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Orenburg State University january 20, 2022   RU/EN
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Levykin S.V., Nurushev M.Zh., Kazachkov G.V., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A.
SPECIFICS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF STEPPE LANDSCAPE AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY SELF-RESTORATION ON THE TERRITORY UNDERGONE THE VIRGIN LAND CAMPAIGN IN ZAVOLZHYE-URALS ECOREGION [№ 11 ' 2017]
The main results of research into the territory undergone the virgin land campaign in Zavolzhye-Urals ecoregion on the theme of title steppe species reaction on plough use sharp termination in large scale of square are given. It is ascertained that pennata and lessingiana feather grasses under conditions of 10 years long plough pause and seed base existence form a dense clump, that functions as a phytobase of secondary steppe ecosystem directing fallow land succession to secondary steppe and promoting restoration steppe species, especially title ones. Amid such ones we accentuate marmot and little bustard showing properties of aggressive intruder, which pioneer fallow lands simultaneously with feather grasses. Great bustard and saiga didn’t show such properties. Other species return on fallow lands in dependence on local conditions and factors. Within the region under research, about 300 thou ha secondary steppes are found, mainly in Kazakhstan. Earlier ascertained factors promoting plough pause and factors promoting fallow lands mass reploughing up even in chestnut soil subzone, first of all suitability for modern technologies, are refined. It is observed that the main arrays of the most technologically suitable fallow lands in the Northern and the Western Kazakhstan are virtually completely reploughed up, and one of the last refuge of fallow lands, including expanding ones, is saved in Preduralia where terrain is rugged. For such refuges we propose the principal scheme of fallow land selection aimed at forming and saving secondary steppes, and virtually no cost nature simulating technology of self-restoration. The series of proposals aimed at secondary steppes saving and rational use, including the “Orenburgskaya Tarpania” project further development, is given.

Velmovskiy P.V., Chibilyov A.A., Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V., Chibilyov A.A. (jr), Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A.
ON THE HISTORY OF A FOREST MELIORATION FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT IN ORENBURG STATE [№ 13 ' 2015]
One of the primary problem ofsteppe use optimization and stable agro-landscapes development is formation and support of a forest melioration framework in the steppe region. Today, by virtue of a line of social-economical and agro-ecological problems systems of forest cultures developed before loses their agro-ecological functions, their breakup and collapse happen due to agro-lands demands reduction and fires acceleration. In this connection a development of a new concept of a forest melioration framework suitable for current condition and modern steppe science achievement is extremely topical and urgent. To develop a modern concept of a forest melioration framework is necessary to research spreading and dynamics of forest plantations as well as historical experience of steppe forest melioration. Using historical methods is revealed that before forest vegetation was represented more wide lyandvarious on the territory of modern Orenburgskaya oblast, especially on Common Syrt and in the Pre-Ural region, e. g. Siberian larch from the north reaches to in latitude 53°. Periodization of forest melioration with separation of three stages was developed in Orenburgskaya oblast. Herewith, the first stage fell on the middle of 1930s, but the main activity to develop a forest melioration was made during 1948–1953 in the frame of a rapid implementation of A Council of Ministers Resolution USSR and the Central Committee of C.P.S.U. (b) of 20.10.1948 № 3960. A scale of forest cultural activity and main objects, including a state forest belt "Vishnevaya mountain  — the Caspian sea" is shown. A short characteristic of forest fund in Orenburgskaya oblast and a dynamics of reafforestation during 1980–2013 are given in the paper. A formation history of elements of a forest melioration framework and forest-cultural complexes in Orenburgskaya oblast show that a scaled work were made on the initiative and with support of the state government. Today, with an importance of the state support the necessary successful term is land users interest and ecological-economic reasonability of developed plantations taking into account achievement and guidelines of modern steppe science.

