distribution of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes at the Southern Preurals. Discusses the variation in the degree of contamination of forest stands by phytopathogenic species depending on forest type and in the latitudinal gradient. The decline in the share of plant pathogenic species in the latitudinal gradient in the transition of the forest-steppe by steppe zone is marked, which testifies to the increasing of time of conservation of elements in wood.

Buresh O.V., Safonov N.S.
MODELLING OF THE FORMALIZED STRUCTURES OF ACCUMULATION OF KNOWLEDGE OF PROCESSES OF SERVICE OF OBJECTS OF MONITORING OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES OF APARTMENT HOUSES [№ 8 ' 2014]
In article topical issues of synthesis of process and object-oriented approaches for development of the formalized structures of accumulation of knowledge of objects of housing and communal services of apartment houses are considered. The developed formalized structures of accumulation of knowledge can be integrated into the distributed information system of poobjektny monitoring of management processes by housing and communal services of apartment houses.

Safonov M.A., Bulgakov E.A., Ostapenko A.V., Tyapukhin P.V.
THE IMPACT OF WOOD DESTRUCTION ON TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY CONDITIONS IN FOREST BIOGEOCENOSES OF THE SOUTHERN URALS [№ 10 ' 2013]
The results of daily monitoring of humidity and temperature in the forest ecosystems of the Southern Ural are discussed. The influence of the processes of wood degradation on microclimatic conditions is shown. The contribution of mycogenic wood destruction in formation of the climatic regime of the forest is discussed.

Safonov M.A., Malenkova A.S., Shamraev A.V., Baykarova A.A.
COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF ARTIFICIAL PINE TREE STANDS IN THE ORENBURG PREURALS [№ 10 ' 2013]
The results of the comprehensive assessment of artificial pine tree stands in the South Ural steppe zone (Novosergievskyi district of the Orenburg region) with the use of geobotanical indices, the vitality of forest stands, the structure of wood-destroying fungi biota are given. Noted that high richness of fungi species is characteristic for plantations with high vitality. Discussed prospects of integrated assessment of forest stands with the use of these indicators, and made recommendations for conservation of the most valuable plantations.

Safonova Yu.V.
ROUTINE IN THE SAVINGS BEHAVIOR OF RUSSIAN HOUSEHOLDS [№ 8 ' 2013]
The problem of the presence of rutin in the savings behavior of households. The article discloses the concept of "routine household behavior", the causes of non-market stability routines in the savings behavior of Russian households, it is proved that formed routine, usually hinder the development of market relations.

Safonov M.A., Rusakov A.V., Cherdyntseva T.M.
BIOTIC INDICATORS OF ECOTONE EFFECT IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE SOUTHERN PREURALS [№ 6 ' 2013]
In article the influence of ecotone effect on the characteristics of flora, plant cover and beetles population is considered. The analysis has shown, that the majority of parameters naturally variate in a gradient and some parameters, such as alpha-diversity, plant covering — reach the maximum level in ecotone zone.

Safonov M.A., Shamraev A.V., Dvoluchanskaya J.V., Bashkatova E.V.
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE SYSTEM "SOIL-TREE-FUNGUS" IN THE SOUTHERN PREURALS [№ 6 ' 2013]
The article presents the results of a study of the accumulation of zinc, copper, manganese, iron in the system "soil-tree-fungus" at the conditions of Southern Preurals. In the soil noted the high content of Fe, Mn, in birch wood — Mn, in the fruit bodies of Fomes fomentarius — Zn, Fe, Cu. In the system "soil-tree-fungus" noted increase in the quantity of zinc and copper. Indices of accumulation of fruit bodies of all heavy metals, in addition to copper, are quite low.

Safonov M.A., Safonova T.I.
WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGI ON WOOD OF BETULA PENDULA AT THE SOUTHERN PREURALS (ORENBURG REGION) [№ 6 ' 2012]
The results of diversity investigations of wood-destroying fungi living on beech wood in a limits of the Southern Preurals are given. 123 species representing 62 genuses, 28 families, 16 orders and 2 subclasses are revealed. The rare and endangered species are marked.

Safonov D.A.
ACTUAL ISSUES IN THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ORENBURG REGION (BEFORE 1917) [№ 5 ' 2012]
The article examines the state of knowledge of the problem of socio-political development in the South Ural region before 1917, marked by controversial historiographical issues, challenges and achievements. Identified new directions of research, possible and recommended in the future.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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