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Khardikova S.V., Alekhina G.P., Verkhoshentseva J.P.
THE INFLUENCE OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES ON THE ECOLOGICAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SAPLINGS OF GRAPES IN ORENBURG CITY [№ 8 ' 2017]
Humic products are a highly concentrated mixture of biologically active substances isolated from the ecologically pure raw materials of natural origin. Under their influence in the plant organism changes the permeability of cell membranes, increases the activity of enzymes and the rate of physiological and biochemical processes, increases plant resistance to unfavourable factors and stress.
Studies on the effect of humic substances on the ecological-physiological characteristics of saplings of grapes in the city of Orenburg was conducted on the basis of the Orenburg experimental station of horticulture and viticulture.

The object of study — woody cuttings of three cultivars of grape — Memory Dombkowski, Aleshenkin Gift and agate Donskoy.

In experience used humic preparations: humate + 7 elements (K, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, B, Fe), calcium humate and magnesium humate.

Before planting the cuttings treated with solutions of humic preparations, then stood in televator to the formation of callus and planted in pots. After rooting, every ten days plants were watered with solutions of humates.

The results of these studies showed that:

1) pre-treatment of cuttings of grapes solutions of humates had a positive effect on the activity of callosobruchus studied varieties. Maximum positive effect was obtained in variants with humate calcium humate and magnesium;

2) humate calcium increases the number of adventitious roots and improves their growth in all tested grape varieties;

3) preparation “humate + 7 elements” accelerates the process of shoots in cuttings and contributes to better development of the aerial organs of seedlings of grapes;

4) application of humic preparations at cultivation of saplings of grapes in the city of Orenburg significantly improves the quality of planting material.

Khardikova S.V., Verkhoshentseva Y.P., Pokhlebina D.S.
PECULIARITIES OF WATER METABOLISM OF ORNAMENTAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS MALUS MILL. IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF THE ORENBURG REGION [№ 5 ' 2017]
In the steppe zone of the Orenburg region, Apple is one of the first places the plant is fully adapted to local conditions. But, despite this, the growth and development of its in the region yet, limited hydrothermal environmental factor. Therefore, peculiarities of water regime and drought tolerance of ornamental plants, including Apple trees, are important indicators for their use in gardening settlements. The object of this study was 5 ornamental species of the genus Malus Mill.: Siebold Apple tree (Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehder.); Pratt Apple tree (Malus prattii (Hemsl.) Schneid.); the Apple tree brown, riverside (Malus fusca (Raf.) Schneid.); Apple berry, Siberian (Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.); loringhoven Apple tree (Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes). Study of water regime and drought tolerance of ornamental species of the genus Malus Mill. conducted by artificial wilting in 3-fold repetition on 10 leaves in each iteration. Drought resistance of crops were determined in the driest and hottest period, the average daily temperature during the experiment amounted to +24...+25 °C, relative humidity — 56 %. The leaves were collected in morning hours. In determining the water regime of leaves was calculated, the water content or water cut on the raw mass. All other parameters: water deficit, relative turgor, water-holding capacity was expressed by wet weight of a leaf in full prior to saturation. The water retention capacity of leaves was determined by limiting the loss of water at the time (in hours) of the completion of the process of wilting. The results of all studies were expressed by calculating the average value of each characteristic. The results of these studies showed that the most stable water regime and high index of drought resistance are two ornamental Apple trees — Apple berry and Apple Siebold. It is therefore recommended to use these species in the landscaping of the settlements in the climatic conditions of the Orenburg region, as the most resistant species to water stress and temperature of the study area.

Verkhoshentseva Y.P., Hardikova S.V., Ukenov B.S.
THE CHANGE OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS ROADSIDE AREAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY AND PLANTATIONS [№ 10 ' 2015]
The largest contribution to the pollution and degradation of natural ecosystems at the present stage automotive. Transport is a specific source of pollution of the natural environment, consisting of many ground-based point sources, focused on different highways. Areas of environmental pollution, generated by emissions of motor transport, characterized by high values of pollutant concentrations and distributed over a large area. The role of a single vehicle in the change of state of the roadside zone is negligible. However, when the regularity of such exposure, it is multiplied. A transport stream is converted into a permanent source of anthropogenic pollution. Anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of roadside areas leads to air pollution, the change of physico-chemical properties of soils, their compaction, contamination by pollutants, in particular heavy metals (HM), which causes an increase in their phytotoxicity, leading to deterioration of growing conditions of green spaces. Green plantings of the roadside areas to reduce the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment, improve physico-chemical properties of the soils adjacent to the roadway. The paper presents the results of research of influence of shelterbelts on properties of soils roadside areas of Orenburg region. The characteristic of some physical and chemical properties of the roadside soil, the improvement which occurs as the distance from the road surface. Their maximum values these indicators reach the forest belt and in the zone of its influence. The study of phytotoxicity of soils showed that the highest indicator is characteristic of the soils located near the road surface, as the distance from the phytotoxicity is reduced, but remains at moderate levels.