Levykin S.V., Chibilyov А.А., Velmovskiy P.V., Kazachkov G.V., Chibilyov А.А. (jr)
A STATE AND PROBLEMS OF A FOREST MELIORATION FRAMEWORK IN ORENBURGSKAYA OBLAST, PRINCIPALS OF ITS MODERNIZATION [№ 13 ' 2015]
Today, in a land reform condition against the background of structural transformation in forestry management and climate change,issues of steadiness, vitality and anagro-ecological function of afforestation, first of allcultural forest plantations, gain a special topicality. Forest plantations lose their primary functions, first of all an agro-ecological function. On the one hand, mess and breakup existing components of a forest melioration framework happen, on the other hand, aggressive invasive species from woodland belts occupy fallow lands that leads to agricultural land loss. Acclimation rate, forest plantations dimension, a field protecting function were a first-priority fact during development of main forest cultures. Here with, an aesthetic attractiveness of plantations, their recreational function and wood species selection taking into account an expansion potential, were not paid a significant attention. A key components assessment of a forest melioration framework in different forest-vegetation conditions in Orenburg state were made using historical, landscape, cartographical, statistical, comparative-geographical and forest-taxon methods. Principals and a strategy for modernization of forest melioration framework are developed on the base of this assessment. In the process the following task were realized: a historical experience of a forest melioration development was summarized; a comparative assessment of a current state of forest melioration framework components in different forest-vegetation conditions, including etalon conditions was given; suggestions for ecological-structural optimization, conservation and reasonable use of natural-anthropogenic areas taking into account modern steppe science guidelines, were developed; priorities of reafforestation in a historical areal of forest vegetation taking into account priority of conservation and restoration of steppe biological species, first of all rare and endangered species, were defined. Landscape criteria of reasonability and limitation of forest activity are offered, notions of forest melioration fund and framework in the territory were given. On the base of nature-conformity in technologies of steppe for estation is offered a concept of anaccurate (contour) reafforestation,according too utlines of an initial growing and priority of indigenous species in the selection.

Kazachkov G.V., Levykin S.V., Petrischev V.P., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A.
ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL THRESHOLD OF ARABILITY FOR STEPPE AGRARIAN LANDS [№ 10 ' 2015]
The tools of steppe agrarian landscape optimizing based upon the converting ploughland biopotential productivity unit into the term of money with cash flow discounting is developed. The ecological and economical threshold of arability for steppe agrarian lands is found.

Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A.
THE NEW ASSESSMENT OF THE TSELINA VIRGIN LANDS CAMPAIGN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF STEPPE SCIENCE [№ 10 ' 2015]
The new interpretation of cradle, specific features, periodization and assessment evolution of the Tselina virgin lands campaign is given. The new and original approach considering Tselina as a tool of steppe renovation is proposed on the grounds of studies on secondary steppes and the constructive model of steppe.

Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V., Yakovlev I.G., Grudinin D.A.
THE PROPOSALS ON THE CONSERVATION OF LANDSCAPE AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF STEPPES IN THE TRANSFRONTIER ZONE OF ORENBURG REGION OF RUSSIA AND AKTYUBINSK REGION OF KAZAKHSTAN [№ 10 ' 2013]
The moratorium on the reploughing up of low productive lands, where secondary steppes restore itself, and the adaptive livestock raising development could be a substantial contribution to the conservation of landscape and biological diversity of steppe ecosystems. The position of such land plots adjacently to the Russia-Kazakhstan frontier makes this region holding much promise for a transfrontier steppe NAPP system when it is formed.

Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V.
ECOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF STEPPE CONSERVATION WITH THE EXAMPLE OF ORENBURGSKAYA OBLAST [№ 12 ' 2011]
The national specificity of conservation preferences in Russia is examined. It is analysed, how the existing NAPP system reflects the landscape structure of the Orenburgskaya oblast. The ecological geographical approach is offered to the NAPP system development.

Chibilyov A.A., Levykin S.V., Velmovskiy P.V., Kazachkov G.V.
THE GEOECOLOGICAL BASE OF AFFORESTATION LAND MELIORATION IN STEPPE: THE HARMONY OF STEPPE AND FOREST HERITAGE [№ 12 ' 2011]
The problem of the harmony of the afforestation land melioration framework and the optimum of steppes landscape– and biodiversity in a steppe region is discussed.

Levykin S.V., Kazachkov G.V.
NATURE-CONSERVATIVE SPECIFICATION OF STEPPE FOR LAND POLITICS [№ 6 ' 2009]

Levykin S.V.
NNOVATION TECHNOLOGIES OF PRESERVATION OF LANDSCAPE-BIOLOGICAL VARIETY OF STEP [№ 10 ' 2006]
History and problems of reserves creation in step zone is regarded in this article. New forms of step biovariety preservation are worked out based on new economic conditions. New forms of territorial protection of landscape-biological variety of step region realizing in Orenburg region are suggested in this article.

Levykin S.V., Akhmetov R.Sh., Petrischev V.P., Zhdanov S.I., Groshev I.V.
ABOUT APPLICATION OF INNOVATION TECHNIQUES INTO THE SYSTEM OF ESTIMATE AND LAND-SURVEY OF AGRICULTURAL FUNCTION [№ 7 ' 2004]
Methodological approaches of complex estimate of the steppe zone ecological land resources economical potential under the conditions of crop market formation in Russia. Special attention is paid to the possibility of geoinformational technologies use and validation of conditioned profitable method of land price formation with defining of agrarian land use basic parameters, miniokhot use and preservation of biovariety of steppe.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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© Электронное периодическое издание: ВЕСТНИК ОГУ on-line (VESTNIK OSU on-line), ISSN on-line 1814-6465
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Учредитель: Оренбургский государственный университет (ОГУ)
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