Khardikova S.V., Verkhoshentsev J.P., Tikhonova M.A., Mursalimova G.R., Ivanova E.A., Turmukhambetova A.S.
EKOLOGO-FIZIOLOGICHESKIE ASPECTS OF INFLUENCE OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAPLINGS OF GRAPES FROM THE TRUNCATED SHANKS [№ 10 ' 2015]
Results of researches on influence of humic preparations on growth and development of saplings of grapes from the truncated shanks are given in article. As object of research saplings of grapes of grades Russian early and Agathe Donskoy served. From humic preparations applied: organo-mineral fertilizer a humate of Prompter potassium and complex fertilizer on the basis of a potassium humate with macro — and microcells. Time in 10 days carried out watering of saplings solutions of these preparations. In total for the experimental period made 6 waterings. Having watered saplings it was carried out as required. Frequency of experience 3-fold, on 100 saplings in each option. In control option saplings watered. Researches showed that introduction of humic preparations had positive impact on formation processes, both root system, and land part of saplings of grapes from the truncated shanks which are grown up in climatic conditions of South Ural. Under the influence of humic preparations at skilled plants the increase in the following indicators is noted: quantity of roots of the first and second orders; length and diameter of a root; length and diameter of escape; quantity of leaves on escape; area of a sheet plate. The greatest effect is gained from watering by a humic preparation on the basis of a calcium humate with macro- and microcells. It is caused by that this fertilizer besides a humate of potassium contains still a complex necessary for a plant macro- and microcells. The made experiment shows that application of humic preparations at the accelerated reproduction of grapes in the conditions of South Ural significantly increases quality of landing material.

Verkhoshentseva Yu.P., Hardikova S.V.
INFLUENCE OF PLANE EROSION ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CHERNOZEMS OF SOUTHERN ORENBURG PREDURALIE [№ 10 ' 2013]
Erosion is one of the main and very dangerous causes of damage to the soil. Improper use of lands leads to increased erosion and other types of soil degradation. The destruction of soil due to erosion, which is manifested in various forms (washout and erosion of soil, education streams, gullies, sand storms, etc), covers a huge area in the world. So, water erosion prone to 31%, wind — 34% of the land. In this regard, the issue of protection of soils from erosion becomes more and more actual. It is connected, first, with the realization of the outstanding role of soil in the life of the biosphere, secondly, the recognition of the fact that soils Russia is now in a critical condition.

Khardikova S.V., Verhoshentseva Y.P.
EFFECT OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS AND ROOTING CUTTINGS GRAPES IN ORENBURZHYE [№ 10 ' 2013]
The paper presents experimental data on the effect of humic substances on rooting cuttings of woody vine grown in the Orenburg region. The positive effect of humate on the processes of growth and development of the root system.

Mursalimova G.R., Khardikova S.V.
DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS APPLE IN THE SOUTHERN URAL [№ 6 ' 2012]
The problem of water regime and drought tolerance of fruit crops is one of the most important gardening in areas of unstable wet. One of the conditions for successful cultivation of apple trees in the southern Urals is to create a variety-podvoynyh combination with the use of drought-resistant rootstocks. The results showed that the most drought-resistant rootstocks are forms of Orenburg selection — Ural-11, the Ural-5 and the Ural-3.

Khardikova S.V., Tikhonova M.A.
PRODUCTIVITY OF SORTS AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GRAPE UNDER CONDITIONS OF STEPPE ZONE OF THE SOUTH URAL [№ 6 ' 2010]
Productivity is one of the prior indices showing expediency of cultivation of one or another sort. The following types are characterized by high productivity in steppe zone of the South Ural: Vostorg, Donskoi Agat, form 15-03-1. The fruits of the following sorts are characterized by the best dessert qualities: Vostorg, Avgustin and Aleshenkin Dar.


[№ 5 (app.1) ' 2008]

Rusanova A.M., Khardikova S.V.
STEADINESS INCREASE OF GRAPES TO CLIMATIC STRESS FACTORS OF THE SOUTH URAL [№ 5 ' 2008]
General limiting factors of viticulture on the South Ural are atmospheric and soil dry at the summer period and low negative temperature at the winter period. The degree of drought-resistance and winter resistance of plants determines their adaptive potential to unfavorable factors of environment. It is marked positive influence of fertilizers on steadiness of grapes plants to climatic stress factors on the South Ural. Entering of mineral and humic fertilizers increases enough the steadiness of grapes plants.


Editor-in-chief
Sergey Aleksandrovich
MIROSHNIKOV

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